It is the purpose and intent of this article to ensure that all water supplies under the control of the County and/or the Carroll County Public Service Authority destined for public consumption be pure and not constitute a danger to the public health or safety. This article is designed to satisfy the requirements of the commonwealth's Waterworks Regulations promulgated by the State Department of Health.
The following words, terms and phrases, when used in this article, shall have the meanings ascribed to them in this section, except where the context clearly indicates a different meaning:
- AIR GAP SEPARATION
- The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying pure water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the rim of the receptacle.
- AUXILIARY WATER SYSTEM
- Any water system on or available to the premises other than the waterworks. These auxiliary waters may include water from another purveyor's waterworks; or water from a source such as wells, lakes or streams; or process fluids; or used water. They may be polluted or contaminated or objectionable or constitute a water source or system over which the water purveyor does not have control.
- The flow of contaminants, pollutants, process fluids, used water, untreated waters, chemicals, gases or nonpotable waters into any part of a waterworks.
- BACKFLOW-PREVENTION DEVICE
- Any approved device, method or type of construction intended to prevent backflow into a waterworks.
- The Bureau of Sanitary Engineering of the State Department of Health.
- The owner or person in control of any premises supplied by or in any manner connected to a waterworks.
- CONSUMER'S WATER SYSTEM
- Any water system located on the consumer's premises, supplied by or in any manner connected to a waterworks.
- Any introduction into pure water of microorganisms, wastes, wastewater, undesirable chemicals or gases.
- Any connection or structural arrangement, direct or indirect, to the waterworks whereby backflow can occur.
- DEGREE OF HAZARD
- Conditions derived from an evaluation of the potential risk to health and the adverse effect upon the waterworks.
- The Director of the Public Service Authority (PSA).
- DOUBLE-GATE DOUBLE-CHECK VALVE ASSEMBLY
- An approved assembly composed of two single, independently acting check valves, including tightly closed shutoff valves located at each end of the assembly and petcocks and test gauges for testing the watertightness of each check valve.
- EXISTING GROUND LEVEL
- The level above which surface water will not accumulate under normal conditions.
- FLOOD-LEVEL RIM
- The top edge of the receptacle over which water could overflow.
- HEALTH HAZARD
- Any condition, device or practice in a waterworks or its operation that creates, or may create, a danger to the health and well-being of the water consumer.
- The person having legal title to the property or the person in charge, care and control of the property where the facilities in question are located; also, the tenants of such property.
- The presence of any foreign substance (chemical, physical, radiological or biological) in water that tends to degrade its quality so as to constitute an unnecessary risk or impair the usefulness of the water.
- POLLUTION HAZARD
- A condition through which an aesthetically objectionable or degrading material may enter the waterworks or a consumer's water system.
- PROCESS FLUIDS
- Any fluid or solution, which may be chemically, biologically or otherwise contaminated or polluted, which would constitute a health, pollution or system hazard if introduced into the waterworks. This includes, but is not limited to:
- A. Polluted or contaminated waters.
- B. Process waters.
- C. Used waters originating from the waterworks which may have deteriorated in sanitary quality.
- D. Cooling waters.
- E. Contaminated natural waters taken from wells, lakes, streams or irrigation systems.
- F. Chemicals in solution of suspension.
- G. Oils, gases, acids, alkalis and other liquid and gaseous fluids used in industrial or other processes or for firefighting purposes.
- PURE WATER or POTABLE WATER
- Water fit for human consumption and use which is sanitary and normally free of minerals, organic substances and toxic agents in excess of reasonable amounts for domestic usage in the area served and normally adequate in supply for the minimum health requirement of the persons served.
- REDUCED-PRESSURE-PRINCIPLE BACKFLOW-PREVENTION DEVICE
- A device containing a minimum of two independently acting check valves, together with an automatically operated pressure differential relief valve located between the two check valves. During normal flow and at the cessation of normal flow, the pressure between these two checks shall be less than the supply pressure. In case of leakage of either check valve, the differential relief valve, by discharging to the atmosphere, shall operate to maintain the pressure between the check valves at less than the supply pressure. The unit must include tightly closing shutoff valves located at each end of the device, and each device shall be fitted with properly located test cocks. These devices must be of the approved type.
- SERVICE CONNECTION
- The terminal end of a service line from the waterworks. If a meter is installed at the end of the service, then the "service connection" means the downstream end of the meter.
- SERVICE LINE
- That portion of the waterline from the consumer's side of the water meter to the first water outlet.
- SYSTEM HAZARD
- A condition posing an actual, or threat of, damage to the physical properties of the waterworks or a consumer's water system.
- Any substance of solids or liquids harmful for human consumption.
- USED WATER
- Any water supplied by a water purveyor from waterworks to a consumer's water system after it has passed through the service connection.
- VACUUM BREAKER, ATMOSPHERIC
- A vacuum breaker designed so as not to be subjected to continuous static line pressure.
- VACUUM BREAKER, PRESSURE-TYPE
- A vacuum breaker designed to operate under conditions of static line pressure.
- WATER PURVEYOR
- An individual, group of individuals, partnership, firm, association, institution, corporation, municipal corporation, County or authority which supplies water to any person within this state from or by means of any waterworks.
- All structures, equipment and appurtenances used in the storage, collection, purification, treatment of and distribution of pure water, except for the piping and fixtures inside the building where such water is delivered, as set forth in Code of Virginia, § 32.1-167.
The Public Service Authority is hereby authorized to adopt a cross-connection control program in accordance with this article and the Waterworks Regulations of the Virginia Department of Health. The Director of the Public Service Authority or his designated agent shall, in accordance with the Public Service Authority's duly adopted cross-connection control program, inspect the plumbing in every building or premises served by the Public Service Authority waterworks system as frequently as may be necessary to ensure that such plumbing has been installed and is maintained in a manner as to prevent the possibility of pollution or contamination of the public water supply. The Director shall notify, or cause to be notified in writing, the owner, occupant or authorized agent of the owner of any such building or premises to correct, within a reasonable time set by the Director, any plumbing installed or existing contrary to or in violation of this article and which may create the risk of pollution to the County water supply or otherwise adversely affect the public health.
The Director or his designated agent shall inspect all premises or buildings during reasonable hours and under such circumstances as to minimize the inconvenience to the owner or occupants of the premises or their agents. Should any owner, occupant or agent refuse to allow the Director access to the premises for the purposes of conducting an inspection, or should the Director not be able to contact the owner, occupant or agent for the purposes of obtaining permission to inspect, the Director shall have the right to apply immediately to a Magistrate or other judicial officer for a proper warrant to carry out the necessary inspection. The provisions of this section shall apply to all initial inspections and to such follow-up inspections as may be necessary.
Termination of water.
In addition to the warrant procedure set forth in Subsection A of this section, the Director may commence administrative proceedings to discontinue water service to the uninspected premises. Except in emergency cases involving the imminent risk of pollution of the County water supply, the Director shall give 10 days' written notice to the owner or occupant of the affected premises, or to a responsible agent, of the Director's intention to terminate the water service. The Director shall afford to the owner, occupant or agent a hearing on the question of whether water service shall be terminated. This hearing shall be scheduled and conducted in such a manner that, to the maximum extent feasible, the inconvenience and burden on the owner, occupant or agent shall be minimized. The hearing shall take place before the Director or a designated principal assistant. The Director shall not terminate the water service to the premises in question, if it is found as a fact that:
In all cases, the hearing provided by this subsection shall be scheduled within the ten-day period immediately following the giving of written notice to the owner, occupant or agent. Upon a showing of good cause, the Director may grant a reasonable continuance of the hearing so scheduled, but the Director, nevertheless, shall retain the right to terminate the water service at the expiration of the ten-day notice period if, in his discretion, public health considerations require such action. The Director shall, in all cases, render his decision immediately after the taking of all evidence at the hearing, or as soon thereafter as may be practicable, but in no case later than 24 hours following the termination of the taking of evidence. The Director shall cause his findings of fact and disposition of the case to be reduced to writing and shall preserve the same for a period of one year.
In emergency circumstances where the Director has reasonable cause to believe that a cross-connection hazard exists in the subject premises and that such hazard jeopardizes the integrity or the purity of the County water supply, he shall forthwith terminate the water service to the subject premises. The Director shall thereafter immediately afford the owner, occupant or agent the notice and opportunity to be heard pursuant to the procedures set forth in Subsection B of this section. In all cases where the Director shall summarily terminate water service, as provided under this subsection, the Director shall act with dispatch in notifying the owner, occupant or agent and shall exercise the utmost diligence in scheduling a prompt hearing on the matter.
Notwithstanding the provisions of Subsections A and B of this section, the Director shall not terminate any water service in cases where the Director has reliable information from any sources indicating that cross-connection hazards do not exist on the premises to which access for inspection cannot be gained.
The cross-connection hazard and backflow-prevention devices required shall be as set forth in the chart included as an attachment to this chapter.
When investigation discloses that unusual or extraordinary hazards require more stringent means of protection, the Director shall have the authority to require the installation of the same. The Director shall in all cases specify the facts constituting the greater hazard found to require more stringent protective measures. The more stringent protective measures shall be related to such unusual or extraordinary hazards and shall be no more burdensome than is reasonably necessary to alleviate or guard against such hazards. The Director shall specify in writing to the owner the manner in which the more stringent protective measures alleviate or guard against the unusual or extraordinary hazards.
Cross-connection between approved potable community or noncommunity water systems and other unapproved systems or equipment containing water or other substances of unknown or questionable safety are prohibited, except when and where, as approved by the Director, protective devices such as the reduced-pressure-zone backflow preventer or its equivalent are installed, maintained and tested to ensure proper operation on a continuing basis. The Director of the PSA may deny or discontinue the water service to a consumer if the required backflow-prevention device is not installed. If it is found that the device(s) has been removed or bypassed or if a cross-connection exists on the premises, or if the pressure in the waterworks is lowered below 10 pounds per square inch gauge, the Director shall take positive action to insure that the waterworks is adequately protected at all times. Water service to such premises shall not be restored until the deficiencies have been corrected or eliminated in accordance with the Commonwealth of Virginia Waterworks Regulations and to the satisfaction of the Director.
Devices for the prevention of backflow shall be tested and certified to meet the standards of the agencies listed as follows:
American Society of Sanitary Engineers.
American Water Works Association.
American National Standards Institute.
University of Southern California Foundation for Cross-Connection Control.
Department of Health, Education and Welfare list of accepted equipment for interstate carriers.
In addition, all backflow-prevention devices shall be approved by the State Department of Health. A list of approved devices shall be kept on file in the office of the Director of Public Works.
Certified plans for the following types of facilities shall be submitted in duplicate to the Director prior to construction:
Hospitals, mortuaries, clinics, nursing homes.
Piers, docks, waterfront facilities.
Sewage treatment plants, sewage pumping stations or stormwater pumping stations.
Food and beverage processing plants.
Chemical plants and dyeing plants.
Metal plating industries.
Petroleum processing or storage plants.
Radioactive materials processing plants or nuclear reactors.
Lawn sprinkler systems and irrigation systems.
Fire service systems.
Farms, where the water is used for other than household purposes.
Others specified by the Director, when reasonable cause can be shown for a potential backflow or cross-connection hazard.
Backflow-prevention devices shall be accessibly located, preferably in the same room with the fixture they serve. In all cases, installation shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
Atmospheric vacuum breakers shall be installed with the critical level at least six inches above the flood-level rim of the fixture they serve and on the discharge side of the last control valve to the fixture.
Pressure vacuum breakers shall be installed with the critical level at least 12 inches above the flood-level rim of the fixture they serve.
Reduced-pressure-principle backflow preventers and double-check valve assemblies shall be installed a minimum of 12 inches above existing ground level in an easily accessible location for testing and maintenance.
In order to maintain a program of cross-connection and backflow-prevention control consistent with this article, the Director of Public Works shall perform the following acts:
Initially, a checklist specifying potential hazards shall be sent to each resident served by the County water systems for their review and completion. The completed form shall be returned to the Director of Public Works office.
The Director of Public Works shall review the completed form and require the installation of proper backflow-prevention devices where needed in accordance with this article or with regulations of the State Department of Health.
The owner of any premises where backflow protective devices are installed shall inspect such devices at least once yearly, beginning one year after installation. If the Director concludes that more frequent inspections are required, the Director shall notify the owner of the premises in writing of such finding and shall further specify the basis for such conclusions. The Director shall also promulgate a schedule for more frequent inspections.
Backflow-prevention devices shall be tested, repaired, overhauled or replaced as necessary, at the expense of the water user. Records of such test, repair and overhaul shall be forwarded to the Director.
The Director of the PSA shall notify the owner or authorized agent of the owner of the building or premises in which there is found a violation of this article, apprising such person of the facts of such violation. The Director shall set a reasonable time for the owner to have such violation removed or corrected. Upon failure of the owner to have the violation corrected by the end of the specified time interval, the Director may, if in the Director's judgment a health hazard exists, cause the water service to the building or premises to be terminated.
Any owner or authorized agent of the owner responsible for the maintenance of the plumbing system or backflow-prevention devices in a building who knowingly permits a violation of this article to remain uncorrected after the expiration of the time set by the Director shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.
All cross-connection control program records are to be kept and maintained by the Director of Public Works for a period of 10 years after their effective date.