Borough of Girard, PA
Erie County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents

§ 425-28 Zoning Officer.

[Amended 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
A. 
The Zoning Officer, who may not hold an elective office within the Borough, shall be appointed by Borough Council and shall:
(1) 
Administer and enforce the provisions of this chapter in accordance with its literal terms and shall not have the power to permit any construction or use or change of use or structure which does not conform to this chapter.
(2) 
Issue zoning certificates and occupancy permits.
(3) 
Maintain a permanent file of all zoning certificates and applications as public records.
(4) 
Have two weeks to investigate any application for a zoning certificate.
B. 
The Zoning Officer is hereby authorized to institute civil enforcement proceedings as a means of enforcement when acting within the scope of his employment.

§ 425-29 Zoning certificates.

A. 
A zoning certificate shall be obtained before any person may:
(1) 
Occupy or use any vacant land.
(2) 
Occupy or use any structure hereafter constructed, reconstructed, moved, altered or enlarged.
(3) 
Change the use of a structure or land to a different use.
(4) 
Change a nonconforming use or structure.
B. 
Applications for a zoning certificate shall be accompanied by a plot plan showing clearly and completely the location, dimensions and nature of any structure involved and such other information as the Zoning Officer may require for administration of this chapter, including an engineering survey by a registered professional surveyor. The application shall also include a filing fee in accordance with a schedule fixed from time to time by resolution of Borough Council.
C. 
Zoning certificates shall become null and void one year from date of issue.
D. 
An occupancy permit shall be obtained before any person may initially occupy or use any structure hereafter constructed, reconstructed, moved, altered or enlarged.

§ 425-30 Violations and penalties.

[Amended 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
A. 
Any person, partnership or corporation who or which has violated or permitted the violation of the provisions of this chapter shall, upon being found liable therefor in a civil enforcement proceeding commenced by the Borough, pay a judgment of not more than $500, plus all court costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees, incurred by the Borough as a result thereof. No judgment shall commence or be imposed, levied or payable until the date of the determination of a violation by the Magisterial District Judge. If the defendant neither pays nor timely appeals the judgment, the Borough may enforce the judgment pursuant to the applicable Rules of Civil Procedure. Each day that a violation continues shall constitute a separate violation, unless the Magisterial District Judge determining that there has been a violation further determines that there was a good faith basis for the person, partnership or corporation violating this chapter to have believed that there was no such violation, in which event there shall be deemed to have been only one such violation until the fifth day following the date of the determination of a violation by the Magisterial District Judge, and thereafter, each day that a violation continues shall constitute a separate violation.
B. 
The Court of Common Pleas, upon petition, may grant an order of stay, upon cause shown, tolling the per diem fine pending a final adjudication of the violation and judgment.
C. 
Nothing contained in this section shall be construed or interpreted to grant to any person or entity other than the Borough the right to commence any action for enforcement pursuant to this section.
D. 
Magisterial District Judges shall have initial jurisdiction over proceedings brought under this section.

§ 425-31 Causes of action.

[Amended 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
In case any building, structure, landscaping or land is, or is proposed to be, erected, constructed, reconstructed, altered, converted, maintained or used in violation of this chapter, the Borough Council or, with the approval of the Borough Council, an officer of the Borough, or any aggrieved owner or tenant of real property who shows that his property or person will be substantially affected by the alleged violation, in addition to other remedies, may institute any appropriate action or proceeding to prevent, restrain, correct or abate such building, structure, landscaping or land, or to prevent, in or about such premises, any act, conduct, business or use constituting a violation. When any such action is instituted by a landowner or tenant, notice of that action shall be served upon the Borough at least 30 days prior to the time the action is begun by serving a copy of the complaint on the Borough Council. No such action may be maintained until such notice has been given.

§ 425-32 Enforcement notice.

[Added 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
A. 
If it appears to the Borough that a violation of this chapter has occurred, the Borough shall initiate enforcement proceedings by sending an enforcement notice as provided in this section.
B. 
The enforcement notice shall be sent to the owner of record of the parcel on which the violation has occurred, to any person who has filed a written request to receive enforcement notices regarding that parcel, and to any other person requested in writing by the owner of record.
C. 
An enforcement notice shall state at least the following:
(1) 
The name of the owner of record and any other person against whom the Borough intends to take action.
(2) 
The location of the property in violation.
(3) 
The specific violation, with a description of the requirements which have not been met, citing in each instance the applicable provisions of this chapter.
(4) 
The date before which the steps for compliance must be commenced and the date before which the steps must be completed.
(5) 
That the recipient of the notice has the right to appeal to the Zoning Hearing Board within a period of 10 days.
(6) 
That failure to comply with the notice within the time specified, unless extended by appeal to the Zoning Hearing Board, constitutes a violation, with possible sanctions clearly described.

§ 425-33 Enactment of chapter amendments.

[Amended 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
A. 
The Borough Council may from time to time amend, supplement, or repeal any of the regulations and provisions of this chapter. The procedure for the preparation of a proposed zoning ordinance as set forth in Section 607 of the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code, 53 P.S. § 10607, is hereby declared optional.
B. 
Before voting on the enactment of an amendment, the Borough Council shall hold a public hearing thereon, pursuant to public notice. In addition, if the proposed amendment involves a Zoning Map change, notice of said public hearing shall be conspicuously posted by the Borough at points deemed sufficient by the Borough along the perimeter of the tract to notify potentially interested citizens. The affected tract or area shall be posted at least one week prior to the date of the hearing.
C. 
In the case of an amendment other than that prepared by the Planning Commission, the Borough Council shall submit each such amendment to the Planning Commission at least 30 days prior to the hearing on such proposed amendment to provide the Planning Commission an opportunity to submit recommendations.
D. 
If, after any public hearing held upon an amendment, the proposed amendment is changed substantially, or is revised, to include land previously not affected by it, the Borough Council shall hold another public hearing, pursuant to public notice, before proceeding to vote on the amendment.
E. 
At least 30 days prior to the public hearing on the amendment by the Borough Council, the Borough shall submit the proposed amendment to the County Planning Agency for recommendations.
F. 
Within 30 days after enactment, a copy of the amendment to this chapter shall be forwarded to the County Planning Agency.

§ 425-34 Procedure for landowner curative amendments.

[Added 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
A. 
A landowner who desires to challenge, on substantive grounds, the validity of this chapter or the Zoning Map or any provision thereof which prohibits or restricts the use or development of land in which he has an interest may submit a curative amendment to the Borough Council, with a written request that his challenge and proposed amendment be heard and decided as provided in Section 916.1 of the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code (hereinafter "MPC"), 53 P.S. § 10916.1. The curative amendment and challenge shall be referred to the Planning Commission and the County Planning Agency as provided in Section 609, and notice of the hearing thereon shall be given as provided in Sections 610 and 916.1 of the MPC, 53 P.S. §§ 10609, 10610, and 10916.1.
B. 
The hearing shall be conducted in accordance with Section 908 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10908, and all references therein to the Zoning Hearing Board shall, for purposes of this section, be references to the Borough Council. If the Borough does not accept a landowner's curative amendment brought in accordance with this subsection, and a court subsequently rules that the challenge has merit, the court's decision shall not result in a declaration of invalidity for this entire chapter and Zoning Map, but only for those provisions which specifically relate to the landowner's curative amendment and challenge.
C. 
The Borough Council, if it determines that a validity challenge has merit, may accept a landowner's curative amendment, with or without revision, or may adopt an alternative amendment which will cure the challenged defects. The Borough Council shall consider the curative amendments, plans and explanatory material submitted by the landowner and shall also consider:
(1) 
The impact of the proposal upon roads, sewer facilities, water supplies, schools and other public service facilities;
(2) 
If the proposal is for a residential use, the impact of the proposal upon regional housing needs and the effectiveness of the proposal in providing housing units of a type actually available to and affordable by classes of persons otherwise unlawfully excluded by the challenged provisions of this chapter or Zoning Map;
(3) 
The suitability of the site for the intensity of use proposed by the site's soils, slopes, woodlands, wetlands, floodplains, aquifers, natural resources and other natural features;
(4) 
The impact of the proposed use on the site's soils, slopes, woodlands, wetlands, floodplains, natural resources and natural features, the degree to which these are protected or destroyed, the tolerance of the resources to development and any adverse environmental impacts; and
(5) 
The impact of the proposal on the preservation of agriculture and other land uses which are essential to public health and welfare.

§ 425-35 Procedure for Borough curative amendments.

[Added 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
A. 
If the Borough determines that this chapter, or any portion hereof, is substantially invalid, it shall take the following actions:
(1) 
The Borough shall declare, by formal action, this chapter or portions hereof substantially invalid and propose to prepare a curative amendment to overcome such invalidity. Within 30 days of such declaration and proposal, the Borough Council shall:
(a) 
By resolution, make specific findings setting forth the declared invalidity of this chapter, which may include:
[1] 
References to specific uses which are either not permitted or not permitted in sufficient quantity;
[2] 
Reference to a class of use or uses which requires revision; or
[3] 
Reference to this entire chapter which requires revisions.
(b) 
Begin to prepare and consider a curative amendment to this chapter to correct the declared invalidity.
B. 
Within 180 days from the date of the declaration and proposal, the Borough shall enact a curative amendment to validate, or reaffirm the validity of, this chapter pursuant to the provisions of Section 609 of the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code (hereinafter "MPC"), 53 P.S. § 10609, in order to cure the declared invalidity of this chapter.
C. 
Upon the initiation of the procedures as set forth in Subsection A of this section, the Borough Council shall not be required to entertain or consider any landowner's curative amendment filed under Section 609.1 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10609.1, nor shall the Zoning Hearing Board be required to give a report requested under Sections 909.1 or 916.1 of the MPC, 53 P.S. §§ 10909.1, 10916.1, subsequent to the declaration and proposal based upon the grounds identical or substantially similar to those specified by the resolution required by Subsection A(1). Upon completion of the procedures set forth in Subsections A and B, no rights to a cure pursuant to the provisions of Sections 609.1 and 916.1 of the MPC, 53 P.S. §§ 10609.1, 10916.1, shall, from the date of the declaration and proposal, accrue to any landowner on the basis of the substantive invalidity of this chapter for which there has been a curative amendment pursuant to this section.
D. 
The Borough, having utilized the procedures set forth in this section, may not again utilize said procedure for a period of 36 months following the date of enactment of a curative amendment, or reaffirmation of the validity of this chapter; provided, however, if, after the date of declaration and proposal, there is a substantially new duty imposed upon the Borough by virtue of a change in statute or by virtue of a Pennsylvania Appellate Court decision, the Borough may utilize the provisions of this section to propose a curative amendment to this chapter to fulfill said duty or obligation.

§ 425-36 Zoning Hearing Board.

[Amended 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
A. 
There is hereby created for the Borough a Zoning Hearing Board in accordance with the provisions of Article IX of the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code, 53 P.S. § 10901 et seq.
B. 
The membership of the Board shall consist of five residents of the Borough appointed by resolution by the Borough Council. The terms of office shall be five years and shall be so fixed that the term of office of one member shall expire each year. The Board shall promptly notify the Borough Council of any vacancies which occur. Appointments to fill vacancies shall be only for the unexpired portion. Members of the Board shall hold no other office in the Borough.
C. 
Any Board member may be removed for malfeasance, misfeasance or nonfeasance in office or for other just cause by a majority vote of the Borough Council which appointed the member, taken after the member has received 15 days' advance notice of the intent to take such a vote. A hearing shall be held in connection with the vote if the member shall request it in writing.
D. 
The Board shall elect from its own membership its officers, who shall serve annual terms as such and may succeed themselves. For the conduct of any hearing and the taking of any action, a quorum shall be not less than a majority of all the members of the Board, but the Board may appoint a hearing officer from its own membership to conduct any hearing on its behalf, and the parties may waive further action by the Board as provided in this chapter.
E. 
The Board may make, alter and rescind rules and forms for its procedure, consistent with ordinances of the Borough and laws of the commonwealth. The Board shall keep full public records of its business, which records shall be the property of the Borough, and shall submit a report of its activities to the Borough Council as requested by the Borough Council.
F. 
Within the limits of funds appropriated by the Borough Council, the Board may employ or contract for secretaries, clerks, legal counsel, consultants and other technical and clerical services. Members of the Board may receive compensation for the performance of their duties, as may be fixed by the Borough Council, but in no case shall it exceed the rate of compensation authorized to be paid to the members of the Borough Council.

§ 425-37 Hearings.

[Added 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
The Zoning Hearing Board shall conduct hearings and make decisions in accordance with the following requirements:
A. 
Public notice shall be given, and written notice shall be given to the applicant, the Zoning Officer and to any person who has made timely request for the same. Written notices shall be given at such time and in such manner as shall be prescribed by rules of the Board. In addition to the written notice provided herein, written notice of said hearing shall be conspicuously posted on the affected tract of land at least one week prior to the hearing.
B. 
The hearing shall be held within 60 days from the date of the applicant's request, unless the applicant has agreed in writing to an extension of time.
C. 
The hearings shall be conducted by the Board, or the Board may appoint any member as a hearing officer. The decision, or, where no decision is called for, the findings, shall be made by the Board; however, the appellant or the applicant, as the case may be, in addition to the Borough, may, prior to the decision of the hearing, waive decision or findings by the Board and accept the decision or findings of the hearing officer as final.
D. 
The parties to the hearing shall be the Borough, any person affected by the application who has made timely appearance of record before the Board, and any other person, including civic or community organizations permitted to appear by the Board. The Board shall have power to require that all persons who wish to be considered parties enter appearances in writing on forms provided by the Board for that purpose.
E. 
The Chairman or Acting Chairman of the Board or the hearing officer presiding shall have power to administer oaths and issue subpoenas to compel the attendance of witnesses and the production of relevant documents and papers, including witnesses and documents requested by the parties.
F. 
The parties shall have the right to be represented by counsel and shall be afforded the opportunity to respond and present evidence and argument and cross-examine adverse witnesses on all relevant issues.
G. 
Formal rules of evidence shall not apply, but irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious evidence may be excluded.
H. 
The Board or the hearing officer, as the case may be, shall keep a stenographic record of the proceedings. The appearance fee for a stenographer shall be shared equally by the applicant and the Board. The cost of the original transcript shall be paid by the Board if the transcript is ordered by the Board or hearing officer or shall be paid by the person appealing from the decision of the Board if such appeal is made, and, in either event, the cost of additional copies shall be paid by the person requesting such copy or copies. In other cases, the party requesting the original transcript shall bear the cost thereof.
I. 
The Board or the hearing officer shall not communicate, directly or indirectly, with any party or his representatives in connection with any issue involved, except upon notice and opportunity for all parties to participate; shall not take notice of any communication, reports, staff memoranda, or other materials, except advice from the Solicitor, unless the parties are afforded an opportunity to contest the material so noticed; and shall not inspect the site or its surroundings after the commencement of hearings with any party or his representative, unless all parties are given an opportunity to be present.
J. 
The Board or the hearing officer, as the case may be, shall render a written decision or, when no decision is called for, make written findings on the application within 45 days after the last hearing before the Board or hearing officer. Where the application is contested or denied, each decision shall be accompanied by findings of fact and conclusions based thereon, together with the reasons therefor. Conclusions based on any provisions of this chapter or of any law, ordinance, rule or regulation shall contain a reference to the provision relied on and the reasons why the conclusion is deemed appropriate in the light of the facts found. If the hearing is conducted by a hearing officer, and there has been no stipulation that his decision or findings are final, the Board shall make his report and recommendations available to the parties within 45 days, and the parties shall be entitled to make written representations thereon to the Board prior to final decision or entry of findings, and the Board's decision shall be entered no later than 30 days after the report of the hearing officer. Where the Board fails to render the decision within the period required by this subsection, or fails to hold the required hearing within 60 days from the date of the applicant's request for a hearing, the decision shall be deemed to have been rendered in favor of the applicant, unless the applicant has agreed in writing or on the record to an extension of time. When a decision has been rendered in favor of the applicant because of the failure of the Board to meet or render a decision as hereinabove provided, the Board shall give public notice of the said decision within 10 days from the last day it could have met to render a decision in the same manner as provided in Subsection A of this section. If the Board shall fail to provide such notice, the applicant may do so. Nothing in this subsection shall prejudice the right of any party opposing the application to appeal the decision to a court of competent jurisdiction.
K. 
A copy of the final decision, or, where no decision is called for, of the findings, shall be delivered to the applicant personally or mailed to him not later than the day following its date. To all other persons who have filed their name and address with the Board not later than the last day of the hearing, the Board shall provide, by mail or otherwise, brief notice of the decision or findings and a statement of the place at which the full decision or findings may be examined.
L. 
The Borough Council shall establish, by resolution, fees with respect to hearings before the Zoning Hearing Board.

§ 425-38 Jurisdiction.

[Added 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
A. 
The Zoning Hearing Board shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and render final adjudications in the following matters:
(1) 
Substantive challenges to the validity of any land use ordinance, except those brought before the Borough Council pursuant to Sections 609.1 and 916.1(a)(2) of the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code (hereinafter "MPC"), 53 P.S. §§ 10609.1, 10916.1.[1]
[1]:
Editor's Note: Original § 511(1)(B), pertaining to challenges to the validity of a land use ordinance, which immediately followed this subsection, was repealed at time of adoption of Code (see Ch. 1, General Provisions, Art. I).
(2) 
Appeals from the determination of the Zoning Officer, including, but not limited to, the granting or denial of any permit, or failure to act on the application therefor, the issuance of any cease and desist order or the registration or refusal to register any nonconforming use, structure or lot.
(3) 
Appeals from a determination by the Borough Engineer or the Zoning Officer with reference to the administration of any floodplain or flood hazard ordinance or such provisions within a land use ordinance.
(4) 
Applications for variances from the terms of this chapter and flood hazard ordinance or such provisions within a land use ordinance, pursuant to Section 910.2 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10910.2.
(5) 
Applications for special exceptions under this chapter or floodplain or flood hazard ordinance or such provisions within a land use ordinance, pursuant to Section 912.1 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10912.1.
(6) 
Appeals from the determination of any officer or agency charged with the administration of any transfers of development rights or performance density provisions of this chapter.
(7) 
Appeals from the Zoning Officer's determination under Section 916.2 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10916.2.
(8) 
Appeals from the determination of the Zoning Officer or Borough Engineer in the administration of any land use ordinance or provision thereof with reference to sedimentation and erosion control and stormwater management insofar as the same relate to development not involving applications under Article V or VII of the MPC, 53 P.S. §§ 10501 et seq., 10701 et seq.
B. 
The Borough Council shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and render final adjudications in the following matters:
(1) 
All applications for approvals of planned residential developments under Article VII of the MPC pursuant to the provisions of Section 702 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10702.
(2) 
All applications pursuant to Section 508 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10508, for approval of subdivisions or land developments under Article V of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10501 et seq.
(3) 
Applications for conditional uses under the express provisions of this chapter.
(4) 
Applications for curative amendments to this chapter or pursuant to Sections 609.1 and 916.1(a) of the MPC, 53 P.S. §§ 10609.1, 10916.1(a).
(5) 
All petitions for amendments to land use ordinances, pursuant to the procedures set forth in Section 609 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10609.
(6) 
Appeals from the determination of the Zoning Officer or the Borough Engineer in the administration of any land use ordinance or provisions thereof with reference to sedimentation and erosion control and stormwater management insofar as the same relate to applications for land development under Articles V and VII of the MPC, 53 P.S. §§ 10501 et seq., 10701 et seq. Where such determination relates only to development not involving an Article V or VII application, the appeal from such determination of the Zoning Officer or the Borough Engineer shall be to the Zoning Hearing Board pursuant to this section. Where the applicable land use ordinance vests jurisdiction for final administration of subdivision and land development applications in the Planning Commission, all appeals from determinations under this subsection shall be to the Planning Commission, and all appeals from the decision of the Planning Commission shall be to court.

§ 425-39 Variances.

[Added 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
A. 
The Zoning Hearing Board shall hear requests for variances where it is alleged that the provisions of this chapter inflict unnecessary hardship upon the applicant. The Board may, by rule, prescribe the form of application and may require preliminary application to the Zoning Officer. The Board may grant a variance, provided that all of the following findings are made where relevant in a given case:
(1) 
That there are unique physical circumstances or conditions, including irregularity, narrowness, or shallowness of lot size or shape, or exceptional topographical or other physical conditions peculiar to the particular property, and that the unnecessary hardship is due to such conditions and not the circumstances or conditions generally created by the provisions of this chapter in the neighborhood or district in which the property is located.
(2) 
That, because of such physical circumstances or conditions, there is no possibility that the property can be developed in strict conformity with the provisions of this chapter, and that the authorization of a variance is therefore necessary to enable the reasonable use of the property.
(3) 
That such unnecessary hardship has not been created by the applicant.
(4) 
That the variance, if authorized, will not alter the essential character of the neighborhood or district in which the property is located, nor substantially or permanently impair the appropriate use or development of adjacent property, nor be detrimental to the public welfare.
(5) 
That the variance, if authorized, will represent the minimum variance that will afford relief and will represent the least modification possible of the regulation in issue.
B. 
In granting any variance, the Board may attach such reasonable conditions and safeguards as it may deem necessary to implement the purposes of this chapter and the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code, 53 P.S. § 10101 et seq.

§ 425-40 Special exceptions.

[Added 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
Where the Borough Council, in this chapter, has stated special exceptions to be granted or denied by the Zoning Hearing Board pursuant to express standards and criteria, the Board shall hear and decide requests for such special exceptions in accordance with such standards and criteria. In granting a special exception, the Board may attach such reasonable conditions and safeguards, in addition to those expressed in this chapter, as it may deem necessary to implement the purposes of this chapter and the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code, 53 P.S. § 10101 et seq.

§ 425-41 Conditional uses.

[Added 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
Where the Borough Council, in this chapter, has stated conditional uses to be granted or denied by the Borough Council pursuant to express standards and criteria, the Borough Council shall hold hearings on and decide requests for such conditional uses in accordance with such standards and criteria. In granting a conditional use, the Borough Council may attach such reasonable conditions and safeguards, in addition to those expressed in this chapter, as it may deem necessary to implement the purposes of this chapter and the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code, 53 P.S. § 10101 et seq.

§ 425-42 Appeals.

[Added 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
Appeals raising the substantive validity of any land use ordinance (except those to be brought before the Borough Council pursuant to the Pennsylvania Municipalities Code), procedural questions or alleged defects in the process of enactment or adoption of a land use ordinance; or from the determination of the Zoning Officer, including, but not limited to, the granting or denial of any permit, or failure to act on the application therefor, the issuance of any cease and desist order or the registration or refusal to register any nonconforming use, structure or lot; from a determination by the Borough Engineer or the Zoning Officer with reference to the administration of any floodplain or flood hazard ordinance or such provisions within a land use ordinance; from the determination of any officer or agency charged with the administration of any transfers of development rights or performance density provisions of this chapter; or from the determination of the Zoning Officer or Borough Engineer in the administration of any land use ordinance or provision thereof with reference to sedimentation and erosion control and stormwater management insofar as the same relate to development not involving subdivision and land development or planned residential development may be filed with the Zoning Hearing Board in writing by the landowner affected, any officer or agency of the Borough, or any person aggrieved. Requests for a variance and for special exception may be filed with the Board by any landowner or any tenant with the permission of such landowner.

§ 425-43 Time limitations.

[Added 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
A. 
No person shall be allowed to file any proceeding with the Zoning Hearing Board later than 30 days after an application for development, preliminary or final, has been approved by the Borough if such proceeding is designed to secure reversal or to limit the approval in any manner, unless such person alleges and proves that he had no notice, knowledge or reason to believe that such approval had been given. If such person has succeeded to his interest after such approval, he shall be bound by the knowledge of his predecessor in interest. The failure of anyone other than the landowner to appeal from an adverse decision on a tentative plan or from an adverse decision by the Zoning Officer on a challenge to the validity of this chapter or an amendment hereto or map or an amendment thereto shall preclude an appeal from a final approval, except in the case where the final submission substantially deviates from the approved tentative approval.
B. 
All appeals from determinations adverse to the landowner shall be filed by the landowner within 30 days after notice of the determination is issued.

§ 425-44 Stay of proceedings.

[Added 10-19-1992 by Ord. No. 614]
A. 
Upon filing of any appeal proceeding before the Zoning Hearing Board and during its pendency before the Board, all land development pursuant to any challenged ordinance, order or approval of the Zoning Officer or of any agency or body, and all official action thereunder, shall be stayed unless the Zoning Officer or any other appropriate agency or body certifies to the Board facts indicating that such stay would cause imminent peril to life or property, in which case the development or official action shall not be stayed otherwise than by a restraining order, which may be granted by the Board or by the court having jurisdiction of zoning appeals, on petition, after notice to the Zoning Officer or other appropriate agency or body. When an application for development, preliminary or final, has been duly approved and proceedings designed to reverse or limit the approval are filed with the Board by persons other than the applicant, the applicant may petition the court having jurisdiction of zoning appeals to order such persons to post bond as a condition to continuing the proceedings before the Board.
B. 
After the petition is presented, the court shall hold a hearing to determine if the filing of the appeal is frivolous. At the hearing, evidence may be presented on the merits of the case. It shall be the burden of the applicant for a bond to prove the appeal is frivolous. After consideration of all evidence presented, if the court determines that the appeal is frivolous, it shall grant the petition for a bond. The right to petition the court to order the appellants to post bond may be waived by the appellee, but such waiver may be revoked by him if an appeal is taken from a final decision of the court.
C. 
The question whether or not such petition should be granted and the amount of the bond shall be within the sound discretion of the court. An order denying a petition for bond shall be interlocutory. An order directing the responding party to post a bond shall be interlocutory.
D. 
If an appeal is taken by a respondent to the petition for a bond from an order of the court dismissing a zoning appeal for refusal to post a bond, and the appellate court sustains the order of the court below to post a bond, the respondent to the petition for a bond, upon motion of the petitioner and after hearing in the court having jurisdiction of zoning appeals, shall be liable for all reasonable costs, expenses and attorneys' fees incurred by the petitioner.