[R.O. 2007 §400.470; Ord. No. 4742 §1, 11-18-2004]
The purpose of this Article is to assure that off-street parking and loading spaces are provided in such number and manner of construction to accommodate all persons normally using or visiting a use, building or other structure at any one time.
[R.O. 2007 §400.475; Ord. No. 4742 §1, 11-18-2004]
New Development. No structure or land shall be used or occupied and no structure or part thereof shall be erected or constructed unless permanently maintained off-street parking is provided in accordance with this Article.
Previously Existing Regulations. All structures and uses existing at the time of adoption of this Article shall be required to maintain the pre-existing number of parking spaces if fewer spaces than are required by this Article are provided.
Expansions, Alterations And Change In Use. Whenever the use of a structure is changed or enlarged or increased in number of employees, seating capacity or otherwise creating an increase in the required off-street parking, additional parking shall be provided in accordance with this Article on the basis of the change or increase.
[R.O. 2007 §400.480; Ord. No. 4742 §1, 11-18-2004; Ord. No. 5009 §§1—2, 8, 5-16-2006; Ord. No. 6291 §1, 1-12-2017]
The Table 400.480 lists the minimum off-street parking spaces required for motorized vehicles by land use category:
[R.O. 2007 §400.485; Ord. No. 4742 §1, 11-18-2004; Ord. No. 5727 §9, 8-25-2011; Ord. No. 5883 §7, 5-24-2013]
The minimum required number of accessible parking spaces as determined by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) shall be counted toward fulfilling the overall parking requirements listed in Table 400.480. Automobile and van accessible parking spaces shall be required in accordance with Table 400.485(A) and Table 400.485(B) and Section 400.510(16) below:
[R.O. 2007 §400.490; Ord. No. 4742 §1, 11-18-2004]
Bicycle parking facilities shall be required for all commercial, office, institutional, educational and recreational uses throughout the City as deemed appropriate by the Planning and Zoning Commission. Bicycle parking shall be provided at a rate of one (1) rack space per fifteen (15) required automobile parking spaces, with a minimum of four (4) rack spaces per individual building. Bicycle parking racks should be located in close proximity to the main building entrance(s) out of the parking lot in highly visible well lighted areas where the bikes and racks will not interfere with pedestrian or vehicular traffic. Bicycle parking racks should be securely anchored to the ground so that they cannot be moved or easily vandalized.
[R.O. 2007 §400.495; Ord. No. 4742 §1, 11-18-2004; Ord. No. 5009 §8, 5-16-2006; Ord. No. 5883 §8, 5-24-2013]
The following rules apply when computing off-street parking requirements:
Multiple-use buildings. The number of parking spaces required for land or buildings used for two (2) or more purposes shall be the sum of the requirements for the various uses computed in accordance with this Article. Parking facilities for one (1) use shall not be considered as providing the required parking facilities for any other use, unless part of an approved shared parking plan in accordance with the requirements of Section 400.505 below.
Unlisted uses. For uses not specifically listed in Table 400.480 and variations of uses listed in Table 400.480, the Director of Planning and Development shall apply the parking requirements specified for the most similar use listed in Table 400.480 or the specific requirement for that use as identified in the American Planning Association's Planning Advisory Service Report #510/511 "Parking Standards" (2002).
Floor area. All square footage based parking requirements shall be computed on the basis of gross floor area.
Accessible parking spaces. The required number of accessible parking spaces listed in Tables 400.485(A) and 400.485(B) shall be counted toward fulfilling the overall parking requirements listed in Table 400.480.
Car-side to-go pickup spaces. Restaurants that offer car-side to-go pickup service may not count the off-street parking spaces reserved for this service toward fulfilling the restaurant parking requirements listed in Table 400.480.
Fractional spaces. When measurements of the number of required parking spaces results in a fractional number, any fraction shall be rounded up to the next higher whole number.
Occupancy-based standards. For the purpose of computing parking requirements based on employees, residents, students or members, unless otherwise expressly stated, calculations shall be based on the total number, not just the number working on any single shift, etc.
Beds. Bassinets shall not be counted as beds in determining the number of parking spaces based upon the number of beds.
Use of off-street parking spaces. Off-street parking facilities provided for the uses hereinafter listed shall be solely for the parking of motor vehicles in operating condition for patrons, occupants or employees of such uses and shall not be used for the storage of commercial vehicles, boats, recreational vehicles, campers, mobile homes or trailers.
Required Parking For Commercial Establishments Offering Live Entertainment. Any commercial establishment offering live entertainment shall be required to provide off-street parking per the requirements of Chapter 635 of the Municipal Code.
Required Parking For Restaurants, Bars, Taverns And Nightclubs. Any building that was approved with identified tenant(s) whose off-street parking required fewer parking spaces than required for a restaurant, bar, tavern or nightclub may not be used at a future date for a restaurant, bar, tavern or nightclub unless a new site plan has been reviewed and approved by the Planning and Zoning Commission.
Required Parking For Speculative Shopping Centers And Speculative Multi-Tenant Buildings. As first time tenants locate within new speculative shopping centers and speculative multi-tenant buildings, off-street parking shall be calculated and monitored by City staff using the requirements listed in Table 400.480 for the specific tenant uses to assure that as the shopping centers and multi-tenant buildings reach full occupancy, remaining tenant space will only be leased to users for whom adequate off-street parking is still available. As new tenants locate within established shopping centers and multi-tenant buildings, off-street parking shall be calculated and monitored by City staff using the requirements listed in Table 400.480 for the specific tenant uses to assure that adequate parking is available at the shopping center or multi-tenant building for the proposed new tenant.
[R.O. 2007 §400.500; Ord. No. 4742 §1, 11-18-2004; Ord. No. 5009 §3, 5-16-2006]
The City recognizes that many of the specific land uses listed in Table 400.480 have widely varying parking demand characteristics and that there may be land uses not listed in Table 400.480. Therefore, petitioners may prepare an alternative parking space requirement study as part of their site plan, area plan or final plan application for review and consideration by the Planning and Zoning Commission for 1) proposed land uses not included in Table 400.480 or 2) for proposed development projects for which the land uses listed in Table 400.480 are believed to require a different amount of off-street parking than the standards required per this Table.
A request for approval of an alternative parking space requirement study shall be accompanied by the following information and will be reviewed as described below:
Alternative parking space requirement study. Petitioners proposing to develop or expand off-street parking facilities using off-street automobile parking space requirements other than those listed in Table 400.480 may submit an alternative parking space requirement study that provides justification for the proposed number of off-street parking spaces. The alternative parking space requirement study must include estimates of parking demand based on recommendations of the American Planning Association (APA), Institute of Traffic Engineers (ITE) or other acceptable estimates collected from uses or combination of uses that are the same as or comparable with the proposed use. Comparability will be determined by density, scale, bulk, area, type of activity and location. Previously published studies may be utilized to back up alternative parking space requirement requests. The source of all data used to develop the alternative parking space requirement study must be accurately documented.
Review by the City's traffic consultant. The City's traffic consultant shall be engaged (at the petitioner's expense) to review the alternative parking space requirement study. The traffic consultant's report will be forwarded as part of the petitioner's application to the Planning and Zoning Commission.
Approval. The Planning and Zoning Commission may approve the petitioner's alternate parking space requirement study if it is determined that the number of proposed off-street parking spaces will satisfy the demand for parking generated by the proposed development, when viewed in light of all relevant factors.
Denial. If the proposed alternative parking space requirement study is denied by the Planning and Zoning Commission, the petitioner shall follow the requirements for the number off-street parking spaces listed in Table 400.480 or the number off-street parking spaces for "unlisted uses" as determined by the Director of Planning and Development per the requirements of Section 400.495(A)(2) of this Article.
[R.O. 2007 §400.505; Ord. No. 4742 §1, 11-18-2004; Ord. No. 5009 §9, 5-16-2006]
It is the City's stated intention to encourage efficient use of land and resources by allowing users to share off-street parking facilities whenever feasible. Developments or uses with different operating hours or peak business periods may share off-street parking spaces if a shared parking plan is approved by the Planning and Zoning Commission and if the plan complies with the following standards:
Shared parking plan. Those wishing to use shared parking as a means of satisfying off-street parking requirements of this Article must submit a shared parking plan that clearly demonstrates the feasibility of shared parking. The study must address, at minimum, the size and type of the proposed development, the composition of existing and anticipated tenants, the anticipated percentage of the required parking for all uses that will be sharing off-street parking spaces that will be utilized on an hourly basis for a twenty-four (24) hour period during both weekdays and weekends and the anticipated rate of parking turnover. To demonstrate the above, the shared parking plan shall utilize commonly accepted model Parking Occupancy Rates Table(s) that identify the anticipated percentage of parking utilized by individual land uses on an hourly basis and the Institute of Transportation Engineers "Shared Parking Planning Guidelines" (1995).
Zoning classification. Shared parking areas serving uses located in non-residential zoning districts must be located in non-residential zoning districts. Shared parking areas serving uses located in residential zoning districts may be located in residential or non-residential zoning districts. Shared parking areas shall require the same or a more intensive zoning classification than that required for the most intensive of the uses served by the shared parking.
Location and design. Shared parking spaces must be located within six hundred (600) feet of the primary entrance of all buildings they are intended to serve, the location of which is not on the opposite side of an arterial street. Parking spaces must be clearly available to each use and not appear in any way to be serving a particular use, either through signage dedicating the spaces or through design techniques that would tend to orient use of the spaces to a particular business or building.
Review by the City's traffic consultant. The City's traffic consultant shall be engaged (at the developer's expense) to review the shared parking plan. The traffic consultant's report will be forwarded as part of the developer's application to the Planning and Zoning Commission.
Approval. The Planning and Zoning Commission may approve the developer's shared parking plan if it is determined that the number of the off-street parking spaces proposed will satisfy the demand for parking generated by the proposed development, when viewed in light of all relevant factors.
Shared parking agreements. The shared parking plan shall be enforced through shared parking agreements among all owners of record. The written agreement shall include provisions for maintenance, snow removal, ownership, liability and duration of the agreement. The written agreement must be approved by the Planning and Zoning Commission and the City Attorney.
Revocation of permits. Failure to comply with the shared parking provisions of the shared parking plan shall constitute a violation of the Zoning Code and shall specifically be cause for revocation of a certificate of zoning compliance and/or building permit.
Denial. If the proposed shared parking plan is denied by the Planning and Zoning Commission, the developer must provide the number off-street parking spaces listed in Table 400.480 for each of the individual land uses.
Shared parking for churches. The off-street automobile parking space requirements per this Article for churches may be reduced by fifty percent (50%) without the need for an approved shared parking plan when:
The church is located in a non-residential zoning district;
The church is within six hundred (600) feet of usable public or private off-street parking areas, the location of which is not on the opposite side of an arterial street; and
When a shared parking agreement has been entered into between the church and the owner(s) of the adjacent off-street parking that will be utilized by the church.
[R.O. 2007 §400.510; Ord. No. 4742 §1, 11-18-2004; Ord. No. 5009 §§4—7, 10, 5-16-2006; Ord. No. 5883 §9, 5-24-2013]
All parking lots and vehicular use areas shall be required to conform to the following design requirements:
Location. Except for churches that have approved shared parking agreements and land uses that are part of an approved shared parking plan, all required off-street parking facilities shall be located on the same lot as the principal building or use. Parking shall only be permitted in appropriately marked parking spaces and shall not obstruct drive aisles.
Surface material. Areas used for standing and maneuvering of vehicles shall have concrete or asphaltic concrete maintained adequately for all-weather use, and so drained as to avoid flow of water across sidewalks, pedestrian walkways and multi-purpose trails. Minimum thickness for automobile parking areas and drive aisles not utilized for truck maneuvering shall be a minimum of three (3) inches of asphaltic concrete over eight (8) inches of compacted rock or a minimum of five (5) inches of Portland cement concrete. Loading and unloading spaces and drive aisles utilized for truck maneuvering shall be a minimum of four (4) inches of asphaltic concrete over eight (8) inches of compacted rock or a minimum of six (6) inches of Portland cement concrete. Trash containers shall be placed on pads constructed of a minimum of six (6) inches of Portland cement concrete. Surface materials shall be placed on compact subgrade per City requirements.
Curbing. All parking areas shall be curbed with an integral six (6) inches of Portland cement concrete vertical curbing, unless otherwise approved by the Planning and Zoning Commission.
Wheel stops. Pre-cast concrete wheel stops permanently anchored to the parking lot surface placed two (2) feet back from the rear of parking space stalls shall be installed when deemed necessary by the Planning and Zoning Commission.
Access to parking areas. With the exception of single- and two-family homes, all off-street parking spaces that make it necessary to back out directly into a public road are prohibited. Also, no driveway or parking areas of an industrial, commercial, mobile home or multiple-family use that will lie adjacent to a single- or two-family use or zoning district shall be located closer than ten (10) feet to the common property line.
Setback. Unless otherwise provided, all required parking spaces may be located in a required front yard, side yard or rear yard provided that a ten (10) foot setback is maintained from any property line under separate ownership. Where the proposed parking area will be located within the side yard adjacent to a similarly zoned property, the ten (10) foot setback requirement shall not apply. However, in no instance shall a parking lot be located in a required transition strip.
Access adjacent to street corners. No entrance or exit for any off-street parking area with over four (4) parking spaces, nor any loading berth, shall have its centerline of the entrance located within seventy-five (75) feet of the intersection of any two (2) minor or cul-de-sac street right-of-way lines. Street intersections other than local roads shall have the minimum setback distance adjusted accordingly for adequate access management.
Cross access. Parking lots shall be designed to provide internal vehicular and pedestrian cross access to existing adjacent commercial sites and stub-outs to adjacent commercially-zoned undeveloped sites when deemed necessary by the Planning and Zoning Commission.
Drainage. All off-street parking areas shall be drained so as to prevent additional drainage to abutting properties and shall be constructed of concrete or asphalt materials approved by the City's Planning and Development Department.
Lighting. Any lighting fixtures used to illuminate any off-street parking area shall be so arranged as to reflect the light away from any adjoining residential lot, institutional premises or adjacent street per the requirements of the City's exterior lighting standards contained within Section 400.277 of the Zoning Code.
Traffic control devices. All off-street vehicular use areas shall be marked or posted with the traffic control devices deemed necessary by the developer and their engineer/consultant for the protection of drivers, pedestrians and bicyclists. Off-street traffic control devices should conform to the Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Markings and postings may include, but not be limited to, directional arrows, crosswalks, one-way signs, no parking signs and fire lane signs.
Screening. Any off-street parking area providing space for five (5) or more vehicles shall be effectively screened on any side which adjoins or faces a lot with residential zoning by an un-pierced wall or screen or compact evergreen planting not less than four (4) feet in height. Plantings shall be maintained in good condition and not encroach on adjoining property.
Landscaping requirements. Except for vehicle storage lots, multiple-level parking structures, and parking lots having a paved area no wider than a double-loaded aisle no more than sixty-five (65) feet in width, all parking areas in all zoning districts shall include the following landscaping as minimum requirements:
Not less than six percent (6%) of the interior of a parking lot shall be landscaped. The interior of a parking lot shall be calculated by multiplying the number of parking spaces by two hundred seventy (270) square feet. Planting which is required along the perimeter of a parking lot shall not be considered as part of the interior landscaping requirement.
The landscaping and planting areas shall be reasonably dispersed throughout the parking lots.
The interior dimensions of any planting area or planting median shall be sufficient to protect the landscaping materials planted therein and to insure proper growth. Any protected planting strip where trees are to be planted shall be a minimum of seven (7) feet wide back of curb to back of curb and shall be protected from vehicle overhang.
The primary landscaping materials used in parking lots shall be trees which provide shade or are capable of providing shade at maturity. Shrubbery, hedges and other planting material may be used to complement the tree landscaping. Effective use of earth berms and existing topography is also encouraged as a component of the landscaping plan.
In those instances where plant material exists on parking lot site prior to its development, such landscape material may be used if approved as meeting the requirements in paragraph (d) listed above.
No landscaping, tree, shrub, fence, wall or similar item shall be placed in zones of ingress or egress at street corners or in the intersection of a public right-of-way that will create an obstruction to visibility or is a traffic hazard.
Parking space dimensions. Parking aisle widths and parking space size shall be required as shown below in Table 400.510(14):
Compact vehicle parking. Up to twenty percent (20%) of the required parking spaces may be designated for use by compact vehicles with minimum dimensions of eight (8) feet in width if in perpendicular rows or seven (7) feet if on an angle and sixteen (16) feet in length if approved by the Planning and Zoning Commission. Compact vehicle parking areas shall be grouped (rather than being scattered to solve layout difficulties), and each parking space or aisle shall be individually identified with a sign or surface lettering.
Accessible parking. Parking spaces designated for disabled persons shall be designed according to the following standards:
Size requirements. Automobile accessible parking spaces shall not be less than nine (9) feet wide with a five (5) foot wide access aisle immediately adjacent thereto. Two (2) automobile accessible parking spaces may share a common access aisle. Van accessible parking spaces shall be a minimum of nine (9) feet wide with an adjacent access aisle a minimum of eight (8) feet wide. Two (2) van accessible parking spaces may share a common access aisle. The adjacent access aisles shall be clearly demarcated by lines painted on or otherwise applied to the parking lot surface.
Location requirements. Accessible parking spaces shall be located on the shortest possible accessible circulation route to the main entrance of the building. Where buildings have multiple accessible entrances with adjacent parking, accessible spaces shall be dispersed and located near the accessible entrances. In parking structures and lots that do not serve a particular building, accessible parking spaces shall be located on the shortest possible route to an accessible pedestrian entrance to the parking facility.
Signage requirements. Each accessible parking space shall be marked by a freestanding or wall-mounted sign centered at the interior end of the parking space. Said sign shall bear the international symbol of accessibility in white on a blue background, and may also include any appropriate wording such as "Accessible Parking" to indicate that the space is reserved for the exclusive use of vehicles which display a distinguishing license plate or card. The sign shall also state, or an additional sign shall be posted below or adjacent to the sign stating, the following: "$50 to $300 Fine" pursuant to House Bill 555 enacted by the State of Missouri. Van accessible parking spaces shall be identified with an attached "Lift Van Accessible" sign. Said signage shall be placed at a minimum height of sixty (60) inches from the finished grade to the bottom of the "Fine Sign".
Accessible curb ramps. Accessible curb ramps shall be required immediately adjacent to accessible parking spaces and at the terminus of sidewalks, pedestrian walkways and multi-purpose trails. Accessible curb ramps and their side flares shall not protrude into vehicular traffic lanes, into parking spaces or into accessible parking space aisles. Accessible curb ramps shall require truncated domes or other forms of detectable warning devices.
Vehicle stacking space requirement. Parking lots shall provide off-street vehicle stacking spaces designed according to the following requirements:
Off-street vehicle stacking spaces shall be a minimum of twenty (20) feet in length and ten (10) feet in width along straight portions. Off-street vehicle stacking spaces shall be a minimum of twelve (12) feet in width along curved segments.
Off-street vehicle stacking spaces shall not impede on- or off-site traffic movements or movements into or out of off-street parking spaces. Off-street vehicle stacking spaces shall be delineated from traffic aisles and parking areas with striping, curbing, landscaping, raised medians or alternative paving materials.
A minimum twelve (12) foot wide by-pass lane shall be required when deemed necessary by the Planning and Zoning Commission.
The Planning and Zoning Commission may modify any of the vehicle stacking space requirements of this Section if it is determined that the modification will not adversely effect the general health, safety and welfare of the inhabitants of the City and adjacent communities.
Off-street vehicle stacking spaces shall be required as shown below in Table 400.510(17)(e).
Pedestrian, wheelchair and bicycle access. Parking lots shall be designed to provide direct pedestrian, wheelchair and bicycle access to the walkway(s) adjacent to the building entrance(s) in accordance with the following requirements:
Minimum four (4) foot wide sidewalks shall wrap around both sides of all curb cuts that provide access to the site and striped crosswalk shall be provided through the parking lot to the walkway(s) adjacent to the building entrance(s). Accessible curb ramps designed per the requirements of Section 400.510(16)(d) of this Article shall be installed where the striped crosswalks installed through the parking lot adjoins the walkway(s) adjacent to the building entrance(s) and where the striped crosswalks through the parking lot adjoin the sidewalks installed around the curb cuts.
If a parking lot is adjacent to an existing or proposed multi-purpose trail, a direct connection shall be provided from said multi-purpose trail to the walkway(s) adjacent to the building entrance(s) via a striped crosswalk through the parking lot. Accessible curb ramps designed per the requirements of Section 400.510(16)(d) of this Article shall be installed where the striped crosswalks installed through the parking lot adjoins the walkway(s) adjacent to the building entrance(s) and where the striped crosswalks through the parking lot adjoins the multi-purpose trail.
At no time shall the sidewalks and/or multi-purpose trail connections leading to the walkway(s) adjacent to the building entrance(s) be blocked with displays or outside storage that would impede pedestrian, wheelchair or bicycle access. In addition, at no time shall the walkway(s) adjacent to the building entrance(s) be blocked with displays or outside storage that would impede pedestrian, wheelchair or bicycle access.
[R.O. 2007 §400.512; Ord. No. 4742 §1, 11-18-2004]
In any zoning district in which a building is constructed, reconstructed or expanded, there shall be provided on the same lot off-street loading and unloading spaces for uses which customarily receive or distribute material or merchandise by vehicle in accordance with the following provisions:
Plans. Plans and specifications showing required loading and unloading spaces, including the means of ingress and egress, and interior circulation shall be submitted for review at the time of application for development approval.
Number of loading spaces required. Uses having over five thousand (5,000) square feet of gross floor area shall provide at least one (1) off-street loading and unloading space. For every additional twenty thousand (20,000) square feet of gross floor space, one (1) additional loading and unloading space shall be provided. In the case of mixed-use developments, the total requirements for off-street loading and unloading facilities shall be the sum of the various uses computed separately or as approved by the Planning and Zoning Commission.
Design standards. Each off-street loading and unloading space shall not be less than the following:
In any residential zoning district, a loading and unloading space shall not be less than ten (10) feet in width and twenty-five (25) feet in length and, if a roofed space, not less than fourteen (14) feet in height.
In any commercial, industrial or mixed-use district, the loading and unloading space shall not be less than twelve (12) feet in width and thirty-five (35) feet in length and, if a roofed space, not less than fourteen (14) feet in height.
Subject to the limitations of Section 400.512(3)(d), a loading and unloading space may occupy part of any required side or rear yard; except the side yard along a side street in the case of a corner lot. In no event shall any part of a required front yard be occupied by such loading space. These requirements shall not apply to industrial zoning districts.
Any loading and unloading space shall not be closer than fifty (50) feet to any other lot located in any residential district unless wholly within a completely enclosed building. However, in no case shall a loading and unloading space or driveway be located within a required landscaped transition area.
All off-street loading and unloading facilities that make it necessary to back out directly into a public street shall be prohibited. All maneuvering of trucks, autos and other vehicles shall take place on the site and not within a public right-of-way.