City of Lebanon, NH
Grafton County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted by the City Council of the City of Lebanon 8-17-1994 by Ord. No. 30; effective 8-10-1994. Amendments noted where applicable.]
GENERAL REFERENCES
Vehicle registration fee exemption — See Ch. 68, Art. II.
Taxicabs — See Ch. 157.
Snow-traveling vehicles — See Ch. 172.

§ 168-1 No parking.

It shall be unlawful for the owner of any vehicle or any person having the custody or control of any vehicle to park said vehicle or permit the same to be parked in violation of the following provisions:
Name of Street
Side
Location
Abbott Street
[Amended 7-5-2006 by Ord. No. 2006-6]
South
Entire length
Aldrich Avenue (West Lebanon)
Both
Entire length
Bank Street
South
Beginning at the intersection with Elm Street and proceeding 40 feet westerly
Barrows Street
[Added 12-3-1997]
South
From the intersection of Hanover Street to the end of Barrows Street
Campbell Street
East
For a distance of approximately 25 feet to the corner of Parkhurst Street and for a distance of approximately 25 feet on the southerly side of Parkhurst Street
Campbell Street
West
Entire length
Church Street
Both
Between South Park Street and Valley Street. Emergency parking is permitted for personnel to respond to fire and ambulance calls.
Commercial Drive (West Lebanon)
[Added 8-4-1999]
Both
Entire length, except for loading and unloading purposes
Court Street
East
Entire length
Crawford Avenue (West Lebanon)
East
Entire length
Crawford Avenue
West
From the Seminary Hill intersection to the edge of the playing field
Eldridge Street
North
From the intersection of Eldridge Street and Hanover Street 335 feet westerly
Elm Street (Lebanon)
East
Between Bank and Parkhurst Streets. A "no parking here to corner zone" is created at the corner of Parkhurst and Elm Streets on the westerly side of Elm Street for a distance of 25 feet.
Elm Street (West Lebanon)
West
From Seminary Hill thence in a southerly direction for a distance of 300 feet
Etna Road
West
Between its intersections with Hanover Street and Heater Road
Evans Drive
[Added 10-1-2003 by Ord. No. 2003-8]
South
From the intersection with Route 120 extending west for a distance of 815 feet
Fairview Avenue
South
From the intersection of High Street westerly a distance of 110 feet
Fairview Avenue
[Added 8-6-1997]
South
From the intersection of High Street to the intersection of Granite Street
Faraway Lane (West Lebanon)
Both
Entire length, between 8:00 p.m. and 8:00 a.m.
Flynn Street
[Amended 8-21-2002 by Ord. No. 2002-3]
South
From Campbell Street west to Court Street
Gould Road (West Lebanon)
Both
Entire length
Green Street
Both
For a distance of 25 feet to School Street
Green Street
[Added 5-21-2003 by Ord. No. 2003-3]
North
From the corner of School Street to the second utility pole on the south side of Green Street (161 feet).
Green Street
[Added 2-5-2003 by Ord. No. 2003-1; amended 5-21-2003 by Ord. No. 2003-3]
South
From the corner of School Street to the first utility pole (60 feet) and from the second utility pole to the corner of Elm Street (485 feet).
Hanover Street
[Amended 4-3-1996]
--
From the point where Route 120 intersects from the northeast to Colburn Park except where indicated by (painted) signed parking spaces
Hanover Street
Both
From the intersection of High Street northerly to the intersection of Hanover Street and Route 120, for school buses
Hanover Street
[Added 4-2-2014 by Ord. No. 2014-2]
West
For a distance of 30 feet south from the driveway entrance to 190 Hanover Street (Tax Map 48, Lot 5)
Heater Road
[Added 8-4-1999]
Both
From the intersection of Old Etna Road and Heater Road to the intersection of Route 120 and Heater Road
Heater Road
East
Between Bixby Street and the Old Etna Road
High Street
East
Between Hanover Street and Mascoma Street
Highland Avenue (West Lebanon)
South
For a distance of 20 feet west of Thomas Avenue, West Lebanon
Hough Street
[Amended 9-20-1995]
North
From 60 feet west of Hanover Street intersection westerly to Granite Street intersection
Hough Street
[Added 8-6-1997]
North
From the intersection of High Street to the intersection of Granite Street
Interchange Drive (West Lebanon)
Both
Entire length
Little Heater Road
[Added 2-5-1997]
West
Entire length
Main Street
East
From the "Dunkin Donut" parking lot southerly to Maple Street
Mascoma Street
Both
Between High Street and the Mascoma Street underpass
Mascoma Street
Both
From a point 200 feet westerly of the west side of Granite Street for a distance of 140 feet on the north side of Mascoma Street and 200 feet on the south side of Mascoma Street in a westerly direction
Mascoma Street
North
From the northwest corner of the Alice Peck Day Hospital driveway cut west for a distance of 250 feet
Mechanic Street and Seminary Hill
Both
From the intersection of High Street westerly to the intersection of Route 12A
School Street
East
For a distance of 25 feet to the Green Street intersection, including both north and south of said intersection
School Street
East
Between Kimball Street and Baker & Hayes driveway
School Street
West
For a distance of 25 feet to the Abbott Street intersection, including both north and south of said intersection
School Street
West
For a distance of 10 feet on either side of the driveway at 10 School Street
School Street
[Added 1-4-2012 by Ord. No. 2011-3]
West
For a distance of 96 feet right in front of 114 School Street
Slayton Hill
Both
From Mechanic Street to the north side of the bridge over the Mascoma River
South Main Street
West
Between Main Street and Glen Road
Spring Street
[Added 7-6-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-2]
Both
From Lewis Court to Pine Street
Spring Street (West Lebanon)
East
Between Highland Avenue and 25 feet northerly
Summer Street Lebanon
North
For a distance of approximately 225 feet from its intersection with Hanover Street
Thomas Avenue (West Lebanon)
Both
For a distance of 20 feet westerly of Thomas Avenue, West Lebanon
Water Street
Residential
From the Valley Street intersection to Spring Street Street underpass
West Street
North
Between Granite Street and High Street
White Avenue (West Lebanon)
[Added 8-4-1999]
East
For a distance of 20 feet in a northerly direction from the intersection of Dana Street
White Avenue (West Lebanon)
West
Entire length

§ 168-2 No stopping, standing or parking.

Except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic, or in compliance with law or the directions of a police officer or official traffic control device, no person shall:
A. 
Stop, stand or park a vehicle:
(1) 
On the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at the edge or curb of a street.
(2) 
On a sidewalk.
(3) 
Within an intersection.
(4) 
On a crosswalk.
(5) 
Between a safety zone and the adjacent curb or within 30 feet of points on the curb immediately opposite the ends of a safety zone.
(6) 
Alongside or opposite any street excavation or obstruction when stopping, standing or parking would obstruct traffic.
(7) 
Upon any bridge or other elevated structure upon a highway or within a highway tunnel.
(8) 
Within 30 feet of any temporary no-parking sign or warning device designating a traffic hazard, construction, detour or a danger to the public. Said signs shall be erected upon the authorization of the Chief of Police.
(9) 
On any railroad tracks.
(10) 
At any place where official signs prohibit stopping.
B. 
Stand or park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except momentarily to pick up or discharge a passenger or passengers:
(1) 
In front of a public or private driveway.
(2) 
Within 15 feet of a fire hydrant.
(3) 
Within 20 feet of a crosswalk at an intersection.
(4) 
Within 30 feet upon the approach to any flashing signal, stop sign or traffic-control signal located at the side of a roadway.
(5) 
Within 20 feet of the driveway entrance to any fire station and on the side of a street opposite the entrance to any fire station within 75 feet of said entrance when properly sign posted.
(6) 
At any place where official signs prohibit standing.
(7) 
At any place marked as a fire lane, whether or not the lane is on private property, such lanes being approved by the Chief of the Fire Department and the Chief of Police.
C. 
Park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except temporarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in loading or unloading merchandise or passengers:
(1) 
Within 50 feet of the nearest rail of a railroad crossing.
(2) 
At any place where official signs prohibit parking.

§ 168-3 Driving and parking on Hanover Street Mall prohibited.

[Added 6-2-1999]
It shall be unlawful for the owner of any motor vehicle or any person having the custody of any motor vehicle to drive or park on the Hanover Street Mall, as shown on the map in Appendix A attached and made a part of this amendment,[1] subject to the following exceptions:
A. 
Based on special circumstances, a person may apply for permission to the City Manager to drive and park on the Hanover Street Mall for a short time need.
B. 
The provisions of this amendment shall not apply to emergency motor vehicles and City-owned motor vehicles.
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix A is on file in the office of the City Clerk.

§ 168-4 Standing or parking positions.

No person shall stand or park a vehicle in a roadway, other than parallel with the edge of the roadway, headed in the direction of traffic and with the right side of the vehicle within 12 inches of the edge of the roadway, except as provided in the following subsections:
A. 
The Highway Department is hereby authorized and directed to mark off individual parking spaces on the public streets, public parking areas and highways of the City, said parking spaces to be designated by lines painted or durably marked on the curbing or surface of the street area, highway or parking lot. At each space so marked off, it shall be unlawful to park any vehicle in such a way that said vehicle shall not be entirely within the limits of the spaces so designated, except that in off-street parking lots, a vehicle that is too large to be confined in one such space may occupy more than one such space.
B. 
When a vehicle, truck, trailer or tractor-trailer is backed to the curb for the purpose of loading or unloading merchandise, the vehicle, truck, trailer or tractor-trailer shall be turned so as to stand as near parallel to the curb as possible. No person shall stand or park a vehicle so as to obstruct the view of any traffic control device from other drivers traveling upon such street.
C. 
No vehicle used for the transportation of merchandise or material shall park within areas which are assigned with the appropriate signs, indicating that such parking is prohibited.

§ 168-5 Loading and unloading zones.

It shall be unlawful for the owner of any vehicle or any person having the custody or control of any vehicle to park said vehicle or permit the same to be parked in violation of the following provisions:
A. 
On the northerly side of North Park Street in front of the Rogers House designated by signs (Loading and Unloading Permitted) with a fifteen-minute time limit.
B. 
On both sides of School Street in front of the school for a distance of 100 feet, with a fifteen-minute time limit between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. while school is in session.
C. 
On the easterly side of the West Park Street traffic island between the northerly end and 50 feet southerly designated by signs (Loading and Unloading Permitted) with a fifteen-minute time limit
[Added 4-3-1996]
D. 
On the southerly side of Orcutt Avenue, 30 feet from the intersection of Orcutt Avenue and Maple Street, designated by signs (Loading and Unloading Permitted) with a fifteen-minute time limit.
[Added 6-17-2015 by Ord. No. 2015-02]

§ 168-6 Winter parking.

A. 
No person shall between the hours of 12:00 midnight and 6:00 a.m. from the first day of December to the first day of April:
(1) 
Park any motor vehicle on any street or sidewalk within the City of Lebanon except any emergency vehicles; or
(2) 
Park any motor vehicle in the Hough Square parking lot, so-called.
(3) 
The Chief of Police may, when deemed necessary because of weather conditions, suspend enforcement of this section upon giving notification of said suspension to the City Manager.
B. 
No person shall between the hours of 1:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m. on the mornings of Monday, Wednesday and Friday from the first day of December to the first day of April:
(1) 
Park any motor vehicle in Lot A (the parking lot adjacent to Hanover Street and the Mall) and Lot C (the parking lot off Flynn Street in the rear of City Hall) so-called.
C. 
No person shall between the hours of 1:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m. on the mornings of Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday from the first day of December to the first day of April:
(1) 
Park any motor vehicle in Lot B (the parking lot adjacent to the Mascoma River, railroad track area and Carter-Witherell Center playground) so-called.

§ 168-7 Parking time limit.

It shall be unlawful for the owner of any motor vehicle or any person having custody of any motor vehicle to park or permit to be parked said motor vehicle for more than five days at any unregulated, all-day parking areas of the downtown City area, or between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m., except Sundays and holidays, in violation of the following:
A. 
For more than three hours in the following areas:
(1) 
The south side of South Park Street.
(2) 
The north side of South Park Street except for up to five spaces which may be designated as "vendor parking" by the Licensing Board.
B. 
For more than two hours in the following areas:
(1) 
The West side of East Park Street, north of six spaces in front of the information booth.
(2) 
The South side of North Park Street.
(3) 
(Reserved)[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Former Subsection B(3), establishing two-hour parking in the parking lot behind the Mascoma Savings Bank building, was repealed 8-21-2002 by Ord. No. 2002-3.
(4) 
The upper parking lot on the west side of Court Street from the stairs leading to the lower parking lot southwesterly (9 spaces) and northeasterly (15 spaces) along the railroad right-of-way, except the 10 spaces west of Court Street directly behind One Court Street (Tax Map 91, Lot 244).
[Amended 8-21-2002 by Ord. No. 2002-3]
(5) 
The north side of Flynn Street.
[Amended 8-21-2002 by Ord. No. 2002-3]
(6) 
The entire parking lot from the rear of the bank building along Hanover Street to the Mascoma River, except for one-hour parking in six spaces next to the Commerce Building wall beyond the three existing handicapped spaces.
(7) 
Along both sides of Hanover Street from 90 Hanover Street (Tax Map 77, Lot 133) to Tax Map 91, Lot 195, and along the westerly side of the so-called Hough Square parking lot off Hanover Street and adjacent to Tax Map 91, Lot Nos. 220 and 221.
(8) 
On the northerly side of Bank Street beginning at Park Street and extending six parking spaces easterly, directly in front of the former Carter building, with one space designated for handicapped parking.
(9) 
Main Street (West Lebanon) from the intersection of Main Street and South Main Street to the intersection of Main Street and Bridge Street, except for thirty-minute spaces on the westerly side of Main Street in front of the West Lebanon Library.
(10) 
The westerly side of High Street.
C. 
For more than one hour on:
(1) 
The northerly side of North Park Street, excluding six fifteen-minute spaces in front of Rogers House and City Hall.
(2) 
On the westerly side of West Park Street.
(3) 
Six spaces next to the Commerce Building wall beyond three existing handicapped spaces.
(4) 
Ten parking spaces west of Court Street directly behind One Court Street (Tax Map 91, Lot 244).
[Amended 8-21-2002 by Ord. No. 2002-3]
(5) 
Two parking spaces along the westerly side of Court Street.
(6) 
The easterly side of Hanover Street from the Mall parking lot to Tax Map 91, Lot 218, and along the easterly side of the so-called Hough Square parking lot off Hanover Street and adjacent to Tax Map No. 91, Lot Nos. 220 and 221.
(7) 
The parking lot( 9 spaces) behind the Mascoma Savings Bank building to Flynn Street.
[Added 8-21-2002 by Ord. No. 2002-3]
D. 
For more than 30 minutes on:
(1) 
The easterly side of East Park Street in front of the Library and Post Office.
(2) 
The westerly side of Main Street in front of the West Lebanon Library between Railroad Avenue and a pedestrian crossing traffic light.
(3) 
Six spaces on the west side of East Park Street at the southernmost end, in front of the Chamber of Commerce information booth.
E. 
For more than 15 minutes on:
(1) 
Three spaces in front of the Rogers House and the GAR Hall on the north side of North Park Street.
(2) 
Three spaces in front of City Hall on the north side of North Park Street.
(3) 
On the northerly side of Hough Street from Hanover Street intersection 60 feet (3 parking spaces) westerly (to the driveway located at property Map 91, Lot 19) subject to the provisions of § 168-2 of this chapter.
[Added 9-20-1995]
(4) 
The 14 spaces directly behind City Hall.
[Added 8-6-1997; amended 8-21-2002 by Ord. No. 2002-3]
(5) 
One parking space on the east side of Campbell Street between Flynn and Parkhurst Streets.
[Added 1-4-2006 by Ord. No. 2006-1]
(6) 
The four spaces in front of 55 School Street (The Little Store).
[Added 8-6-2014 by Ord. No. 2014-3]

§ 168-8 Reserved parking.

A. 
Handicapped parking spaces.
(1) 
Certain parking spaces may be designated for use by physically handicapped and temporarily disabled persons. Such spaces shall be used only by such handicapped person to provide easy access to adjacent facilities. Any such parking space shall be so designated with the universal handicapped symbol or appropriate wording.
(2) 
Any nonhandicapped person using a handicapped parking space shall be in violation of this chapter and subject to the fine provisions of the same as provided.
[Amended 6-1-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-1]
B. 
Loading and public transit spaces.
(1) 
Certain specific locations and/or parking spaces on City streets may be designated by the City Manager for the purpose of parking and/or loading/unloading of public transit vehicles.
(2) 
Any person using the designated spaces for other than public transit vehicles shall be in violation of this chapter and subject to the fine provisions of the same as provided.
C. 
Three parking spaces (60 feet) shall be reserved for school personnel use on the westerly side of School Street (beyond the designated loading/unloading zone and in front of the School Street Cemetery) between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. while school is in session.

§ 168-9 One-way streets.

Except in compliance with law or the directions of a police officer or official traffic control device, no person shall drive a vehicle on the following streets except in the direction indicated:
Name of Street
Direction of Travel
Limits
Chestnut Street
[Added 7-6-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-2]
South
Beginning 100 feet north of the intersection of Spring Street and Chestnut Street
Flynn Street
From Campbell Street to the first entrance into the parking lot to the rear of City Hall
Guyer Street
[Added 8-2-1995]
West
From Mascoma Street to Granite Street
Highland Avenue (West Lebanon)
West
From Prospect Street to North Main Street
Light Street
East
Starting at a point 150 feet east of Granite Street to a point 380 feet east of Granite Street
Memorial Drive
[Amended 7-15-1987]
East
From Bassy Street towards Wolf Road
Pine Street
[Added 11-3-2004 by Ord. No. 2004-3]
North
From the intersection of Spring Street and Pine Street proceeding north a distance of 270 feet
West Street (West Lebanon)
East
From Granite Street to High Street
White Avenue
North
Between Dana Street and Highland Avenue

§ 168-10 (Reserved) [1]

[1]
Editor's Note: Former § 168-10, Barricaded streets, was repealed 6-1-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-1.

§ 168-11 Load limits.

[Amended 6-19-2002]
A. 
During seasonal periods of thaw and/or high groundwater, the Department of Public Works may, by posting signs on any Class IV, V or VI highway in the City, impose limits on the weight of vehicles using that highway which are more restrictive than the limits set forth in RSA 266:17-26. Seasonal weight limits shall be set by the Department of Public Works, when needed to prevent the destruction of the roads through overloading for conditions, and to prevent unreasonable municipal maintenance expenses. A seasonal weight limit will normally be six tons. The timing of posting shall be in accord with current road maintenance practices and technology.
B. 
The City may, for similar reasons, impose weight limits of longer duration on any street or bridge; provided, however, that weight limits which are nonseasonal in duration shall require a vote of the City Council.
C. 
Signs shall be posted at all entrances to the restricted street or portion thereof from other public highways. Signage shall be legible, posted in conspicuous locations, and be of weather-resistant materials.
D. 
Seasonal weight limits under this section shall not apply to City maintenance vehicles or to emergency vehicles, milk trucks or single-axle oil delivery trucks.
E. 
The Director of Public Works, upon a satisfactory showing of need, practical difficulty or unnecessary hardship, shall grant a written exemption for vehicles to exceed the posted weight limit, unless the exemption would, in the Director's judgment, contribute to a condition detrimental to public safety. Such an exemption shall specify in detail the scope and duration of the exemption, and may include reasonable conditions, including requirements for bonding and restoration of the highway. The Director may adopt a form for this purpose.
F. 
The City Council shall hold a public hearing on any weight limit if requested to do so by an impacted business, in accord with RSA 231:191, VII.
G. 
In accordance with RSA 231:191, VI, any person who drives, or causes to be driven on the highways of this City, a vehicle whose weight is in excess of any weight limit which has been properly posted under this section shall be guilty of a violation if a natural person, or guilty of a misdemeanor if any other person; and in addition shall be liable for the cost of restoration of the highway to a condition satisfactory to the Director of Public Works.

§ 168-12 Stop signs.

Stop signs may be located on City streets by vote of the City Council. A certified copy of said vote shall be recorded in the office of the City Clerk.

§ 168-13 Enforcement.

A. 
Any person who receives written notification of violation of §§ 168-1, 168-2, 168-4, 168-5, 168-6, 168-7 and 168-8, with the exception of the violations listed below, shall, within 48 hours of receipt of the notice, either pay a fine of $10 at the Lebanon Police Department or indicate on said notice that he or she contests the allegation of violation. Should a person decide to pay the fine, such payment shall not constitute an admission of guilt, nor a determination of guilt. On receipt of the payment, no further action shall be taken by the Lebanon Police Department or any other law enforcement officer on such violation. Each additional time period violation constitutes a separate offense.
[Amended 12-6-1995; 6-2-1999; 6-1-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-1; 1-18-2006 by Ord. No. 2006-3]
Section
Offense
Fine
168-2A(4)
Crosswalks
$50
168-2B(2)
Fire hydrants
$50
168-2B(7)
Fire lanes
$50
168-8A
Handicapped parking
$50
168-3
Hanover Street Mall
$50
168-14
Motorized vehicle noise and sound system
First offense
Up to $250
Subsequent offense
Up to $500
B. 
The Chief of Police may also designate certain depositories where the above-described payments can be made or may receive payments by mail, in lieu of payment at the Police Department.
C. 
Any person who receives notification of violation of this chapter and who does not pay the charge described above shall be summoned upon complaint, as provided by RSA 47. The penalty for the violation of this chapter shall be a fine equivalent to 150% of the initial fine amount with a minimum penalty to be not less than $20.
[Amended 12-6-1995]
D. 
No person shall allow, permit or suffer any vehicle registered in his/her name to stop, stand or park in this City in violation of the regulations of this City controlling the stopping, standing or parking of vehicles, and the owner or person in whose name such vehicle is registered shall be held as prima facie responsibility for such violation.
E. 
Any vehicle parked in violation of this chapter may be ordered towed away by the Police Department at the expense of the owner or custodian of said vehicle.

§ 168-14 Motorized vehicle noise and sound systems.

[Added 6-1-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-1]
No person shall cause any noise from a motorized vehicle which, due to its volume (considered alone or in connection with its pitch or frequency or other characteristics), has a tendency to annoy or disturb persons of ordinary sensitivity, or to disturb the peace, health, safety, convenience, welfare, or prosperity of such persons within the limits of the City. Acts prohibited under this section include, but shall not be limited to:
A. 
The operation of any stereo sound system or amplifying device so as to be plainly audible 50 feet or more from the vehicle, between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., or 100 feet from a vehicle at all other times.
B. 
The operation or playing of any stereo or vehicle sound system or amplifying device so as to be plainly audible in the interior of a building through closed windows and doors.
C. 
The operation of a motorized vehicle so as to exceed tire traction limits, whether in acceleration, deceleration, or braking; or to race or gun the engine; to rapidly accelerate spinning tires; or to use the vehicle in any manner to create noise which is not incidental to the vehicle’s normal use as a mode of transportation. This subsection shall not apply to sounds made in response to an emergency reasonably perceived by the operator.
D. 
It shall be unlawful for the driver of a commercial vehicle, other than emergency vehicles, to use or operate, or cause to be used or operated within the City of Lebanon, an engine or exhaust brake device designed to aid in the stopping or braking of said vehicle. (Exceptions: Interstate I-89.) As used in this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
[Added 6-6-2007 by Ord. No. 2007-2]
ENGINE BRAKE
An engine-retarding component of a diesel engine that opens the exhaust valve during the engine's compression stroke, resulting in the release of the compressed air from the cylinders into the exhaust system.
EXHAUST BRAKE
An engine-retarding component of a diesel engine that restricts the flow of exhaust gases and results in back pressure in the exhaust system and cylinders.

§ 168-15 Suspension of enforcement.

[Added 6-1-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-1]
The City Manager, after consultation with the Public Works Director and Chief of Police, may temporarily suspend the enforcement of any of the sections of Chapter 168 should he/she deem it to be in the best interest of the City. Such a suspension may either be for a predetermined stated period of time, or for an indefinite period of time until further notice, as the circumstances may warrant.