City of Haverhill, MA
Essex County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents

§ 255-5 Word usage.

For the purpose of this chapter, certain terms and words shall have the following meanings. Words used in the present tense include the future; the singular number includes the plural, the plural the singular; the words "used" or "occupied" include the words "designed, arranged, intended or offered to be used or occupied"; the words "building," "structure," "lot," "land" or "premises" shall be construed as though followed by the words "or any portion thereof"; and the word "shall" is always mandatory and not merely directory. Terms and words not defined herein but defined in the Haverhill Building Code or Land Subdivision Regulations shall have the meaning given therein unless a contrary intention clearly appears. Words not defined in either place shall have the meaning given in Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Third Edition.

§ 255-6 Definitions.

A. 
As used in this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
ABANDONMENT
The visible or otherwise apparent intention of an owner to discontinue a nonconforming use of a structure or lot; or the removal of the characteristic equipment or furnishing used in the performance of the nonconforming use without its replacement by similar equipment or furnishings; or the replacement of the nonconforming use or structure by a conforming use or structure.
ACCESS
Access to all lots approved under these regulations as well as all lots approved as ANR lots shall be access which is actual (nonillusory) access to the building location on the lot. The access shall be provided by (from) the frontage so that it is not illusory in nature. Access shall facilitate safe ingress and egress to the building location within the lot for public safety vehicles in the event of an emergency. Length, width, grades, topography and adequacy of construction are all essential components of demonstrating adequate actual access to the building site on a lot.
[Added 6-27-2000 by Doc. 79-B]
ACCESSORY APARTMENT
In residential districts, one apartment, consisting of separate living quarters in a principal single-family dwelling.
[Added 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
ACCESSORY RETAIL USES
Newsstand, barbershop, beauty shop, coffee shop, restaurant, sandwich shop, ice cream store, dining room, cafeteria, bookstore, bakery, candy store, delicatessen, florist, drugstore, bank, ATM and similar accessory services primarily for occupants or users thereof within a hotel, office or industrial building, hospital containing more than 50 sleeping rooms, or transportation terminal facility. Accessory retail uses shall not exceed 10% of gross floor area.
[Added 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
ALLEY
A way which is 20 feet or less in right-of-way width which is accepted or devoted to public use by legal mapping or by any other legal procedure.
ALTERATION
Any construction, reconstruction or other action resulting in a change in the height, number of stories, size, use or location of a structure.
ANIMAL DAY CLINIC
A clinic for animals to receive health care during normal working hours.
[Added 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
AUTOMOBILE SERVICE STATION
A building from or within which services such as the repair or cleaning of automobiles are rendered by an attendant. (See definition of "self-service gasoline station.")
[Added 10-12-1976 by Doc. 135-C]
AVERAGE FINISHED GRADE
The average of the finished ground elevation as measured at the corners of the structure. Only a maximum of four main comers of the structure shall be used to determine the grade.
BASEMENT
A portion of a building, partly below grade, which has more than 1/2 of its height, measured from finished floor to finished ceiling, above the average finished grade of the ground adjoining the building. A "basement" is not considered a story unless its ceiling is six feet or more above the average finished grade. A "basement" may be used for human occupancy. (Also see definition of "cellar.")
BED-AND-BREAKFAST ESTABLISHMENT
An owner-occupied dwelling with not more than six rooms available for overnight rental, with or without breakfast.
[Added 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
BOARD
The Zoning Board of Appeals of the City of Haverhill.
BUILDABLE LOT
In addition to all other requirements of the Haverhill Zoning Ordinance, each lot to be considered a buildable lot shall comply with all requirements of this definition. A buildable lot shall have a contiguous buildable upland area which is at least 50% of the required lot size for the zone in which the lot is located. This buildable upland area shall not exceed slopes of 15% on average. The term "buildable upland" shall mean any land area which is not part of a street, right-of-way or easement and not part of a pond, river, stream or wetland (as defined further by MGL c. 131, § 40 and City of Haverhill Code Chapter 253). In addition to the above requirements, to be considered a buildable lot, any lot retaining less than 40% of total lot area as a natural vegetative area (as defined in this chapter) shall file as part of the site plan for the lot evidence including a narrative statement by a registered professional engineer certifying that such removal of vegetative cover will likely not result in decreased recharge of the groundwater deposit or increased sedimentation of surface waters. The site plan shall indicate any restoration proposals or erosion control measures proposed on the premises.
[Added 6-27-2000 by Doc. 79-B]
BUILDING
A combination of any materials, which is fixed, having a roof, to form a structure for the shelter of persons, animals or property. (See definition of "trailers.") For purposes of this definition, "roof" shall include an awning or any similar covering, whether or not permanent in nature.
BUILDING, ACCESSORY
A detached building, the use of which is customarily incidental and subordinate to that of the principal building and which is located on the same lot as that occupied by the principal building.
BUILDING, ATTACHED
A building having any portion of one or more walls in common with adjoining buildings.
BUILDING COVERAGE
The aggregate of the maximum horizontal cross-section area of all buildings on a lot, exclusive of cornices, eaves, gutters, chimneys, unenclosed porches, bay windows, balconies and terraces, expressed as a percentage of total lot area.
BUILDING, DETACHED
A building surrounded by open space on the same lot.
BUILDING FRONTAGE
The width of a building's exterior which faces, fronts upon or coincides with a front lot line.
BUILDING, PRINCIPAL
A building in which is conducted the principal use of the lot on which it is located.
CELLAR
A portion of a building, partly or entirely below grade, which has more than 1/2 of its height measured from finished floor to finished ceiling below the average finished grade of the ground adjoining the building. A "cellar" is not deemed a story and shall not be used for human occupancy.
CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT
A residential development consisting of single-family dwellings in which the buildings and accessory uses are clustered together into multiple (more than one) groups separated from adjacent property and other groups within the development by intervening open space land. The open space land shall be left in a natural state. Only where provided for in § 255-94 may open space land be developed for open space recreational purposes.
[Amended 8-14-1973 by Doc. 188; 6-6-1978 by Doc. 103-C; 3-13-1979 by Doc. 299-C; 6-19-1979 by Doc. 94-C; 6-27-2000 by Doc. 79-B]
CONGREGATE CARE HOUSING
A shared residential living environment which integrates shelter and service needs of functionally impaired and/or socially isolated older persons who are otherwise in good health and can maintain a semi-independent lifestyle and who do not require the constant supervision or intensive health care services provided by an institution. Each resident has his or her own bedroom and may have separate living room, kitchen, dining area or bathroom and may share living, dining and bathroom facilities with other persons, such as in a common dining facility.
[Added 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
DISTRICT
A zoning district as established by Article III of this chapter.
DRIVE-IN FOOD ESTABLISHMENT
Any commercial establishment selling food, frozen dessert and/or beverages served by attendants to an occupant of a vehicle; or any commercial establishment selling food, frozen dessert and/or beverages in an over-the-counter fashion and which has a floor area ratio that is equal to or less than 0.2.
DRIVEWAY
An open space, located on a lot, which is not more than 30 feet in width as measured along the lot line, built for access to a garage or off-street parking or loading space.
[Amended 8-14-1973 by Doc. 188]
DWELLING
A privately or publicly owned permanent structure which is occupied in whole or part as the home residence or sleeping place of one or more persons. The terms "one-family, two-family or multifamily dwelling" shall not include hotel, lodging house, hospital, membership club, trailer or dormitory.
DWELLING, MULTIFAMILY
A building containing three or more dwelling units, and including but not limited to an apartment house, a garden apartment house, a multifamily dwelling and a townhouse. One model unit for purposes of property management and/or leasing dwelling units shall be permitted within each multifamily development if requested and approved with special permit application.
[Amended 3-13-1979 by Doc. 299-C]
DWELLING UNIT
One or more living and sleeping rooms providing complete living facilities for the use of one or more individuals constituting a single housekeeping unit, with permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating and cooking and sanitation.
[Amended 8-8-1972 by Doc. 197]
ESSENTIAL SERVICES
Services provided by a private utility or public utility through erection, construction or alteration or maintenance of gas, electrical, steam or water transmission or distribution systems and collection, communication, supply or disposal systems. Facilities necessary for the provision of "essential services" include poles, wires, drains, sewers, pipes, conduits, cables, fire alarm boxes, police call boxes, traffic signals, street name signs, hydrants and other similar equipment and accessories in connection herewith. Specifically excluded from this definition are buildings necessary for the furnishing of adequate service by such private or public utilities for the public health, safety or general welfare and private utility substations and/or transformer stations or similar facilities.[1]
FACADE, PUBLIC
The vertical surfaces on any building or structure along adjacent street or public approaches to the building or structure.
[Added 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
FAMILY
One or more persons related by marriage or bloodline, including domestic employees, occupying a dwelling unit and living as a single, nonprofit housekeeping unit.
[Amended 8-14-1973 by Doc. 188]
FAMILY DAY-CARE HOME
An owner-occupied single or two-family residence which, on a regular basis, receives for temporary custody and care during part of all of the day, children under seven years of age, or children under 16 years of age if such children have special needs; provided, however, in either case, that the total number of children under 16 in a family day-care home shall not exceed six, including participating children living in the residence. "Family day-dare home" shall not mean an owner-occupied single- and two-family residence used for an informal cooperative arrangement among neighbors or relatives or the occasional care of children with or without compensation therefor. An occupancy permit is required from the office of the Building Inspector and licensing by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts or certification by the commonwealth that licensing is not required.
[Added 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
FLOOR AREA, GROSS
The sum of the gross horizontal area of the several floors of a building measured from the exterior faces of the walls. It does not include accessory structures and/or cellars or unenclosed porches or attics not used for human occupancy or cellars used only for storage purposes in connection with a retail and service commercial use or malls within a shopping center utilized purely for pedestrian circulation and/or decorative purposes between individual shops of the center or structures devoted to parking.
FLOOR AREA RATIO
The ratio of the gross floor area to the total lot area. The "floor area ratio" is arrived at by dividing the building gross floor area by the lot area.
HEALTH CARE SERVICES
Services relating to the provision of health care, including any of the following: all inpatient, outpatient and emergency acute and subacute hospital services; skilled nursing services; rehabilitation services; transitional services; assisted-living services; diagnostic services; pharmaceutical services; medical office buildings; health care education, research and training; medical laboratories; physician and health-care practice professional services; health, wellness and fitness programs; public health and disease prevention programs, and such other uses and services reasonably related to the provision of health care.
[Added 8-14-2001 by Doc. 97-CC]
HEIGHT
The vertical distance from the average finished grade of the adjacent ground to the top of the structure of the highest roof beam of a flat roof, the deck of a mansard roof or the mean level of a roof style such as a gable, hip, shed, gambrel, pyramid or similar roof.
HOME OCCUPATION
An accessory activity occupying a maximum of 50% of the gross floor area carried on by only the permanent resident of a dwelling, inside the principal building, requiring only customary home- or hobby-type equipment and no physical evidence of which is observable from outside the building. "Home occupations" include but are not limited to fine arts studios, framing and arts and craft supplies and instructions, dressmaking, teaching of not more than four pupils simultaneously, real estate, insurance, attorneys, architects or engineers' offices and other recognized professions. "Home occupations" do not include barbershops, beauty parlors, funeral homes, commercial stables or kennels.
[Amended 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
HOSPITAL
A building housing a facility or institution licensed to provide short-term acute in-patient and/or outpatient medical and/or surgical care; not to include a doctor's office. (See "medical clinic.")
[Amended 8-14-1973 by Doc. 188]
HOTEL
A building or any part of a building containing primarily rooming units without individual cooking facilities for transient occupancy and having a common entrance or entrances, including an inn, motel, motor inn and tourist court, but not including a lodging house. A "hotel" may include units containing individual cooking facilities, provided that the number of such units does not exceed 10% of the total number of units.
LOADING SPACE
An off-street "loading space" shall comply with the standards contained in this chapter and shall have unobstructed access and maneuvering space and most be for the loading and unloading of goods and materials from one vehicle, whether inside or outside a structure.
LODGING HOUSE
A building containing lodging units. A "lodging house," boardinghouse and/or rooming house shall not be defined to include a detention center or home for delinquent or wayward persons, drug or alcoholic rehabilitation center or similar activities.
[Amended 8-12-1975 by Doc. 161-C]
LODGING UNIT
One or more rooms for the semipermanent use of one or more individuals not living as a single housekeeping unit and not having cooking facilities. A "lodging unit" shall include rooms in boardinghouses, lodging houses or rooming houses.
LOT
An area or parcel of land not including any water area shown as a separate and distinct lot on a plan or as described in a deed properly recorded in the Essex County registry of deeds or registered as such in the Essex County Land Court.
[Amended 10-12-1976 by Doc. 135-C]
LOT, CORNER
A lot at the point of intersection of and abutting on two or more intersecting streets, the interior angle of intersection of the street lot lines or, in case of a curved street, extended lot lines, being not more than 135°. For purposes of this chapter, each street frontage shall be considered a front yard.
LOT DEPTH
The mean horizontal distance between the front lot line and the rear lot line.
LOT FRONTAGE
Horizontal distance measured along the front lot line between the points of intersection of the side lot lines with the front lot line. A corner lot shall have two "lot frontages," one of which must comply with the distance requirement for the respective district. A through lot shall have two "lot frontages," both of which shall comply with the distance requirement of the respective district.
[Amended 8-14-1973 by Doc. 188; 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
LOT FRONTAGE, PURPOSE OF
Frontage as defined herein, shall be for the purpose of providing access to all lots approved under these regulations as well as all lots approved as ANR (Form A) lots. The frontage shall provide access which is actual (non-illusory) access to the building location on the lot. The access shall be provided by (from) the frontage so that it is not illusory in nature. Access shall facilitate safe ingress and egress to the building location within the lot for public safety vehicles in the event of an emergency. Length, width, grades, topography and adequacy of construction are all essential components of demonstrating adequate actual access to the building site on a lot.
[Added 6-27-2000 by Doc. 79-B]
LOT LINE, FRONT
The property line dividing a lot from a street right-of-way.
LOT LINE, REAR
The lot line opposite from the front lot line. In the case of a corner lot, only one rear yard or lot line shall be required and it shall be located opposite the front of the building.
LOT LINE, SIDE
Any lot line not a front or rear lot line.
LOT, NONCONFORMING
A lot lawfully existing at the effective date of this chapter, or any subsequent amendment thereto, which is not in accordance with all provisions of this chapter.
LOT, THROUGH
An interior lot, the front and rear lot lines of which abut streets, or a corner lot, two opposite lines of which abut streets. A corner "through lot" shall have three front lot lines.
LOT WIDTH
The shortest distance between opposite side lines of a lot measured at the point of the front setback. At no point between the street frontage line and the minimum lot depth setback shall the lot be narrower than 75% of the required lot frontage.[2]
[Amended 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
MEMBERSHIP CLUB
A social, sports or fraternal association or organization which is used exclusively by members and their guests and is not conducted as a gainful business.
MINIWAREHOUSE
A group of small storage vaults or facilities for rental to consumers for storage of nonnoxious and nonhazardous items.
[Added 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
NATURAL VEGETATIVE AREA
Land having a well established cover of thatch, mulch or leaves characterized by an historical prevalence of native plants and/or trees requiring minimal use of fertilizers, herbicides or pesticides.
[Added 6-27-2000 by Doc. 79-B]
NURSING HOME
A building housing a facility or institution licensed to provide living accommodations and a combination of personal and health care services in a protective and/or supervised environment, including a sanitarium, rest home, convalescent home and such facilities providing long-term intensive, skilled, supportive and/or protective nursing care. Such a facility shall not contain individual housekeeping units having individual cooking facilities but may contain common areas for therapy, recreation and/or dining; not to include doctor's office. (See "medical clinic.")
[Added 8-14-1973 by Doc. 188]
OPEN SPACE
The space on a lot unoccupied by buildings, unobstructed to the sky, not devoted to streets, driveways, off-street parking or loading spaces and expressed as a percentage of total lot area. The area of a lot devoted to an unroofed accessory swimming pool should be considered as part of the "open space" area.
OWNER
The duly authorized agent, attorney, purchaser, devisee, trustee, lessee or any person having vested or equitable interest in the use, structure or lot in question.
PARKING SPACE
An off-street "parking space" shall comply with the standards contained in this chapter and shall have unobstructed access and maneuvering space and must be for the exclusive use as a parking stall for one motor vehicle, whether inside or outside a structure.
PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENT
A development involving the construction of two or more principal buildings on the same lot for any permitted use.
[Amended 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C]
REPAIR
Any construction which replaces materials and does not change the height, number of stories, size, use or location of a structure.
ROOF LINE
The edge of the roof, or the extended line of intersection of the rooftop and exterior walls.
SELF-SERVICE GASOLINE STATION
A service station from or within which the customer performs or provides the servicing of the automobile. (See definition of "automobile service station.")
[Added 10-12-1976 by Doc. 135-C]
SHOPPING CENTER
A combination of two or more retail and/or service commercial establishments on a single lot which rely on and are developed with mutual and coordinated parking facilities, pedestrian walkways, landscaping and loading facilities.
SIGN
Any permanent or temporary structure, device, letter, word, model, banner, pennant, insignia, trade flag or representation used as, or which is in the nature of, an advertisement, announcement or direction or is designed to attract the eye by intermittent or repeated motion or illumination; not to include structural members or materials of a building which are an integral and necessary part of the building, unless used to spell out the name of the use, firm or product sold.
SIGN, ACCESSORY
Any sign calling attention to or indicating the occupancy of the premises on which the sign is erected, the business transacted thereon or the product or products manufactured, distributed or sold thereon.
SIGN, NONACCESSORY
Any sign that advertises, calls attention to or indicates anything not upon, or available upon, the premises or lot on which the sign is erected.
SIGN, SURFACE AREA OF
For a sign, either freestanding or attached and projecting from a building, the area shall be considered to include all lettering, wording and accompanying designs and symbols, together with the background, whether upon or enclosed, on which they are displayed, but not including any supporting framework and bracing which are incidental to the display itself. The area of all faces of a sign shall be computed to determine the total "sign surface area." For a sign consisting of individual letters, designs and symbols attached to or painted on a surface, building, wall or window, the area shall be considered to be that of the smallest quadrangle which encompasses all of the letters, designs, symbols and/or frame.
STORY
The portion of a building which is between one floor level and the next higher floor level or the roof. If a mezzanine floor area exceeds 1/3 of the area of the floor immediately below, it shall be deemed to be a "story." An attic shall not be deemed to be a "story" if unfinished and without human occupancy. (See "story, half.")
STORY, HALF
A story under a gable, hip or gambrel roof, the wall plates (area between the roof overhang and the attic floor) of which on at least two opposite exterior walls are not more than two feet above the floor of such story.
STREET
A way shown on a plan approved by the Planning Board in accordance with the Commonwealth's Subdivision Control Law[3] or a public way, which, in either case above, is determined by the Planning Board to have sufficient width, suitable grades/topography and adequate construction to provide for the needs of vehicular traffic in relation to the proposed use of the land and for the installation of municipal services to safely and sufficiently serve such land and the buildings erected or to be erected thereon.
[Amended 6-27-2000 by Doc. 79-B]
STRUCTURE
A combination of materials to form a construction that is safe and stable, including among others buildings, stadiums, tents, reviewing stands, platforms, observation towers, radio towers, water tanks and towers, trestles, piers, wharves, sheds, coal bins, shelters and display signs.
TRAILER
Any vehicle which is immediately portable and/or is designed to have wheels attached directly thereto and is arranged, intended, designed or used for sleeping, eating or business or is a place in which persons may congregate, including a mobile home, house trailer or camper. A "trailer" which is no longer immediately portable by virtue of having its wheels removed or skirts attached shall remain a "trailer" by this definition.
USE
The purpose for which a structure or lot is arranged, designed or intended to be used, occupied or maintained.
USE, ACCESSORY
A use incidental and subordinate to the principal use of a structure or lot or a use not the principal use which is located on the same lot as the principal structure. "Accessory use" by area shall be interpreted not to exceed 40% of the area of the total use of the structure or lot on which it is located.
USE, NONCONFORMING
A use lawfully existing at the time of adoption of this chapter or any subsequent amendment thereto which does not conform to one or more provisions of this chapter.
USE, PRINCIPAL
The main or primary purpose for which a structure or lot is designed, arranged or intended or for which it may be used, occupied or maintained under this chapter. Any other use within the main structure or the use of any other structure or land on the same lot and incidental or supplementary to the "principal use" and permitted under this chapter shall be considered an accessory use.
USE, SUBSTANTIALLY DIFFERENT
A use not indicated as a use of right under the same capitalized major grouping in Table 1: Table of Use and Parking Regulations[4] as the existing use or use first considered or use being compared to.
UTILITY, PRIVATE
A facility provided (owned or operated) by an institution, such as a gas company, power company or telephone company, which has direct bearing on the provision of essential services; not to include offices, garage or similar facilities.
UTILITY, PUBLIC
A facility established by a governmental unit for the purposes of providing or performing essential services.
VARIANCE
Such departure from the terms of this chapter as the Board, upon appeal in specific cases, is empowered to authorize under the terms of Article X.
WAY
Any point of access to a lot of record that does not classify as a street as specified in the definition of street. In general, a way is a point of access established prior to the Subdivision Control Law[5] which is determined by the Planning Board to have sufficient width, suitable grades/topography and adequate construction to provide for the needs of vehicular traffic in relation to the proposed use of the land and for the installation of municipal services to safely and sufficiently serve such land and the buildings erected or to be erected thereon.
[Added 6-27-2000 by Doc. 79-B]
YARD
A portion of a lot except that upon which the principal building is situated, unobstructed artificially from the ground to the sky, except as otherwise provided herein. A court shall not be considered to be a "yard" or any part thereof.
YARD, FRONT
A space extending for the full width of the lot between the front line of the nearest main building wall and the front lot line.
YARD, REAR
A space, unoccupied, except by an accessory structure or accessory use as herein permitted, extending for the full width of the lot line between the rear line of the main building wall and the rear lot line.
YARD, SIDE
An unoccupied space extending for the full length of a building between the nearest main building wall and the side lot line.
[1]
Editor's Note: The definition of "exception," which followed this definition, was repealed 6-10-1992 by Doc. 52-C.
[2]
Editor's Note: The former definition of "medical clinic," as amended, which immediately followed this definition, was repealed 6-10-2008 by Doc. 61-B.
[3]
Editor's Note: See MGL c. 41, § 81K et seq.
[4]
Editor's Note: Table 1: Table of Use and Parking Regulations is included at the end of this chapter.
[5]
Editor's Note: See MGL c. 41, § 81K et seq.
B. 
As used in § 255-18, Floodplain District, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
[Added 2-15-1983 by Doc. 219-B/82]
AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD
The land in the floodplain within a community subject to a one-percent-or-greater chance of flooding in any given year. The area may be designated as Zone A on the Flood Hazard Boundary Maps (FHBM). After detailed ratemaking has been completed in preparation for publication of the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM), Zone A usually is refined into Zones A, AO, A1-A99, VO and V1-V30.
BASE FLOOD
The flood having a one-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
DEVELOPMENT
Any man-made change to improved or unimproved real estate, including but not limited to buildings or other structures, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations.
EXISTING CONSTRUCTION
For the purposes of determining rates, structures for which the start of construction commenced before the effective date of the FIRM or before January 1, 1975, for FIRM's effective before that date. "Existing construction" may also be referred to as "existing structures."
(1) 
A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from:
(a) 
The overflow of inland or tidal waters.
(b) 
The unusual and rapid accumulation of runoff of surface waters from any source.
(c) 
Mudslides (i.e., mudflows) which are proximately caused or precipitated by accumulations of water on or under the ground.
(2) 
The collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or other body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels or suddenly caused by an unusually high water level in a natural body of water, accompanied by a severe storm or by an unanticipated force of nature, such as flash flood or an abnormal tidal surge or by some similarly unusual and unforeseeable event which results in flooding as defined in Subsection (1)(a) of this definition.
FLOODPROOFING
Any combination of structural and nonstructural additions, changes or adjustments to structures which reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitary facilities, structures and their contents.
STRUCTURE
For floodplain management purposes, a walled and roofed building, including a gas or liquid storage tank, that is principally above ground, as well as a mobile home. "Structure," for insurance coverage purposes, means a walled and roofed building, other than a gas or liquid storage tank, that is principally above ground and affixed to a permanent site, as well as a mobile home on a foundation. For the latter purpose, the term includes a building while in the course of construction, alteration or repair, unless such materials or supplies are within an enclosed building on the premises.
SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT
Any repair, reconstruction or improvement of a structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50% of the market value of the structure, either before the improvement or repair is started or, if the structure has been damaged and is being restored, before the damage occurred. For the purposes of this definition, "substantial improvement" is considered to occur when the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or other structural part of the building commences, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the structure. The term does not, however, include either any project for improvement of a structure to comply with existing state or local health, sanitary or safety code specifications which are solely necessary to assure safe living conditions or any alteration of a structure listed on the National Register of Historic Places or a State Inventory of Historic Places.