Township of West Windsor, NJ
Mercer County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted by the Township of West Windsor as indicated in article histories. Amendments noted where applicable.]
GENERAL REFERENCES
Fees — See Ch. 82.
Sewerage Authority — See Ch. 133, Art. I.
Sewer use — See Ch. 133, Art. II.
Solid waste — See Ch. 148.
Land use — See Ch. 200.
131a Figure 1 131b Figure 2 131c Figure 3 131d Minimum Required Sep Dis 131e Appendix A Figure 1 131f Appendix A Figure 2 131g Appendix A Uni Placement Perc Tests
[Adopted by the Board of Health 3-15-1983 (Ch. BH:VI of the Revised General Ordinances); readopted by the Township Council 4-19-1999 by Ord. No. 99-07]

§ 131-1 Construction.

A. 
Unless otherwise provided by rule, statute or ordinance, the following shall govern the design and installation of community subsurface sewage disposal systems.
B. 
This article shall be liberally construed to permit the Health Officer or designee to discharge its statutory functions.
C. 
Nothing contained in this article shall be construed to prevent the Health Officer or designee from requiring compliance with higher requirements than those contained herein where such higher requirements are essential to maintain safe and sanitary conditions.
D. 
Practice where article does not govern. The Division of Health or its agents shall exercise discretion in respect to any other matters not governed by this article.

§ 131-2 Definitions.

The following words and terms, when used in this article, shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
ABSORPTION AREA
The wetted horizontal area of the disposal bed or trench where treatment occurs in a disposal field.
ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY
The Health Officer of the Township of West Windsor.
AEROBIC UNIT
A pretreatment tank in which air is injected into raw sewage, providing an oxygen-rich environment for the digestion of sewage. The design of an aerobic unit is similar to that of a septic tank.
ALTER
To replace or repair any portion of the community sewage disposal system.
APPROVED
Accepted or acceptable under applicable specifications stated or cited in this article or accepted as suitable for the proposed use under procedures and powers of administration delegated in this article.
APPROVED PROFESSIONAL
A person certified by the Department to perform site evaluation and/or design of subsurface sewage disposal systems.
ARTESIAN
Groundwater under sufficient hydrostatic pressure to rise above the top elevation of the aquifer containing it.
AUTHORIZED AGENT
A licensed health officer, professional engineer, sanitary inspector, plumbing inspector or any other qualified and licensed person first grade who is delegated to function within specified limits as the agent of the administrative authority.
BEDROCK
In-place geologic formations which cannot be removed with conventional excavating equipment or which upon excavation include more than 60% formation fragments (by weight) that are retained on a one-quarter-inch mesh screen.
BEDROOM
A room used for sleeping, whether or not that is meant to be its primary purpose. Rooms to be considered as bedrooms shall include but not be limited to expansion attics and all rooms except living rooms, dining rooms, laundries, bathrooms, kitchens and other rooms which could not be expected to become a sleeping place for individuals.
BUILDING SEWER
The pipe extending from the outer wall of the building or, as defined in the State Uniform Construction Code, to the septic tank or approved place of disposal other than a public sewer.
CERTIFICATION
A written statement by the administrative authority certifying that the proposed sewerage facilities for the proposed reality improvements are in compliance with the provisions of L. 1954, c. 199, as revised (N.J.S.A. 58:11-23 et seq.), and this article, as well as the terms of the permit issued for such installation.
CHROMA
The relative purity, strength or saturation of a color in soil, directly related to the dominance of the determining wavelength of light and inversely related to grayness, as described by the Munsell color system for determining hue and value of color found in soils.
CLASS A SOIL
Soil with a seasonally high-water table greater than or equal to seven feet below natural grade.
CLASS B SOIL
Soil with a seasonally high-water table greater than or equal to four feet but less than seven feet below natural grade. Class B soil will require a pressure distribution mound system.
CLASS C SOIL
Soil with a seasonally high water table less than four feet below natural grade.
CLASS A SUBSURFACE SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM
A septic tank, distribution box or siphon system and disposal area which have no mechanical parts and in which flow distribution is accomplished by gravity.
CLASS B SUBSURFACE SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM
All subsurface sewage disposal systems other than Class A subsurface disposal systems hereinabove defined, including the use of curtain drains.
CLAY
A soil separate consisting of particles less than 0.002 millimeters in equivalent diameter or soil material that contains 40% or more clay, 45% or less sand and 40% or less silt.
CLAY LOAM
Soil material that contains 27% to 40% clay and 20% to 45% sand.
COMMUNITY SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM
A subsurface sewage disposal system into which more than one realty improvement discharges sanitary sewage.
CONDUIT
Any enclosed means, except wood, through which fluid is conveyed.
CONNECTING PIPE
A closed watertight pipe connecting the septic tank to the disposal area.
CONSTRUCT
To build or install a new community sewage disposal system or replace, alter or expand an existing community subsurface sewage disposal system.
CRITICAL AREAS
All those areas as defined in N.J.A.C. 7:9-10.1 et seq.
CURTAIN DRAIN
A trench excavation filled with gravel which contains perforated drainage pipe. Curtain drains are placed around the upslope perimeter of the soil absorption area to intercept perched groundwater moving into the area. Under no conditions shall the curtain drain be placed on the downslope side of the disposal area or surround the system on more than three sides. In the case of a curtain drain, the invert is the lowest portion of the internal cross section of a perforated conduit or gravel envelope, whichever is lower.
DEPARTMENT
The New Jersey State Department of Environmental Protection.
DISPOSAL AREA
The entire area used for underground dispersion of the liquid portion of sewage, which may consist of a disposal trench, disposal field or a combination thereof.
DISPOSAL BED
That part of a disposal field for dispersion of the liquid portion of sanitary sewage comprising a shallow area from which the entire earth contents have been removed, the excavation filled at least 12 inches with a satisfactory aggregate in which distribution lines have been laid and the entire area covered with topsoil and suitable vegetative growth.
DISPOSAL FIELD
An area consisting of disposal trenches, a disposal bed or a combination thereof, including buffer area. The buffer area is measured to the toe of the slope. The disposal field is used for dispersion of the liquid portion of sanitary sewage into the ground as close to the surface as is feasible. The limits of the disposal field shall be defined as the boundary created by the monitoring wells.
DISPOSAL TRENCH
A shallow ditch with vertical sides and a flat bottom filled at least 12 inches with a satisfactory aggregate material in which a single distribution line has been laid and covered with topsoil and suitable vegetative growth.
DISTRIBUTION BOX
A round or rectangular watertight chamber with a single inlet and an outlet for each distribution lateral. The purpose of the distribution box is to divide the incoming wastewater of an individual sewage disposal system equally between each lateral.
DISTRIBUTION LINES
A series of perforated pipes used for the dispersion of sewage into disposal trenches or disposal beds.
DITCH
Any channelized structure that can affect the movement or occurrence of surface water or groundwater, including, but not limited to, open trenches and underdrains with or without pipes.
DOSING
The pumping or siphoning of a specified volume of wastewater to a disposal area.
DOSING TANK
A watertight receptacle located between a septic tank and a disposal area equipped with an automatic siphon device or pump system designed to discharge the liquid portion of the sewage intermittently in the distribution lines in amounts proportionate to the capacity of such lines and to provide adequate rest periods between such discharges.
DOUBLE RING INFILTROMETER
A device consisting of two concentric metal rings which are inserted into the soil horizon to measure vertical hydraulic conductivity.
DRY WELL
A covered pit with an open-jointed lining through which drainage from roofs, basement floors or areaways may seep or leach into the surrounding soil. If permanently filled with water, the pit is a well and subject to the applicable distance requirements of this article.
EXPANSION ATTIC
That part of a house left unfinished but designed to be finished as a bedroom or bedrooms by subsequent improvement and accessible by permanent stairways or designed so that stairways may be installed.
FAILURE
See "malfunction."
FLOODPLAIN
Land area subject to the probability of flooding as defined in the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Flood Hazard Boundary Maps.
FOG
Floatable oil and grease; scum.
GPD
The abbreviated form for gallons per day (24 hours).
GRADE
The pitch or fall of a pipeline or the ground surface, which may be expressed as fall or drop per foot, per 100 feet, or in percentages.
GREASE TRAP
A device in which the grease present in sewage is intercepted, congealed by cooling and from which it may be skimmed from the surface of the liquid waste prior to disposal.
HAZARDOUS WASTE
Any chemical substance or material, gas, solid or liquid designated as hazardous by the United States Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to the United States Resource Recovery and Conservation Act, Public Law 94-580, latest revision.
HOLDING TANK
A round or rectangular watertight receptacle, with visual and auditory alarms, used to receive and hold sanitary sewage. A holding tank has an inflow pipe and a manhole used for periodic pumping of sewage by a licensed hauler to a location permitted by the Department. There shall be no discharge from a holding tank.
HORIZON
See "soil horizon."
HOUSE SEWER
See "building sewer."
HUE
One of the three variables of color used in the Munsell color system. Hue is caused by light of specific wavelengths and changes with wavelength.
HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (K)
The rate at which water can move through a soil layer.
IMPERVIOUS FORMATIONS
Formations of soil material having a hydraulic conductivity of less than two centimeters per day.
INDUSTRIAL WASTE
Liquid or solid wastes free from fecal matter resulting from processes employed in industrial establishments, including treatment storage or runoff from processed or untreated wastewater or raw materials and wastes from floor drains emanating from treatment, storage or manufacturing areas of an establishment. A list of generators of industrial waste is found in N.J.A.C. 7:14A-1 et seq., Appendix E.
INVERT
The floor, bottom or lowest portion of the internal cross section of a closed conduit (pipes or fittings) conveying sewage. In the case of a curtain drain, the invert is the lowest portion of the internal cross section of a perforated conduit.
KEY MAP
A USGS topographic map 7.5 minute quadrangle series locating the property and extending 1,000 feet beyond the property boundaries.
LATERAL
The four-inch pipe which connects an individual residence with the sewer main.
LOAM
Soil material that contains 7% to 27% clay, 28% to 50% silt and less than 52% sand.
LOAMY SAND
Soil material that contains at the upper limit 85% to 90% sand and in which the percentage of silt plus 1 1/2 times the percentage of clay is not less than 15; at the lower limit it contains not less than 70% to 85% sand and the percentage of silt plus twice the percentage of clay does not exceed 30.
LOCATE
The designation of the site or place of an individual sewage disposal system, and the term "location" shall be construed accordingly.
LYSIMETER
A device for measuring percolating and leaching losses from a column of soil and a device for collecting soil water in the field.
MAIN STACK
See "vent stack."
MALFUNCTION
Deemed by the authorized agent to have occurred in the event of, but not limited to, the following:
A. 
Evidence of sewage or the flow of sewage on the ground surface or in storm drains or basements.
B. 
Need of the system to be pumped three times in a twelve-month period.
C. 
Failure of the system to accept effluent, including, for example, the failure of toilets to flush or sinks to drain.
MANIFOLD
That portion of piping leading from the pumps in the pump chamber to the distribution lines.
MONITORING WELLS
Inspection pipes located in the subsurface soil absorption system which provide limited access for observing the depth of ponding, a measure of the performance of the system and a means of locating the subsurface field.
MOTTLES and MOTTLING
Spots or blotches of different colors or shades of color interspersed with the dominant soil color. Oxidation (bright colors) and reduction (dull colors) are caused by alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions, which conditions are caused by a seasonally fluctuating groundwater table or the presence of a perched water table. The zone of mottling is that area consisting of more than 2% mottles.
MULTIPLE COMPARTMENT TANKS
Septic tanks containing more than one settling compartment or chamber in series.
OBSERVATION HOLE
An excavation, test pit or auger boring used to determine the soil profile and conditions.
PERCHED WATER TABLE
The upper surface of a zone of saturation which exists at some level above the static water table because of a relatively impermeable layer of varying lateral extent and is isolated from the static water table by an unsaturated zone. A water table may be inferred to be perched by the administrative authority or Department on the basis of general knowledge of water levels of an area, the landscape position and the permeability of soil layers.
PERCOLATING AREA
That portion of soil utilized in a disposal area as the effective disposal media for sewage; the furthermost limit of the gravel layer in which disposal field laterals are placed.
PERMEABILITY
As applied to soils, the ability of the soil to transmit water in a liquid form through pores.
PERMEABILITY TEST
A method of in situ soil testing used to determine the capacity of a soil to accept and transmit water under saturated conditions and to define the percolating area for a community subsurface sewage disposal system.
PERSON
Corporations, companies, associations, societies, firms, partnerships and joint stock companies, as well as individuals.
PRESSURIZED DISTRIBUTION
A network of piping with small diameter orifices designed to evenly distribute wastewater under pressure throughout the entire disposal field.
PRIMARY SATURATED PERMEABILITY
The rate at which water moves through the pores of a saturated soil material, but not meant to be a measure of the rate at which water moves through fractures, joints, faults, solution cavities or other features which are the result of secondary permeability.
PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER
A person licensed to practice professional engineering in this state.
PUMP CHAMBER
The structure which encloses the pumps for the pressure distribution system.
REALTY IMPROVEMENT
Any proposed new residence or other building (including condominiums, garden apartments, townhouses, mobile homes, etc.) not serviced by an approved water supply and approved sewerage system, the useful occupancy of which will require the installation, replacement, alteration, repair or erection of a water supply system or sewerage facilities. Each family unit in a proposed multiple-family dwelling shall be construed to be a separate realty improvement.
REPAIR
To replace or rehabilitate any portion of an existing individual subsurface disposal system such that the system will conform to the previously approved engineering plans.
RESTRICTIVE LAYER
A soil layer which resists the downward movement of water and has a permeability of less than two centimeters per day (4.6 x 10-5 ft/min).
SAND
A soil particle between 0.05 and 2.0 millimeters in diameter or soil separate that contains 85% or more sand and in which the percentage of silt plus 1 1/2 times the percentage of clay does not exceed 15.
SANDY CLAY
Soil material that contains 35% or more clay and 45% or more sand.
SANDY CLAY LOAM
Soil material that contains 20% to 35% clay, less than 28% silt and 45% or more sand.
SANDY LOAM
Soil material that contains 20% clay or less and 52% or more sand and in which the percentage of silt plus twice the percentage of clay exceeds 30; or which contains less than 7% clay, less than 50% silt and between 43% and 52% sand.
SANITARY SEWAGE
Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution or the water-carried wastes resulting from the discharge of water closets, laundry tubs, washing machines, sinks, dishwashers or any other source of water-carried waste of human origin or containing putrescible material. Sanitary sewage shall not contain industrial waste.
SANITARY SEWER
A pipe which carries sewage and to which storm, surface waters and groundwaters are not intentionally admitted.
SCUM
A mass of sewage solids floating at the surface of sewage and buoyed up by entrained gas, grease or other substances.
SEASONAL HIGH WATER TABLE
A zone of saturation of the highest elevation during the wettest season, which shall be estimated at the highest level of soil mottling as determined by an approved professional.
SEEPAGE PIT
A covered pit with an open-jointed or perforated lining through which septic tank effluent and/or laundry waste may seep or leach into the surrounding soil. No new seepage pits shall be allowed in the Township.
SELECT FILL
Any soil material with the following textural (granulometric or gradation) analysis:
A. 
Sandy soil material with a silt or clay content not less than 10 weight percent nor more than 20 weight percent of that portion of the material finer than two millimeters.
B. 
Coarse fragments 1/4 inch or larger in diameter shall not exceed 15% by weight of the material.
SEPTIC SOLIDS RETAINER
A tee baffle or gas deflector used at the outlet of a septic tank which has less than 80% submergence, such that the sludge and scum are retained in the septic tank.
SEPTIC TANK
A watertight receptacle which receives the discharge of sewage from a building sewer or part thereof and is designed and constructed to permit settling of settleable solids from the liquid, retention of scum, digestion of the organic matter by detention and discharge of the liquid portion into a disposal area.
SILT
A soil separate consisting of particles between 0.005 and 0.002 millimeters in equivalent diameter, or soil material that contains 80% or more silt and less than 12% clay.
SILT LOAM
Soil material that contains 50% or more silt and 12% to 27% clay, 50% to 80% silt and less than 12% clay.
SILTY CLAY
Soil material that contains 40% or more clay and 40% or more silt.
SILTY CLAY LOAM
Soil material that contains 27% to 40% clay and less than 20% sand.
SIPHON
A hydraulically operated device designed to rapidly discharge the entire contents of a dosing tank between predetermined hydraulic levels.
SOIL
That portion of the earth's surficial material which was formed as a result of physical, chemical and biological weathering of a parent material where at least 50% of the material has a diameter of two millimeters or less.
SOIL HORIZON
A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the soil surface, with distinct characteristics produced by soil-forming processes.
SOILS LOG
The detailed soils information required for completion of the administrative authority's soils log form.
SOILS MAP
A map prepared by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Soil Conservation Service (SCS) entitled "Soil Survey of Mercer County, New Jersey."
SOIL SATURATION LEVEL
The highest elevation of saturated soil based on the highest elevation of soil mottles, as determined by an approved professional.
SOIL TEXTURE
The relative proportions of the various soil separates (sand, silt and clay) in a soil, as defined by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
STATIC LIQUID LEVEL
The maximum height of the surface of liquid in a septic tank.
STATIC WATER TABLE
The surface of an unconfined aquifer or perched water table at which the pore water pressure is atmospheric.
SUBDIVISION AMENDMENT
An amendment to the Realty Improvement Sewerage and Facilities Act,[1] which requires state certification for all subdivisions which are to be served by subsurface sewage disposal systems and/or private wells and consist of 50 or more realty improvements prior to the granting of preliminary subdivision approval.
SUBSURFACE SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM
An approved system for the disposal of sanitary sewage into the ground which is designed and constructed to treat sewage to retain most of the settleable solids in a septic tank and to discharge the liquid portion to an adequate disposal field. A subsurface sewage disposal system shall not treat or discharge wastewater which is in whole or in part hazardous, nor shall it treat nor discharge industrial waste.
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP
A contour map having a contour interval of one foot or less.
TRAP
A fitting or device so designed and constructed as to provide, when properly vented, a liquid seal which will prevent the back passage of air without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater through it.
UNCONFINED AQUIFER
An aquifer where there is no restrictive material at the top of the groundwater, so that the groundwater level is free to rise or fall. See also "static water table."
UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
A system classifying soils according to particle size, distribution, plasticity, liquid limit and organic matter content.
UNSATURATED NATURAL (IN SITU) SOIL
Soil which is above both the groundwater table and the zone of capillary saturation.
VALUE
The relative lightness or intensity of color and approximately a function of the square root of the total amount of light. One of the three variables of color used in the Munsell color system.
VENT STACK
A vertical vent pipe installed within a building for the purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of a building plumbing system.
WATERCOURSE
Any topographic feature, whether natural or man-made, which collects or transmits surface or subsurface water, including but not limited to streams (perennial or intermittent), ditches, drains, storm sewers, lakes and stormwater recharge basins. Shallow swales upslope of a sewage disposal system created by landscaping and conveying only rainwater from a limited surface shall not be considered a watercourse.
WATER TABLE
The upper surface of groundwater or that level below soil which is seasonally saturated with water.
WATERS OF THE STATE
The ocean and its estuaries and all springs, streams and bodies of surface or groundwater, whether natural or artificial.
WELL
Any well, including any dug hole, that is deeper than its largest surface dimension, where the principal function of the well is the withdrawal or emplacement of fluids.
WET WELL AND PUMPING EQUIPMENT
A watertight receptacle that receives the liquid portion of sewage and, by means of appropriate equipment, forces the sewage to the distribution box of a disposal system at a higher elevation.
ZONE OF CAPILLARY SATURATION
The partially saturated soils immediately above the groundwater table.
ZONE OF SATURATION
The totally saturated soils contained within the groundwater table.
[1]
Editor's Note: See N.J.S.A. 58:11-23 et seq.

§ 131-3 Community sewage disposal systems generally prohibited.

The use of community subsurface sewage disposal systems is prohibited unless the properties, dwellings, commercial units or other premises to be served by sewage disposal systems are constructed, designed and located in such a manner that the construction of individual sewage disposal systems in accordance with Article II of this chapter would be most impractical or impossible. Percolation tests must be performed on each proposed lot in the development before a community system may be considered. If a community system is proposed, double ring infiltrometer tests must be performed in the disposal area. In no event, however, shall construction of a community sewage disposal system be permitted in Class C soil or in a floodplain.

§ 131-4 Permission to locate, construct or alter community sewage disposal system required.

Permission to locate, construct or alter a community sewage disposal system must be sought from the administrative authority and may only be granted if facts are established to its satisfaction and assurances given that only one legal entity will be responsible for the maintenance, operation, repair and replacement of the system and that the system will meet the construction and design standards contained herein.

§ 131-5 Minimum construction requirements for community sewage disposal systems.

Required components of all community sewage disposal systems are as follows:
A. 
Community septic tanks. In addition to individual septic tanks located on the premises of each realty improvement, there shall be at least one large community septic tank for each alternating disposal field. The community septic tank shall be of shallow depth dual compartment regular reinforced concrete design and the size shall be the larger of either 5,000 gallons minimum or 1/3 the total estimated volume expected based on the table found in § 131-7. Said tanks shall be preceded by a selective diversion valve and interconnected with a gravity overflow device and equipped with auditory and visual level alarms in the event of malfunction of the active tank.
B. 
Sewage collection system. The conduit system which conveys the liquid portion of the sanitary sewage from the individual septic tank to the community septic tank.
C. 
Wet well with duplex pumping stations and pressure distribution system. The effluent of the community septic tanks will accumulate in a wet well, which will provide the volume necessary to dose the associated disposal field. The disposal field will receive the dose of effluent via a watertight force main manifold connected to a perforated distribution pipe. Auditory and visual alarms detectable on site and relayed to a central alarm company will be activated in the event of malfunction.
D. 
Alternating disposal fields. Each community septic tank shall have an associated alternating disposal field. Use of the alternating disposal fields shall be changed annually or as otherwise required by the administrative authority to permit one field to rest while the other is in use. (See Figure 1.[1])
[1]
Editor's Note: Figure 1 is located at the end of this chapter.
E. 
Reserved disposal field area. In addition to the alternating disposal fields, each community sewage disposal system shall have an associated reserve area. This area shall have been tested in the same manner as the primary disposal fields. The reserve area shall have the capacity to accept as a minimum the same quantity of effluent as the disposal area for which it is in reserve.
F. 
No disposal field may be constructed unless the bottom of the disposal bed is at least four feet above the highest seasonal water table elevation, as determined by the approved professional and verified by the authorized agent. In no event will a disposal field be permitted to be constructed in a floodplain.
G. 
Monitoring wells. Monitoring wells shall be installed and shall extend from the bottom infiltrative surface of the system up to or above final grade. The bottom should be open and the top capped. The portion of the pipe within the gravel should be perforated to permit a free flow of water. Spacing and location of monitoring wells shall be at the discretion of the authorized agent.
H. 
Each realty improvement to be connected to a community sewage disposal system shall have its own septic tank, which shall be sized and constructed in accordance with Chapter BH:III, Subsections BH:3-4.22, BH:3-4.24 and BH:3-4.25 of the Individual Sewage Disposal System Code of West Windsor[2] and located between the realty improvement and public right-of-way.
[2]
Editor's Note: See Art. II, Individual Systems, of this chapter.
I. 
Flow restrictors and low-volume flush toilets are required.

§ 131-6 Design.

The design of a community sewage disposal system shall take into consideration the location of the wells or other sources of water supply, topography, existing individual or community sewage disposal systems on adjacent properties, water tables, soil characteristics, available area and expected volume of sewage and shall comply with these and other provisions of this article regarding design. All engineering data submitted must bear a professional engineer's seal and signature. The engineer responsible for design shall also inspect construction and certify that the work has been constructed in accordance with the minimum requirements of the design. Alterations to community sewage disposal systems shall be certified by the authorized agent and be subject to approval by the administrative authority.

§ 131-7 Volume.

Each unit of the disposal system shall be designed to adequately treat the estimated volume of sanitary sewage to be discharged from the community to be served. The volume of sewage flow shall be based on the estimated contributory population and the resultant expected daily quantities of sewage, as determined from the following table:
Source1
Gallons Per Person Per Day
Cottages; seasonal occupancy
100
Single-family dwellings (minimum of 400 or gallons per dwelling)
100
Multiple-family dwellings (apartments)
100
Rooming house
50
Boardinghouses2
75
  For each nonresident boarder
15
Hotels2
50-75
Motels and tourist cabins
50-75
Mobile home parks
100
Restaurants
  Sanitary waste only, per patron
5
  Kitchen waste only, per patron
5
  Kitchen and sanitary wastes
10
Camps2
50
Day schools
  No cafeteria or showers
10
  With cafeteria and no showers
15
  With cafeteria and showers
20
  Cafeteria, showers and laboratories
25
Boarding schools2
100
Day workers: office, industries, etc. (eight-hour shift)
25
Institutions other than hospitals
75-125
Picnic grounds and comfort stations
  Toilet only
10
  Toilet and showers
15
Swimming pools and bathhouses
10
Club houses2
With resident members
60
  For each nonresident member
25
Campgrounds where individual sewer per site hookups are available (laundry extra, increase by 50%)
100
Stores, office buildings
0.125 gallons per square foot
Self-service laundries
50 gallons per wash
NOTES:
1 When more than one use will occur, the multiple use shall be considered determining the total flow. Other uses than those listed above shall be considered in relation to established flows from known or similar installations.
2Includes kitchen waste at 10 gallons per person per day. If laundry wastes are anticipated, estimated flows shall be increased by 50%.

§ 131-8 Garbage grinder units prohibited.

The use of garbage grinder units by any realty improvement serviced by a community sewage disposal system is prohibited.

§ 131-9 Minimum setback and separation distances.

The minimum distances for location of the various component parts of a community sewage disposal system shall comply with the following table:
MINIMUM DISTANCE
Component
Well or Suction Line
(feet)1
Water Service Line
(Pressure)
(feet)
Watercourse1
Dwelling
(feet)
Property Line
(feet)
Disposal Field
(feet)
Building sewer
50
52
25
Septic tank
50
10
25
10
10
Diversion valve
50
10
25
10
10
Box
Disposal field
1004
10
50
25
25
503
Seepage pit
150
10
100
25
25
50
Dry well
50
10
10
10
50
NOTES:
1 Exempting curtain drains which shall be constructed as defined in this article.
2 Under no circumstances shall a building sewer be placed less than five feet from a water service line.
3 This distance applies to systems on adjacent lots and Class A and Class B primary and reserve areas.
4 This distance shall be increased to 150 feet from all Class B systems.

§ 131-10 Use of disposal fields.

The disposal fields shall be posted and trespassing thereon prohibited. Access to disposal fields shall be strictly limited and trees shall be planted thereabout in a manner approved by the administrative authority to prevent vehicular traffic.

§ 131-11 Lots adjacent to lots with unsuitable soils.

In subdivisions comprised of both lots on which individual sewage disposal systems (Article II) are to be constructed and lots which will be served by a community sewage disposal system, the disposal fields for a community sewage disposal system shall be sized to include the flow from any lot to be served by an individual system which is adjacent to or across the street from any lot to be served by the community system. In no event, however, shall any lot served by an individual system be connected to the community system until it has been demonstrated to the administrative authority that all steps to rebuild or rehabilitate the individual system have been taken and have failed.

§ 131-12 Maintenance, operation, repair and replacement of system by one legal entity.

A. 
Until title to all of the realty improvements to be serviced by the system has been transferred from the developer, including the developer's successors and assigns, to the respective owners who will be occupying the realty improvements, a community sewage disposal system shall be maintained, operated, repaired and replaced by the developer. Thereafter, a homeowners' association comprised of the owners of each realty improvement serviced by the system shall maintain, operate, repair and replace the system. A separate homeowners' association need not be formed for the sole purpose of maintaining, operating, repairing and replacing the system in the event that the owners of each realty improvement serviced by the systems are members of an open space organization formed pursuant to N.J.S.A. 40:55D-43 or a homeowners' association charged with other responsibilities. In the event that said homeowners' association is comprised of owners whose property is not serviced by the system, those owners whose property is not so serviced shall not be responsible for maintenance, operation, repairs and replacement of a community sewage disposal system. Said association shall not be dissolved or dispose of the system by sale or otherwise without the approval of the administrative authority.
B. 
The bylaws, membership assessments and dues and methods of enforcement and collection of delinquent assessments and dues of the homeowners' association insofar as they pertain to maintenance, operation, repair and replacement of a community sewage disposal system shall be submitted to and approved by the administrative authority at such time as application is made for a permit to locate, construct or alter a community sewage disposal system.
C. 
Declaration of covenants, conditions, restrictions and bylaws shall be recorded in the Mercer County Clerk's Office in the book for the recording of deeds, which recording shall be prior to the first conveyance of any realty improvement to be serviced by a community sewage disposal system.
D. 
The Township shall not be responsible for any dry sewer lines installed as part of major subdivision approval and used for the transfer or pumping of sewage to any community sewage disposal system. During the period of such use, the legal entity responsible for maintenance, operation, repair and replacement of the system under this section shall remain fully responsible for the system.

§ 131-13 Pressure distribution systems required.

Pressure distribution systems are required for all community sewage disposal systems. Designs of these systems shall be in accordance with the EPA Design Manual for On Site Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems, Chapter 199, of N.J.A.C. 7:0.2.1 et seq., and Figure 1.[1] In addition, the systems shall comply with the following standards:
A. 
Absorption area. The total absorption area required shall be computed from the daily wastewater flow and design loading rate. The required absorption area equals the wastewater flow divided by the design loading rate as below.
B. 
Design loading rate. The design loading rate for a site is based on the permeability, as determined by hydraulic conductivity tests, and the soil texture for the site of the pressure distribution system as follows:
Permeability
(cm/day)
Soil Texture-USDA
Design Loading Rate
(gallons per square foot per day)
Less than 2,000
No disposal
1,000 - 2,000
Grave, coarse to medium sand
1.2
700 - 1,000
Fine sand, loamy sand
0.8
300 - 700
Sandy loam, loam
0.6
50 - 300
Loam, porous silt loam
0.45
2 - 50
Silty clay loams, clay loams
0.20
2
Other textures
No disposal
C. 
Soil horizon. Pressure distribution systems will not be permitted in impervious formations unless the design calls for that horizon to be removed and replaced by specified material with a permeability more rapid than two centimeters per day and it is clearly demonstrated by permeability testing that the removal of such a layer would allow adequate hydraulic functioning.
D. 
Distance between filter stone and impervious formation. A minimum of four feet must be maintained between the bottom of the filter stone in the disposal bed and impervious formation or the highest seasonal high water table.
E. 
Discharge of effluent into trenches, beds, disposal fields or mounds. Pressure distribution systems shall discharge effluent into trenches, beds or disposal fields unless the level of the water table is such that trenches, beds or disposal fields may not be installed in accordance with these provisions, and, in that event, effluent may be discharged into mounds in accordance with section § 131-15. In no event, however, shall installation of a mound be permitted in Class C soils or a floodplain over a failing subsurface sewage disposal system or in a filled area (removal of the fill material does not cause the site to become suitable).
F. 
Distribution pipes. Each pipe that is connected to an outlet of a manifold shall be considered a separate distribution line. All distribution lines shall be installed at the same elevation or the plans and specifications shall provide for a design that ensures equal flow throughout the system. Distribution lines shall be connected to the manifold by tee's or 90 ells. The ends of distribution lines shall be capped.
G. 
Specifications.
(1) 
Pressure distribution systems shall be constructed in accordance with the following provisions:
(a) 
Minimum depth to top of distribution lines from finished grade: nine inches.
(b) 
Minimum thickness for distribution lines: Sch 40 PVC.
(c) 
Minimum lines per field: two.
(d) 
Maximum slope of natural ground surface: 12%.
(e) 
Orifice diameter: 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch.
(f) 
Orifice spacing: 30 inches to 72 inches.
(g) 
Diameter of distribution line: Up to four inches.
(h) 
Horizontal spacing of distribution lines: 30 inches to 72 inches.
(2) 
The diameter of the distribution line may vary, depending upon the length of the trenches or mound.
H. 
Manifold and manifold line. The size of the manifold shall be based upon the number, length and discharge rate of the distribution lines. The manifold pipe delivers effluent from the pump to the distribution network. The manifold pipe shall be two inches to six inches in diameter and unperforated. The manifold shall be sloped toward the pump chamber to drain effluent back after dosing.
I. 
Dosing volume. The dosing volume shall be a minimum of 10 times the volume of the laterals, but shall not exceed the daily disposal capacity of the trenches or beds.
J. 
Dosing frequency. The dosing frequency shall be established by the administrative authority on the basis of soil conductivity, but in no event shall be less than two times per day or greater than four times per day.
K. 
Pressure to be maintained in distribution lines. Two feet of head shall be maintained in the pressure distribution system.
L. 
Friction loss. Friction loss for schedule 40 plastic pipe shall be computed on the basis of C = 150.
M. 
Total head loss through the distribution system. Total design head loss shall include an additional two feet of head. A system's head curve shall be included as part of the design calculations.
N. 
Pump manufacturer's model number, size and pump performance curve required. The pump manufacturer's model number, size and pump performance curve shall be supplied to the administrative authority.
O. 
High water alarm system and pump chamber control system.
(1) 
The control system for the pump chamber shall consist of controls for operating the pumps and an alarm system to detect malfunctioning of a pump. Pump controls shall be capable of alternating operation of the pumps. Pump controls shall allow flexibility in adjusting the on/off depth.
(2) 
The size of the pump chamber shall be determined by the number of realty improvements served and dosing frequency, but in no event shall it be less than 1,000 gallons. A standard septic tank may be used as a pump chamber. The pump chamber shall be watertight.
(3) 
The use of pressure diaphragm switches in the pump chamber control system is prohibited and mercury level control switches are required. Adjustable weight switches consisting of a control located above the water level and two weights attached to a single cable which extends into the liquids are required.
(4) 
The alarm system shall consist of a bell and light, which shall be located so that the same may immediately be seen or heard by the legal entity responsible under § 131-12 for maintenance, operation, repair and replacement of the system. The high water warning switch shall be installed two inches above the depth set for the "On" pump control. Alarm systems shall be installed on a separate circuit from the electrical service with battery-powered standby, which battery-powered standby shall be recharged by a battery charger connected to commercial power or the emergency generator referred to in Subsection P. Remote alarms are also required and shall terminate at a central alarm company via telephone lines maintained by the legal entity responsible under § 131-12 for maintenance, operation, repair and replacement of the system.
P. 
Electrical connections and emergency generators. Electrical connections shall be located outside the pump chamber. All wiring to the pump chamber shall be installed in conduit. All electrical work shall be completed in accordance with the National Electrical Code. All electrical components shall be Underwriters Laboratory labeled. An emergency generator having an automatic transfer switch and sized to handle peak power demands shall be provided. Buried full storage capacity for the emergency generator shall be sufficient to provide 12 hours of pump operation. The generator, electrical panel/electrical system, starting batteries and other generator controls shall be housed in a weatherproof enclosure.
Q. 
Wash down water system. A nonpotable well shall be installed to provide a guaranteed continuous safe yield of 15 gallons per minute. The submersible well pump shall have a minimum capacity of 12 gallons per minute 25 psi with a single phase 11 5/230 motor. All water service piping shall be self-draining and freeze protected.
[1]
Editor's Note: Figure 1 is located at the end of this chapter.

§ 131-14 Pressure distribution systems which discharge effluent into trenches, beds or disposal fields.

In addition to the requirements of § 131-13, the following standards shall apply to pressure distribution systems which discharge effluent into trenches, beds or disposal fields:
A. 
Aggregate. Aggregate shall be placed to a minimum depth of 18 inches beneath the distribution pipe and to the level of four inches above the pipe, spread evenly.
B. 
Inspection by authorized agent. The authorized agent shall inspect pressure distributions which discharge effluent into trenches, beds or disposal fields at commencement of the placing of the aggregate and while the distribution piping is being installed. A pressure test of the nonperforated sections of the system shall be performed in the presence of the authorized agent at the time of inspection.

§ 131-15 Pressure distribution systems which discharge effluent into mounds.

In addition to the requirements of § 131-13, the following standards shall apply to pressure distribution systems which discharge effluent into mounds:
A. 
Depth to restrictive layers or bedrock. There shall be at least four feet of unsaturated natural soil over restrictive layers or bedrock. Mounds shall be constructed such that there is a minimum of four feet of unsaturated soil between the gravel envelope and impervious formations.
B. 
Depth to seasonally high groundwater. There shall be at least four feet of unsaturated natural soil over seasonally high groundwater as indicated by soil mottling. There shall be four feet of unsaturated soil beneath the gravel envelope of the mound system.
C. 
Slope of existing terrain.
(1) 
A mound shall not be installed on a slope which is greater than 12%. (See Table 1 of § 131-15E.)
(2) 
Location of mound on sloping sites. The mound shall be located so that the longest dimension of the mound and the distribution lines are perpendicular to the slope. The mound shall be placed upslope and not at the base of a slope. If there is a complex slope (two directions), the mound shall be situated so that the effluent is not concentrated in one direction. Surface water runoff shall be diverted around the mound.
D. 
Side slope for mounded systems. Side slopes for mounded systems must be no greater than a three-to-one slope (horizontal to vertical).
E. 
Design. Mound systems shall be designed in accordance with the EPA Design Manual for On Site Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems. The disposal area shall be designed using the following method for sizing:
(1) 
Determine soil texture using USDA Classification.
(2) 
Determine loading rate (GPD/feet).
(3) 
Determine vertical hydraulic conductivity (centimeters/day) (feet below existing grade).
(4) 
Determine depth to seasonally high water table.
(5) 
Determine depth to bedrock or impermeable layers (feet).
(6) 
Determine existing grade (% slope).
(7) 
Determine design flow (GPD).
(8) 
Determine size absorption area (feet2).
(9) 
Calculate absorption area dimensions.
(a) 
Determine bed length (B).
(b)
Bed width (A)
=
Absorption Area
 
   Bed Length
 
(10) 
Calculate mound dimensions. (See Figure 2.)[1]
(a) 
Mound height:
[1] 
Fill depth (D) = 1 foot (minimum).
[2] 
Fill depth (E) = D + (slope x A).
[3] 
Bed depth (F)= 9 inches (minimum, as long as there are 2 inches above and 6 feet below lateral).
[4] 
Cap at edge of bed (G) = 1 foot (minimum).
[5] 
Cap at center of bed (H) = 1.5 feet (minimum).
(b) 
Mound perimeter:
[1] 
Downslope setback (I) = (E+F+G) x (slope) (slope correction). (See Table 1.)
[2] 
Upslope setback (J) =(D+F+G) x (slope) (slope correction). (See Table 1.)
[3] 
Sideslope setback (K)= (D+E) + F + H x (slope). 2
[4] 
Basal area required = (B) x (I + A).
TABLE 1
Downslope and Upslope Width Corrections for Mounds on Sloping Sites
Slope Percent
Downslope Correction Factor
Upslope Correction Factor
0
1.0
1.0
1
1.03
.97
2
1.06
.94
3
1.10
.915
4
1.14
.89
5
1.18
.875
6
1.22
.86
7
1.27
.83
8
1.32
.80
9
1.38
.785
10
1.44
.77
11
1.51
.75
12
1.57
.73
[1]
Editor's Note: Figure 2 is located at the end of this chapter.
F. 
Mound materials.
(1) 
Fill material. The following types of fill material are required for construction of a mounded system:
(a) 
Aggregate shall be 1 1/2 inches to two inches crushed stone or washed gravel. Limestone or dolomite shall not be utilized. The minimum thickness of the aggregate shall be four inches above and 18 inches below the laterals. The aggregate must not extend more than three feet outward beyond the limit of the laterals.
(b) 
Filler sand shall meet the specifications for select fill and shall be emplaced below the aggregate.
(2) 
Clay cap/barrier. A minimum of six inches of clay shall be employed for the entire clay cap of all mound systems. The administrative authority shall determine the appropriate thickness of the clay cap/barrier based upon the slope and particular edge of the mound on which it is being installed.
(3) 
Topsoil. Topsoil shall be used to cover the mound to a depth not less than six inches, and this shall be planted with a variety of grasses.
G. 
Construction.
(1) 
To avoid smearing of native soils and the possibility of settlement after construction, site preparation must not be undertaken when the ground is wet or frozen.
(2) 
The soil horizon upon which the select fill will be placed must be plowed or disced perpendicular to the slope to achieve a good transition zone between the filter material and the native soil and to discourage lateral migration of the percolating effluent at this interface.
(3) 
Plowing shall be to a depth exceeding six inches, but not exceeding nine inches. Rototilling is prohibited.
H. 
Operation and maintenance. The pump chamber or siphon shall be kept free of excess solids. Vegetal cover shall be maintained intact on the mound and erosion prevented.

§ 131-16 Alternate design.

A. 
Where a system design other than that described in this article is proposed, the applicant must submit the design to the administrative authority and the Department concurrently. This proposal must be accompanied by a written statement justifying such a design, containing, as a minimum, the following information:
(1) 
The reasons for proposing the alternate design.
(2) 
Information regarding the proposed system's reliability and capability to treat sewage wastes.
(3) 
Other such information relied upon by the applicant in proposing the particular alternate design.
B. 
The Department of Environmental Protection and administration authority request additional information relative to the above. The Department and administrative authority shall approve or disapprove with regard to the technical adequacy of the proposal and its impact upon groundwaters and surface waters and shall notify the applicant.

§ 131-17 Determination of soil characteristics.

A. 
Double ring infiltrometer test. Vertical hydraulic conductivity shall be determined by the double ring infiltrometer test as performed by an approved professional. When there are sufficient number of cobbles, stones, gravel, etc., in the soil so that the infiltrometer rings cannot be properly inserted, it will be necessary to perform other specific tests to determine the soil suitability. The use of such tests shall first be approved by the administrative authority or its authorized agent.
B. 
Required depth of permeability testing.
(1) 
Slowly permeable soils with or without high groundwater. Permeability tests shall be conducted at a depth of 20 inches to 24 inches from existing grade. If a more slowly permeable horizon exists at less than 20 inches to 24 inches, permeability tests shall be conducted within that horizon which is the more or most restrictive.
(2) 
Shallow permeable soils over creviced bedrock. Permeability tests shall be conducted at a depth of 12 inches to 18 inches from existing grade. If a more restrictive horizon exists within four feet, permeability tests shall be conducted within that horizon.
(3) 
Permeable soils with high groundwater. Permeability tests shall be conducted at a depth of 20 inches to 24 inches from existing grade. If a more slowly permeable horizon exists at less than 20 inches to 24 inches, permeability tests shall be conducted within that horizon.
C. 
Determination of seasonably high water table and test pit requirements.
(1) 
The level of seasonally high water table shall be determined by the highest level of soil mottles. This visual determination shall be made by an approved professional in accordance with the following requirements:
(a) 
A minimum of four test pits shall be made for each proposed disposal area. All pits shall be at least 10 feet deep and one such pit shall be on each side but immediately outside the limits of the proposed disposal bed area. The face of each test pit shall be exposed to direct sunlight during the visual examination. The pits shall be dug within 72 hours of visual examination by the approved professional.
(b) 
Identifying location.
[1] 
The approximate seasonal high water table location may be initially identified by inspection pipes or existing ponds or pits around the perimeter of the proposed disposal area or field examined during the wettest period of the year. Final determination of the seasonal high water table shall be made by an approved professional's visual and textural examinations of the full depth of the test pits. Specific attention shall be paid to the observation of low chroma mottles. The presence of gray mottles with a chroma of two or less is considered sufficient evidence of a seasonal high water table in most soils. In certain soils, three chroma mottles with values of six or seven are indicators of wetness. Relic mottles which do not represent wetness under current climate shall be identified, but will not be used to determine the level of the seasonal high water table.
[2] 
Soils that are wet but do not have low chroma mottles shall be identified and are to be used in determination of the seasonal high water table.
(c) 
All information shall be provided to the administrative authority as a detailed soil log for each test pit on forms supplied by the administrative authority.
(2) 
Color shall be referenced to the code system of the Munsell Color Chart. Soils texture of all horizons within the ten-foot face shall be referenced in accordance with the USDA Guide for Soil Textural Classification (Figure 3).[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Figure 3 is located at the end of this chapter.
(3) 
If the soil logs differ significantly from each other, the authorized agent reviewing the results may require additional test pits.
(4) 
The soils profile or sequence of horizons shall extend from the natural ground surface down at least four feet below the bottom of the proposed disposal bed, even if to a greater extent than the above-stated ten-foot depth.
(5) 
The soil log shall classify the soil types as A, B and C and define the natural drainage characteristics of each horizon using the following terms:
(a) 
Very poorly drained.
(b) 
Poorly drained.
(c) 
Moderately well drained.
(d) 
Well drained.
(e) 
Somewhat excessively drained.
(f) 
Excessively drained.
(6) 
The permeability tests of the soils within the proposed disposal bed area shall be performed in the most restrictive layer below the proposed depth of the disposal bed.

§ 131-18 Operation, cleaning and maintenance of the community sewer disposal system.

A. 
Operation and Maintenance Manual.
(1) 
Prior to initial operation of a community sewage disposal system, the holder of the permit to locate, construct or alter shall prepare an Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Manual, which shall be acceptable to and approved by the administrative authority, its authorized agent and the Township Engineer. The following elements must be included therein:
(a) 
Subdivision site plan showing the collecting system.
(b) 
As-built construction drawings of the system.
(c) 
Flow diagrams and schematics.
(d) 
Wiring diagrams and schematics.
(e) 
Manufacturers' data on all components.
(f) 
Parts list.
(g) 
Description of start/stop, testing and operating procedures.
(h) 
Troubleshooting guide.
(i) 
Routine maintenance check list.
(j) 
Emergency telephone list.
(2) 
The holder shall file one copy of the manual with the authorized agent and the Township Engineer. One copy shall be stored in the weatherproof generator enclosure as provided in § 131-13P.
B. 
Management of operations.
(1) 
The person engaged to maintain, operate, repair and replace a community sewage disposal system or designated operator, as described in § 131-19E, shall be a licensed treatment plant operator, Grade S-3 or higher.
(2) 
The name of the designated operator as described in § 131-19E shall be provided to the administrative authority, Township Engineer and Police Department. This information shall be kept current, and changes in the operator shall be made by contract amendment. The operator shall be on-call 24 hours per day. Alternate or backup operators who are familiar with the system shall be designated so that emergency service will always be available.
(3) 
The designated operator shall be responsible for the following:
(a) 
Operation of the system.
(b) 
Compilation of accurate operational and maintenance records.
(c) 
Communication with and education of the holder of the permit to operate regarding potential problems with operation and maintenance.
(d) 
Assistance with budget preparation.
(e) 
Awareness of safety hazards connected with wastewater.
(4) 
The operator shall be available to discuss system operation with the holder of the permit, Township officials or other authorized persons. The operator shall also keep informed of new and improved operating and maintenance practices, including participation in adult school or extension courses when available. Such attendance shall be reported to the administrative authority.
C. 
Emptying and cleaning of subsurface sewage disposal system.
(1) 
General. Only equipment approved for this purpose shall be used in cleaning facilities used for the reception or storage of sanitary wastes.
(a) 
Mobile tanks shall be securely mounted on trucks and shall be watertight and provided with a leakproof cover.
(b) 
Mobile tank venting shall be provided with a vent constructed in a manner that will permit the escape of gases but not liquid contained therein.
(c) 
Pumps shall be maintained in a condition that will prevent leakage of sewage.
(d) 
Hose. Only suction or pressure hose in good repair shall be used.
(2) 
Operation. The operation shall be so conducted that no waste material will be deposited on the ground adjacent to the structure being cleaned. If any spillage occurs, it shall be removed and the affected area shall be treated with lime.
(3) 
Disposal.
(a) 
Contents resulting from the emptying and cleaning of various elements of the subsurface sewage disposal systems shall be conveyed in appropriate mobile tanks and disposed of only in a manner approved by the administrative authority.
(b) 
One of the following methods of disposal shall be used by the collector:
[1] 
A sewage treatment plant having adequate capacity to treat such wastes as approved by the Department.
[2] 
A landfill operating in compliance with state regulations and approved for sewage disposal.
[3] 
Any other method of disposal approved by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.
D. 
Operation of the pump station, collection system and trench or mound disposal system.
(1) 
Pumping station. The pumping system is automatic, but its operation is dependent upon the surveillance and other manual action of the designated operator. The operator shall perform the following duties at the indicated intervals and record the data on a log as described in Subsection F:
(a) 
On a weekly basis. Inspect wet well, clean pump screens, record electric meter readings, check operation of the controls of the pumps and alarms and wash down as required, throw main switch and start generator motor, check controls and operation for approximately 30 minutes - periodic exercise under load for 15 minutes is mandatory and inspect valves in the pump station and the disposal fields. In season, mow grass and trim shrubbery.
(b) 
On a monthly basis. As part of preventative maintenance, parts shall be inspected and replaced if necessary.
(c) 
On a quarterly basis. Test a water sample from each monitoring well for water level, fecal coliform, nitrates and chlorides. The results shall be recorded in the log. Any sample which exceeds the limits indicated in the State of New Jersey's Surface and Ground Water Standards shall be immediately reported to the Township.
(d) 
On an annual basis. Check the capability of each pump (discharge capacity under 150% of operating pressure).
(2) 
Emergency operations and malfunctions.
(a) 
In the event of an operational failure at the pump station, an alarm, visible and audible at the station, will be transmitted to a central alarm company, who in turn will notify by telephone the designated operator and the authorized agent, if during regular business hours, otherwise no later than the next business day. The operator shall then visit the site, take corrective action and record such action in the log book.
(b) 
In case of a power failure, an alarm will be activated as described above and the motor generator will start automatically if required. The operator shall thereafter visit the site and check the engine gauges to make sure they are within the limits identified in the manufacturer's manual.
E. 
Maintenance of the pumping system. The wet well shall be periodically cleaned and the solids removed regularly and placed into the community septic tank for scheduled removal by a licensed septage hauler.
(1) 
Community septic tanks. The solids shall be measured, recorded and reported monthly and removed when the depth equals 1/6 of the depth of the community septic tank.
(2) 
Individual lot septic tanks. These tanks shall be examined, measured, recorded and reported yearly. They shall be cleaned when the solids or scum is equal to 1/3 the depth of the septic tank.
(3) 
Trench disposal system. The systems shall be alternated on a yearly basis by means of a diversion valve. If necessary and when approved by the administrative authority, the application of oxidizing agents may be used. Handling of such agents is limited to trained individuals.
(4) 
Valves. Valves shall be inspected periodically for proper position (open or closed), leaks and damage. All valves should be exercised at least twice a year to detect inoperability.
F. 
Records.
(1) 
Inventory. A data card shall be maintained for each piece of equipment, which card shall include the following:
(a) 
Date of purchase.
(b) 
Date when placed in service.
(c) 
Date when taken from service, repaired or discarded.
(d) 
Manufacturer's name, address and telephone number.
(e) 
Shop drawings, manufacturer's literature and, if existing, where filed.
(f) 
Operational data. The designated operator shall maintain operational records, to be filed with and in a form acceptable to the administrative authority on a quarterly basis.
(g) 
Maintenance records. The maintenance and monthly inspection log shall be kept by the operator and submitted each year to the administrative authority.
(h) 
Financial records. Documentation of the systems' finances shall be kept in a form acceptable to the administrative authority and homeowners' association.
(i) 
Records of accidents, injuries or other emergencies. In the event of an accident involving personnel, serious pollution resulting from an accident or malfunction of the system and any other emergency situations, a detailed written report explaining the nature and results of such occurrence shall be submitted to the administrative authority. A follow-up report demonstrating that corrective and/or preventative measures and/or equipment have been initiated or installed shall be submitted within 30 days thereafter.

§ 131-19 Administration.

A. 
Permit to locate, construct or alter community sewage disposal system. Community sewage disposal systems shall not be located, constructed or altered until the administrative authority has reviewed the proposed system and caused the authorized agent to issue a permit to locate, construct or alter a community sewage disposal system, which permit shall precede the issuance of a building permit. The application for a permit to locate, construct or alter a community sewage disposal system shall be filed with the authorized agent, made on forms supplied by the administrative authority or authorized agent, and shall, as a minimum, include the following:
(1) 
A key map locating the property to be served, a sketch map showing the property to be served, the location of the sewerage facilities proposed, the location of any source of potable water supply and any areas designed to provide drainage as defined in N.J.S.A. 40:55D-4, on the same or adjoining premises.
(2) 
The number of bedrooms, including expansion attics for single-family dwellings and the estimated sewage flow for buildings other than a single-family dwelling.
(3) 
A description of the type of sewerage facilities proposed.
(4) 
Results of the soil hydraulic conductivity tests performed in accordance with this article and the soil logs.
(5) 
Depth to seasonally high groundwater table at the proposed disposal field.
(6) 
Lot corners, proposed disposal field sites and subsoil location, staked and so identified.
(7) 
The bylaws, membership assessments and dues and methods of enforcement and collection of delinquent assessments and dues of the homeowners' association responsible for maintenance, operation, repair and replacement of the system.
(a) 
The bylaws shall include the following management responsibilities:
[1] 
Efficient system operation.
[2] 
Operational and management records.
[3] 
Staff requirements, job descriptions and organizational charts.
[4] 
Safety equipment and proper operating tools.
[5] 
Operator training program.
[6] 
Inspection of the system.
[7] 
Budgets and reports.
[8] 
Public relations.
(b) 
The bylaws shall also contain the amount and method of payment for the individual homeowners' share of maintenance and operation of the system, including the community septic tank as well as the individual's own septic tank. In addition, the bylaws shall delineate acceptable uses of the disposal fields, including reserved fields, which uses expressly exclude any active recreation such as ball fields or any other permanent recreational purpose.
B. 
Consideration of application to locate, construct or alter community sewage disposal system. The application for a permit to locate, construct or alter a community sewage disposal system shall first be reviewed by the authorized agent and thereafter considered by the administrative authority. At least seven days' notice of the date on which the administrative authority will consider the application shall be afforded the applicant. If after review of the application the administrative authority determines to approve the application, the authorized agent shall issue a permit to locate, construct or alter a community sewage disposal system to the applicant, at which time location, construction or alteration of the system may begin.
C. 
Applications filed with Department. Copies of all applications for permits to locate, construct or alter community sewage disposal systems and accompanying data shall be filed with or mailed to the Department on the date they are filed with the administrative authority.
D. 
Site inspections. Following issuance of the permit to locate, construct or alter a community sewage disposal system, the administrative authority or its authorized agent shall make sufficient inspections during installation of any community sewage disposal system to determine soil characteristics and that the system has been installed in accordance with the provisions of this article. Inspections must be requested at least 24 hours in advance. Community sewage disposal systems shall not be covered until inspected by the administrative authority or its agent. Any part of the disposal system which is covered without permission shall be uncovered upon the order of the administrative authority or its authorized agent. A site inspection shall be made:
(1) 
Upon completion of excavation(s) and prior to placement of filtering material in each disposal trench or bed.
(2) 
After the filter material has been placed and the distribution line(s) has been set, but not covered.
(3) 
During the connection of the building sewer, distribution line(s) and other pipe to the distribution box(es).
(4) 
Upon completion of installation.
E. 
Permit to operate.
(1) 
No community sewage disposal system shall be operated until a permit to operate or renewal thereof has been issued by the authorized agent to the developer and/or homeowners' association, as the case may be. The homeowners' association which is to become responsible for maintenance, operation repair and replacement of the system shall not become responsible for maintenance, operation, repair or replacement until 100% of the realty improvements to be serviced by the community system have been conveyed, at which time the homeowners' association shall apply for a permit to operate.
(2) 
Application on forms supplied by the authorized agent for a permit to operate shall be made following completion of installation of the system as approved by the administrative authority and the required site inspections. The term of a permit to operate shall be one year. A permit to operate shall not be issued until the developer has posted a two-year maintenance bond, the form and amount of which shall be approved by the administrative authority, with the Township, and the developer has contracted with a person duly qualified under this article to maintain, operate, repair and replace community sewage disposal systems (the designated operator) for the one-year term the permit to operate is sought. A true copy of said contract shall be supplied to the authorized agent.
(3) 
At such time as the homeowners' association makes application for a permit to operate, it shall post a two-year maintenance bond, the form and amount of which shall be approved by the administrative authority, with the Township, and shall contract with a person duly qualified under this article to maintain, operate, repair and replace community sewage disposal systems (the designated operator) for the one-year term the permit to operate is sought. A true copy of the contract shall be supplied to the authorized agent. The holder of a permit to operate shall also maintain general liability insurance for damages resulting from bodily injury, including death, and property damage which may arise out of operation and/or maintenance of the system.
F. 
Renewal of permit to operate. The permit to operate shall be renewed on an annual basis by the authorized agent upon payment of the renewal fee by the entity responsible for maintenance under Subsection E above, filing of a maintenance bond and maintenance contract as set forth in Subsection E above, and provided that the system is not malfunctioning or otherwise being operated in violation of this article.
G. 
Denial of permit to operate or renewal thereof. In the event that a permit to operate or renewal thereof is denied by the authorized agent, a hearing shall be held thereon before the administrative authority within 30 days after request therefor is made by the applicant. At the conclusion of said hearing, the administrative authority shall affirm, alter or reverse the decision of the authorized agent.
H. 
Revised plans and bylaws.
(1) 
Revision of plans of proposed community sewage disposal systems shall be approved only with the written consent of the administrative authority or its authorized agent. Such revision may be deemed necessary if conditions found prior to or during installation warrant such change in order to obtain compliance with the provisions of this article.
(2) 
The bylaws, membership assessments and dues and methods of enforcement and collection of delinquent assessments and dues of the homeowners' association insofar as they pertain to maintenance, operation, repair and replacement of the system shall not be amended or revised without approval of the administrative authority.
I. 
Existing community sewage disposal systems. The provisions of this article shall not be applied to community sewage disposal systems in existence at the time of its adoption or prior to subsequent amendment or revision of its sections. However, any replacement, repair, extension or alteration of any portion of any unit or units of such system shall be made in compliance with the provisions of this article.
J. 
Stop-work orders. The administrative authority or its authorized agent may order all further work in or about any community sewage disposal system which is being installed in violation of this article to be stopped forthwith, except such work as shall be necessary to correct such violation and, thereafter, the work continued without any violation of any of the provisions of the article, and after issuance of any such order and the service of a copy thereof upon any person connected with or working in and about the installation of any such disposal system or any part thereof, no further work shall be done thereon except as aforesaid.
K. 
Interpretation of provisions. These rules, regulations and standards shall be considered the minimum requirements for the protection of the public health, safety and welfare of the residents of West Windsor Township. Any action taken by the Division of Health or its agents under the terms of this article shall give primary consideration to the above-mentioned matters.
L. 
Variances to article provisions. Any request for deviation from the rules, regulations and standards of this article must be made at least 14 days prior to consideration by the administrative authority. Such variances must be heard at a regular public meeting attended by at least five administrative authority members. The administrative authority must state its reasons for approval or denial of said variance request in accordance with the provisions of this article.

§ 131-20 Fees and charges.

See Chapter 82, Fees, § 82-12F.

§ 131-21 Malfunctions; violations and penalties.

A. 
If a community sewage disposal system is not maintained, operated, emptied, inspected or cleaned in accordance with this article or a malfunction should occur, the authorized agent shall give written notice to the holder of the permit to operate describing the deficiencies and ordering it to perform the necessary repairs, maintenance, modification, replacement, cleaning, emptying, pumping or draining within seven days, except in the event of an emergency or imminent health hazard, in which event the authorized agent shall order the holder of the permit to operate to perform the necessary work immediately. The notice shall also contain a provision that failure to correct the deficiencies may result in revocation of the permit to operate and/or a correction of the deficiencies by the administrative authority or authorized agent, the cost of which shall be assessed pro rata against each realty improvement serviced by the system and become a lien and tax on said properties, to be collected and enforced in the same manner as real property taxes. A copy of said notice shall also be mailed to the record owner of each realty improvement serviced by the system.
B. 
If the deficiencies are of an emergent nature or represent an imminent health hazard and the holder of the permit to operate fails to immediately perform the necessary work, the administrative authority or authorized agent may, without further notice, revoke the permit to operate and/or cause the deficiencies to be corrected, the entire cost of which, including administration expenses, as certified by the authorized agent to Township Council, shall be paid by the holder of the permit to operate within seven days of submission of a bill to the holder of the permit to operate by the Township Council and, if not so paid, thereafter assessed pro rata against each realty improvement serviced by the system as a lien and tax on those properties, to be collected and enforced in the same manner as real property taxes.
C. 
If deficiencies of a nonemergent nature are not corrected within seven days or any permitted extension thereof, the administrative authority or authorized agent may without further notice revoke the permit to operate and/or, upon seven days' notice to the holder of the permit to operate and record owners of the realty improvements serviced by the system of a hearing thereon, cause the deficiencies to be corrected, the entire cost of which, including administrative expenses, as certified by the authorized agent to the Township Council, shall be paid by the holder of the permit to operate within seven days of submission of a bill to the holder of the permit to operate by the Township Council and, if not paid, thereafter assessed pro rata against each realty improvement serviced by the system as a lien and tax on those properties, to be collected and enforced in the same manner as real property taxes.
[Adopted by the Board of Health 12-20-1989 by Ord. No. BH 89-2 (Ch. BH:III of the Revised General Ordinances); readopted by the Township Council 4-19-1999 by Ord. No. 99-07]

§ 131-22 Adoption of standards by reference.

There is hereby adopted by reference the code and regulations set forth in N.J.A.C. 7:9A, Standards for Individual Subsurface Sewage Disposal Systems, except as hereinafter deleted, modified, changed or amended. Pursuant to N.J.S.A. 26:3-69.1 et seq., the aforesaid code and regulations, which are printed in book form, are incorporated herein, and three copies of said code, as amended, shall be placed on file in the office of the Health Officer of the Township of West Windsor. The following sections of N.J.A.C. 7:9A are hereby amended as permitted by N.J.A.C. 7:9A-3.1.

§ 131-23 Amendments to the standards for individual subsurface sewage disposal systems. [1]

7:9A-3.4(a)1  Contamination of nearby wells, storm drains, or surface water bodies...
7:9A-3.4(a)5  The system requires pumping three times in any 12 consecutive month period from the date of first use.
7:9A-3.4(b)3  The administrative authority shall be notified in advance of all pumping dates. Assurance must be given that the holding tank will be emptied and the contents disposed of in a manner which complies with all applicable local, state and federal ordinances, statutes and regulations. As a means of confirmation, the owner of the system shall submit to the administrative authority, within 24 hours, written evidence of the date and quantity of sewage, the name of the facility to which the sewage is taken, as well as any other information which is requested by the administrative authority.
7:9A-3.5(c)2.i  Horizontal and vertical location of all components of the proposed system.
7:9A-3.5(c) 2.iii  Locations of existing and proposed buildings, roadways, storm sewers, subsurface drains, wells, ...
7:9A-3.5(c) 2.iv  Existing and finished grade topography ([two] one foot contour...)
7:9A-3.5(c) 2.v  Horizontal and vertical location...
7:9A-3.5(c) 2.xii  Locations of existing and proposed trees and shrubbery whose roots may cause clogging of any part of the system.
7:9A-3.5(c) 2.xiii  Location of existing and proposed driveways, decks, patios, accessory buildings, in ground and above ground pools.
7:9A-3.6(a)  ...The administrative authority or its authorized agent [may] shall require a maximum of [15] 30 business days prior [to] written notice for the purpose of witnessing of soil evaluation or testing procedures. All data acquired by field testing methods shall be signed by the authorized agent or designee to certify on-site test witnessing.
7.9A-3.6(b)  ...Failure of the administrative authority or its authorized agent to be present when [15] 30 business days prior written notice has been given shall not be construed to be a waiver of the witnessing requirements. It shall be incumbent upon the applicant to provide same day telephone notification to the authorized agent prior to commencement of testing in the event of the authorized agent's failure to be present.
7:9A-3.7(d)  "As built" septic system plans shall be submitted prior to the issuance of a certificate of compliance by the administrative authority or its authorized agent. Location information provided on the as-built plan shall be certified by the signature and seal of a New Jersey Licensed Land Surveyor. As-built septic system design specifications shall be certified by the signature and seal of New Jersey Licensed Professional Engineer.
7:9A-3.13(a) Certificate of Compliance.
Prior to the issuance of a certificate of compliance, the administrative authority or its authorized agent shall make sufficient inspections during the course of construction and installation or alteration of the individual subsurface sewage disposal system to determine that the system has been located, constructed and installed or altered in compliance with the requirements of this chapter and the approved engineering design. An on-site inspection must be made.
(i)
Upon completion of excavation(s) and prior to placement of filter material in each disposal trench or bed.
(ii)
During placement and consolidation of sand filter materials if and when required.
(iii)
After the filter stone materials have been placed and the distributions have been laid.
(iv)
After the filter stone, salt hay or geotextile material has been placed over the distribution lines.
(v)
After the connection of the building sewer to the septic tank, and the connecting pipe and laterals to the distribution box. All joints shall be cured prior to inspection.
(vi)
After filling of the septic tank and distribution box with clean water to test for equal distribution and water-tightness.
Inspections must be requested at least 24 (twenty four) hours in advance.
7:9A-3.15(a) 7  As-built plans and certifications submitted to the administrative authority.
7:9A-3.18  Additional requirements for certification of sewerage facilities serving subdivisions involving more than [10] 2 realty improvements.
7:9A-3.18(a)  ...Where more than [10] 2 realty improvements are involved, additional information is required as set forth in (c) below.
7:9A-3.18(c)  For certifications pursuant to N.J.S.A. 58-11-25, of sewerage facilities proposed to serve subdivisions consisting of more than [10] 2 realty improvements, the following information is required in addition to the information required by N.J.A.C. 7:9A-3.5(c).
7:9A-3.18(h)  [Delete as written]
In cases where preliminary Planning Board approval is sought, a minimum of one soil log and one percolation [or permeability] test shall be performed and witnessed pursuant to 7:9A-3.6(a) in the amount of not less than one set per acre or one set per lot, whichever parameter will result in the greater number of tests performed. Additionally, at least one soil log shall be performed for every soil series present within the area of the subdivision as shown on Soil Conservation Survey Maps.
7:9A-4.4(a)  The disposal field [or seepage pit] shall not be located in an area where the slope is greater than 25%.
7:9A-4.4(b)  Where the slope is greater than 10%, no disposal field [or seepage pit] shall be placed less than 50 feet up slope of any bedrock outcrop where signs of groundwater seepage can be detected.
7:9A-4.6(f)  No part of a subsurface sewage disposal system shall be constructed within the New Jersey Flood Hazard Area Design Flood (NJFHADF) Limit (one-hundred-year flood + 25%).
7:9A-4.6(j)  The administrative authority may in its judgment limit the use of areas which it believes may be subject to surface flooding or where seasonally high groundwater may interfere with the satisfactory treatment and disposal through percolation of sewage.
7.9A-4.8  Area Reserved for Sewage Disposal.
(a)  The area used for sewage disposal... or interfere with system maintenance. The disposal field(s), including reserve fields, shall not be used for any purpose which would have a deleterious effect on the system or prevent immediate availability in the case of reserve areas. Vegetative planting upon both primary and reserve disposal areas shall be limited to grass unless otherwise specified by the administrative authority.
(b)  Proposed lots sized less than 32, 670 S.F., ( 3/4 of an acre), which are to be served by an individual subsurface sewage disposal system shall provide a reserve area for an alternate disposal system. The reserve area shall be sized according to the maximum percolation or permeability rate obtained within the reserve area during onsite soil testing.
Testing of reserve areas shall comply with the provisions of N.J.A.C. 7:9A-5.1 et seq.
Construction of an alternate disposal system within the reserve area shall commence in the event of a malfunction of the primary disposal system as defined in N.J.A.C. 7:9A-3.4.
The reserve area may be in the front, rear or side yard and shall comply with the provisions of N.J.A.C. 7:9A-4.3.[2] The reserve area may occupy the area between disposal trenches provided the minimum spacing between trenches (sidewall to sidewall) is increased from six feet to 10 feet and the maximum proposed trench width is two feet.
Lots on which a disposal bed system is utilized shall provide a reserve disposal area which is located a minimum of 10 feet away from the primary disposal bed.
(c)  In all cases where percolation rate in excess of 25 minutes per inch is obtained within soil material proposed to remain in place below the disposal field a reserve disposal area shall be required. The reserve area shall be sized according to the maximum percolation rate obtained within the reserve area.
Testing reserve areas shall comply with the provisions of N.J.A.C. 7:9A-5.1 et seq.
Construction of an alternate disposal system within the reserve area shall commence in the event of a malfunction of the primary disposal system as defined in N.J.A.C. 7:9A-3.4. The reserve area may occupy the area between disposal trenches provided the minimum spacing between trenches (sidewall to sidewall) is increased from six feet to 10 feet and the maximum proposed trench width is 2 feet.
Lots on which a disposal bed system is utilized shall provide a reserve disposal area which is located a minimum of 10 feet away from the primary disposal bed.
7:9A-5.1(a)  When a site ... This determination shall be made based upon soil profile characteristics observed in soil profile pits [and borings] as prescribed in N.J.A.C. 7:9A 5.2....
7:9A-5.2  Requirements for soil profile pits [and borings]
7:9A-5.2(a)  Soil profile pits shall be excavated...present at the site. [Partial substitution for soil profile pits may be made using soil borings as outlined in (b) below.]
7:9A-5.2(b)  A minimum of two profile pits are required for each disposal field. [A minimum of three soil borings may be performed in lieu of the second profile pit, provided that the soil horizons and substrata observed in the borings are not significantly different from those observed in the first profile pit.]
7:9A-5.2(c)  The location of soil profile pits [and borings] for disposal fields shall be as follows:[3]...
7:9A-5.2(c).3. [When soil borings are substituted for the second profile pit ... no further than 15 feet beyond the boundaries of the disposal field.] Reserved
7:9A-5.2(d)  [When a seepage pit(s) is proposed ... no further than 15 feet from the seepage pit.] Reserved
7:9A-5.2(e).l. Profile pits shall be excavated [if possible] to a minimum depth of [10] 13 feet below the existing ground surface or to solid bedrock where encountered. [If the profile pit becomes unstable due to lack of soil cohesion or the presence of groundwater or both the pit may be terminated ... and soil evaluation below the depth of the pit may be carried out by means of three or more soil borings, performed as prescribed in (f) below.]
7:9A-5.2(e).2. [When a seepage pit is proposed, the profile pit...beyond the range of the excavating equipment.]
7:9A-5.2(e).3. It is recommended ... may be accomplished by examination of samples removed by excavating equipment [or by examination of three or more borings, performed as prescribed in (f) below.]
7:9A-5.2(f)  Reserved [Soil borings shall be performed as follows:]
[1. Soil borings shall be...or to solid bedrock where encountered]
[2. Soil borings shall be made ... and does not slump.]
7:9A-5.2(g)  In soil profile pits [and borings] the following characteristics of each recognizable soil horizon ... shall be determined.
7:9A-5.3(a)  A soil log shall be prepared for each soil profile pit [or soil boring].
7:9A-5.6(a).3. When doubt exists as to whether a horizon or substratum should be considered excessively coarse, the administrative authority. Soil horizons or substrata which are tested shall be considered excessively coarse when the measured permeability is faster than 20 inches per hour or the measured percolation rate is faster than three minutes per inch. [Alternatively, soil texture may be verified by textural analysis as prescribed in N.J.A.C. 7:9A-6.3]. In all cases, percolation tests shall be performed to determine if excessively coarse soil horizons are present. Permeability testing shall be performed if and when directed by the administrative authority.
7:9A-5.7(b)  When doubt exists as to whether a soil horizon... The soil horizon or substratum shall be considered to be hydraulically restrictive if the measured permeability is slower than [0.2] 0.6 inches per hour or the percolation rate is slower than [60] 40 minutes per inch.
7:9A-5.8(b).2. Where mottling is not observed, the seasonally high water table shall be determined based upon [either of] the following method[s].
7:9A-5.8(b)2.ii  [During other times of the year, the depth to the seasonally high water table may be obtained from the Soil Conservation Service County Soil Survey Report provided...the highest elevation of the range shall be used as the seasonal high water table.] Reserved.
7:9A-6.1(a)  The design permeability is the basis for determining the minimum required area... When a soil replacement, mound or mounded soil replacement installation is proposed, a minimum of one percolation test shall be conducted within the fill material after it has been emplaced and compacted, [or a tube permeameter test shall be conducted using samples of the fill material... In lieu of this, the permeability class rating method may be used to determine whether the fill material used meets the requirements of N.J.A.C. 7:9A-10.1(f)4]
The administrative authority shall require in all cases that at least four satisfactory percolation tests be performed within the native soil proposed for sewage disposal. At the discretion of the administrative authority, additional permeability testing shall be performed as confirmation of suitability indicated by percolation test results.
7:9A-6.1(c)  The type of tests which may be used shall be determined based upon the purpose of the test and the soil conditions at the depth of the test as shown in Table 6.1 below.
Table 6.1 Type of Test
Test Options:
1
Tube Permeameter Test
2
[Soil Permeability Class Rating Testt] reserved
3
Percolation Test Required in all cases
4
Basin Flooding Test
5
[Pit-bailing Test] reserved
6
[Piezometer Test] reserved
Purpose of Test and Soil Conditions at Depth of Test
Acceptable Test Options
I. Determination of Design Permeability at Level of Infiltration (Conventional Disposal Field), Determination of Design Permeability at Bottom of Excavation (Soil Replacement, Mound or Mounded Soil Replacement) Within the Native Soil, Identification of Hydraulically Restrictive or Excessively Coarse Horizons or Substrata Above the Water Table
A. Sands and loamy sands with single grain structure...1, [2] or 3
B. Other Soil Textures
1. Undisturbed sample can be taken...1, [2] or 3.
2. Undisturbed sample cannot be taken...[2 or] 3.
II. Identification of Massive Rock Substrata
Above the Water Table....... 4
III. Identification of Hydraulically Restrictive Horizons or Substrata and Massive Rock Substrata and Design Permeability at Bottom of Excavation Within the Native Soil (Soil Replacement Mound and Mounded Soil Replacement)
Below the Water Table  NONE ACCEPTABLE
IV. [Design of Seepage Pits.... 3]
Reserved
  [t]  [This test shall not be used in soil horizons or substrata containing coarse fragments in excess of 50% by volume or 75% by weight]
7:9A-6.1(d)  The number and location of permeability tests required shall be as follows:
1.
When the tube permeameter [or the soil permeability class rating] test [are] is used to [determine] confirm percolation test [the] design permeability data at the level of infiltration, or the bottom of excavation for soil replacement, mound and mounded soil replacement, a minimum of [one] four tests shall be conducted within each disposal field and each test shall consist of a minimum of [two] four replicates per test where the variability of test results exceeds the limits allowed in N.J.A.C. 7:9A-6.2(i)2, or where the results of soil profile pits [or borings], made as prescribed in N.J.A.C. 7:9A-5.2 indicate the presence of more than one soil type within the area of the disposal field. When soil tests taken ... the most restrictive conditions found within the area of the disposal field.
2.
When the basin flooding test, [the pit bailing test or the Piezometer test are] is required for identification of limiting zones, a minimum of [one] two tests shall be required rwithin and no further than 15 feet beyond ft boundaries of each disposal field. The administrative authority may require more than [one] two tests where conditions vary from one part of the disposal field to another.
3.
In cases where a [pit bailing or] basin flooding test or part of a test pit has been excavated within the boundaries of the proposed disposal trench or bed... in the soil below the disposal bed or trench.
7:9A-6.1(e)1. When the percolation test is used ... a minimum number of percolation tests based upon the size of the proposed disposal field as follows:
Size of Disposal Field
(square feet)
Minimum Number of Tests
Less than 1500
[2]
4
1500 - 3000
[3]
5
3000 - 4000
[4]
6
4000 - 6000
[5]
7
7:9A-6.1(e)2. When the accuracy of a percolation test is questioned... The [average] most restrictive of the results obtained from replicate tests at a given location within the disposal field shall be used for design purposes or for determination of soil suitability of that location.
7:9A-6.1(e)4. [When a percolation test is abandoned due to lack of measurable percolation, this test may be disregarded provided ... replicates taken at that location yield measurable percolation rates.]
When a percolation test is abandoned due to lack of measurable percolation, the horizontal and vertical location of said test shall be considered unsuitable for on site sewage disposal.
7:9A-6.1(e)7. [When a seepage pit is proposed ... the presence of a limiting zone is in question] Reserved.
7:9A-6.1(g)  When the results of a permeability test or a percolation test... When the tube permeameter test [or the soil permeability class rating method] is used ... for verification of soil permeability. All cost associated with such verification shall be the sole responsibility of the applicant. In cases...of soil suitability.
7:9A-6.2(c)  When the tube permeameter test is used, a minimum of [two] four tests each consisting of [two] four replicate samples shall be taken and the procedures outlined in this section shall be followed... It is recommended that more than [two] four replicate samples be taken to avoid the necessity of resampling...
7:9A-6.2(j)2. When the purpose of the test is to identify a hydraulically restrictive horizon or substratum above the water table, the horizon or substratum in question shall be considered hydraulically restrictive if the [average] slowest permeability of the replicate samples tested falls within soil permeability class K0 or K1 as defined in (i) 1 above.
7:9A-6.2(j)3. When the purpose of the test is to identify an excessively coarse horizon or substratum above the water table, the horizon or substratum in question shall be considered excessively coarse if the [average] fastest permeability of the replicate samples tested falls within permeability Class K5 as defined in (i) 1 above.
7:9A.6.2(K)2  When the purpose of the test is to identify a hydraulically restrictive horizon or substratum above the water table, the horizon or substratum in question shall be considered hydraulically restrictive if the slowest permeability of the replicate samples tested falls within soil permeability class K0 or K1 as defined in (i) 1 above.
7:9A-6.3 [Soil Permeability Class Rating] reserved
7:9A-6.4(d)  In sandy textured soils, including sands [,] and loamy sands, [and sandy loams] where a rapid percolation rate is anticipated... If this time is less than [60] 40 minutes, the test procedure may begin as prescribed in (e) below without further pre-soaking. If water remains in the test hole after [60] 40 minutes, the hole must be pre-soaked as prescribed in (c) above before proceeding with the test.
7:9A-6.4(e)1. Step One. If water remains.... the test shall be terminated and the percolation rate shall be reported as greater than [60] 40 minutes per inch.... If no water remains ... two tenths of an inch.
7:9A-6.4(f)1. When the purpose of the test is to determine the design permeability... If any of the measured percolation rates are slower than [60] 40 minutes per inch or faster than three minutes per inch the application shall not be approved. [A percolation rate may be the result of a single percolation test or the average of several replicate tests as allowed in N.J.A.C. 7:9A-6.1 (e)2.]
7:9A-6.4(f)2. When the result of [the] a test[(s)] is [an average] a percolation rate slower than [60] 40 minutes per inch, the horizon or substratum in question shall be considered hydraulically restrictive.
7:9A-6.4(f)3. When the result of [the] a test[(s)] is [an average] a percolation rate faster than three minutes per inch, the horizon or substratum in question shall be considered excessively coarse.
7:9A-6.4(f)4. [When a seepage pit is proposed ... shall be excluded from this computation] Reserved
7.9A-6.5  [Pit-bailing test] Reserved
7.9A-6.6  [Piezometer test] Reserved
7:9A-7.1(c)  Individual subsurface sewage disposal systems shall not be designed in a manner that will permit a direct or indirect detectable discharge of sanitary sewage or septic tank effluent onto the surface of the ground, into a subsurface drain or storm sewer, or into any water course.
7:9A-7.6  Type of System
Each system approved by the administrative authority pursuant to this chapter shall consist of a septic tank which discharges effluent through a gravity flow, gravity dosing or pressure dosing network to a disposal field as hereafter described. [Seepage pits shall not be approved for new installation except in the case of a greywater system as provided by in N.J.A.C. 7:9A-7.5]. Seepage pits are prohibited from use in West Windsor Township due to the health hazards associated with the potential for pollution of underground water supplies. [Installation of a seepage pit may be approved as an alteration for an existing system subject to the requirements of N.J.A.C. 7:9A-3.3].
Disposal beds shall only be permitted when special approval of the administrative authority has been granted requests for special permission to construct a disposal bed shall be accompanied by relevant soil data including but not limited to U.S.D.A. soil logs, percolation or permeability test data for each soil horizon or substrata occurring within the proposed zone of treatment, existing and proposed grade elevations, elevations of the top and bottom of the proposed zone of treatment and a statement from the design engineer indicating the basis upon which special permission is requested. Mounded individual subsurface sewage disposal systems shall only be permitted when special approval of the administrative authority has been granted When a mounded system is proposed, a minimum 1.5 acre lot shall be provided. Additionally, an alternating mound (dual system) shall be provided and a reserve disposal area shall be tested and provided in reserve for potential future use.
7:9A-8.2  Septic Tanks
(a)
The surface of a two compartment septic tank shall be required for all subsurface wastewater disposal systems. Use of...
(d)
[Multiple compartment septic tanks shall be required for institutional and commercial installations where the daily volume of sewage determined as prescribed in N.J.A.C. 7:9A-7.4 is greater than 1 000 gallons. When multiple compartment tanks are used the following shall be required]
Multiple compartment septic tanks shall be required in all individual subsurface sewage disposal systems and shall meet the following specifications:
1.
The total capacity...
2.
Not more than...
3.
Multiple compartments...
(e)
Septic tanks shall be designed... All joints below the liquid level of the tank or below the seasonally high water table shall be provided with a permanent water-tight seal. A water test to verify absence of leaks shall be witnessed by the authorized agent prior to backfilling around two piece septic tanks.
7:9A-8.2(i)4. [Upright cylindrical tanks shall have a minimum diameter of 52 inches. Horizontal cylindrical tanks shall have a minimum length of 72 inches and a minimum width at the liquid level of 36 inches]
Circular septic tanks shall not be permitted.
7:9A-9.2(b)2. The dose volume shall be determined based upon.. the manifold and the laterals.
Soil Permeability
(in/hr)
Percolation Rate
(min/in)
Required Dose Volume-Gravity Dosing
Required Dose Volume-Pressure Dosing
6-[20] 16.5
3-15
Minimum of 75% V1 Maximum of 25% Q
Minimum of 10 V4 Maximum of 25% Q
[0.2] 0.6 - 6
15 - [60] 40
Minimum of 75% V Maximum of 100% Q
Minimum of 10 V Maximum of 100% Q
7:9A-9.2(b)3. Reserve capacity is the...
  Appendix A. A minimum reserve capacity equal to the daily volume of sewage shall be required [except where a stand-by pump is provided which is equivalent in performance capacity to the primary pump and which will switch on automatically in the event that the primary pump malfunctions].
7:9A-9.2(f)  Dosing may be accomplished by means of a pump when either gravity dosing or pressure dosing is used. Duplicate pumps [may] shall be required by the administrative authority. The stand-by pump shall be equivalent in performance capacity to the primary pump and shall switch on automatically in the event that the primary pump malfunctions.
The following requirements shall be met:
7:9A-9.4(a)(5)iv  A permanent concrete monument shall be installed flush with finished grade directly over the distribution box(es).
7:9A-10.1(a)  A disposal field shall be required for all new systems [except as allowed in N.J.A.C. 7:9A-7.6 in which case a seepage pit may be approved in lieu of a disposal field]. The disposal field shall...
7:9A-10.1(d) 2. Suitable soil within the zone of treatment shall meet the following criteria:
i.
Coarse fragment content less than 50% by volume.
ii.
Permeability less than [20] 16.5 inches per hour and greater than [0.2] 0.6 inches per hour, or percolation rate slower than three minutes per inch and faster than [60] 40 minutes per inch.
7:9A-10.1(d) 4. iii. The bottom of the shallowest soil profile pit [or boring] made within the area of the disposal field.
7:9A-10.1(e) 1. The zone of disposal shall be composed of native soil or rock material which has a permeability more rapid than [0.2]0.6 inch per hour or a percolation rate more rapid than [60] 40 minutes per inch.
7:9A-10.1(e) 2. [When the permeability in the zone of disposal has been determined, as prescribed in N.J.A.C. 7:9A-6, to be two inches per hour or faster, the minimum required thickness of the zone of disposal may be reduced to two feet. This determination shall not be made using the percolation test or basin flooding test;] Reserved
7:9A-10.1 (e) 4. iii. The bottom of the shallowest soil profile pit [or boring] made below the disposal field.
7:9A-10.1 (f) 4. When fill material is utilized within the zone of treatment, the fill shall meet the following requirements:
I.
Coarse fragment content less than 15 percent by volume or less than 25 percent by weight;
II.
Textural analysis, based upon the USDA system of classification, (composition by weight of size fraction passing the 2 millimeter sieve): [from 85 to 95 percent sand,] from 80 to 90 percent medium sand, or coarser, [from five to 15 percent silt plus clay,] from 10 to 20 percent fine sand, very fine sand, silt and clay, with a maximum 5 percent silt and clay, and a minimum two percent clay; and
III. Permeability from two to [16.5] 20 inches per hour; or percolation rate from [6] 3 to 30 minutes per inch.
IV.
Fill material used within the zone of treatment shall be homogeneous in composition with respect to the distribution of coarse fragments and soil separates.
7:9A-10.1(f) 5. When fill material is placed within the zone of disposal, the fill material shall meet the following requirements:
I.
Textural analysis (composition, by weight, of size fraction passing the two millimeter sieve): [85] 80 percent or more medium sand [;], or coarser; and
II.
Permeability greater than two inches per hour; or percolation rate faster than 30 minutes per inch.
III.
Fill material used within the zone of disposal shall be homogeneous in composition with respect to the distribution of coarse fragments and soil separates.
Table 10.2(b) Minimum Required Disposal Trench Length Per Gallon of Daily Sewage Flow L/Q
(ft./gal. per day)
L/Q (ft/gal per day)
Trench Width (feet)
Permeability
(inches per hour)
Percolation Rate
(minutes per inch)
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
6-20
3-15
0.65
0.54
0.46
0.40
2-6
16-30
0.83
0.69
0.59
0.52
0.6-2
31-[45] 40
1.03
0.85
0.73
0.64
0.2-0.6
[46-60] over 40
[1.18
0.98
0.84
0.74]
Not acceptable
Table 10.2(c)
Minimum Required Disposal Field Bottom Area Per Gallon of Daily Sewage Volume A/Q
(ft/gal per day)
Permeability
(inches per hour)
Percolation Rate
(minutes per inch)
A/Q
(feet per gal per day)
6-20
3-15
1.61
2-6
16-30
2.08
0.6-2
31-[45] 40
2.56
0.2-0.6
[46-60] over 40
[2.94] Not acceptable
(1) Additional Requirements.
a. Where garbage disposal units are installed or proposed, the value obtained from this table shall be increased by a factor of [25] 50 percent for use in disposal field sizing.
b. When the size ... of the test method.
7:9A-10.3(e)  Filter material shall meet the following requirements:
1. Filter material shall cover the distribution lines and extend the full width of the trench or bed, shall extend between [12 and 18] 18 and 20 inches deep beneath the bottom of the distribution lines and shall extend at least two inches above the top of the lines.
7:9A-10.3(e)3. The filter material shall be covered with drainage fabric, [untreated building paper] or a four to eight inch thickness of salt-hay [or straw] as the laying of the distribution lines progresses. When drainage fabric [or untreated building paper] is used the following requirements shall be met:
Subchapter 11. [Seepage Pits] Reserved
7:9A-11.1  [Site/soil requirements]
(a)
[Seepage Pits...
1.
2.
3.
...of the seasonally high water table]
Reserved
7:9A-11.2  [Design Requirements] Reserved
[(a)
[The percolating area...]
[(b)]
[(c)
...less than 110 square feet]
[Average Percolation...         Minimum Area...]
[Over 40                          Not Acceptable]  
Reserved
7:9A-11.3  [Construction Requirements] Reserved
(a)
[Seepage pits...
(b)
(c)
(d)
... access by children]
Reserved
7:9A-1 2.8  Abandoned Systems
The administrative authority shall be notified at least 48 hours in advance of the filling of all systems to be abandoned in this manner. The process may be witnessed at the discretion of the administrative authority.
[1]
Editor's Note: This section is a direct amendment of the code and regulations set forth in N.J.A.C. 7:9A, Standards For Individual Subsurface Sewage Disposal Systems. Matter enclosed in brackets [thus] is not enacted and is intended to be omitted in the law. Matter underscored thus is new matter.
[2]
Editor's Note: See Minimum Required Separation Distance table located at the end of this chapter.
[3]
Editor's Note: See Figure 1, Location of Soil Profile Pits, located at the end of this chapter.