Township of East Whiteland, PA
Chester County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
A. 
Applicants proposing regulated activities in the municipality which are not exempt under § 170-106 shall submit a stormwater management site plan (SWM site plan) to the municipality for review and approval in accordance with Articles III and IV. SWM site plans approved by the municipality shall be on site throughout the duration of the regulated activity.
B. 
The stormwater management and runoff control criteria and standards in this chapter shall apply to the total proposed regulated activity, even if it is to take place in stages. The measurement of impervious surfaces shall include all of the impervious surfaces in the total proposed regulated activity even if the development is to take place in stages.
C. 
No regulated activity within the municipality shall commence until:
(1) 
The municipality issues approval of a SWM site plan, which demonstrates compliance with the requirements of this chapter; and
(2) 
The applicant has received a letter of adequacy or approval for the erosion and sediment control plan review by the municipality and the Conservation District (if required), and has received all other local, state and federal permit approvals required for the project involving the regulated activity.
D. 
Neither submission of a SWM site plan under the provisions herein nor compliance with the provisions of this chapter shall relieve any person from responsibility for damage to any person or property otherwise imposed by law.
E. 
The applicant shall design the site to minimize disturbances to land, site hydrology, and natural resources, and to maintain the natural hydrologic regime, drainage patterns and flow conditions. The applicant shall apply the procedures set forth in § 170-304 for the overall site design and for selection, location and design of features and BMPs to be used to comply with the requirements of this chapter.
F. 
To the maximum extent practicable, postconstruction stormwater shall be discharged within the drainage area of the same stream or water body receiving the runoff prior to construction of the proposed regulated activity.
G. 
Existing drainage peak rate discharges up to and including the one-hundred-year storm onto or through adjacent property(ies) or downgradient property(ies), including diffuse drainage discharge, shall not be altered in any manner without written permission from, and, where applicable as determined by the municipality an easement and agreement with, the affected landowner(s) for conveyance of discharges onto or through their property(ies). Such discharge shall be subject to any applicable discharge criteria specified in this chapter.
H. 
Areas located outside of the site (i.e., areas outside of the regulated activity) that drain through a proposed site are not subject to water quality and volume control, infiltration, stream channel protection, or peak flow rate control requirements (as presented in §§ 170-305, 170-306, 170-307 and 170-308). Drainage facilities located on the site shall be designed to safely convey flows from outside of the site through the site.
I. 
If site conditions preclude capture of runoff from limited portions of the disturbed area for achieving water quality volume control standards, stream channel protection standards, and the two-, five- and ten-year storm event peak runoff rate reduction standards for new development required by this chapter, the applicant shall propose alternate methods to mitigate the bypass of the BMPs, subject to the approval of the Municipal Engineer. In no case shall resulting peak rate be greater than the predevelopment peak rate for the equivalent design storm.
J. 
For all regulated activities, erosion and sediment control BMPs shall be designed, implemented, operated, and maintained during the regulated activities (i.e., during construction) as required to meet the purposes and requirements of this chapter, to meet the erosion and sediment control requirements of the municipality, if applicable, and to meet all requirements under Title 25 of the Pa. Code and the Clean Streams Law.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: See 35 P.S. § 691.1 et seq.
K. 
For all regulated activities, permanent BMPs and conveyances shall be designed, implemented, operated, and maintained to meet the purposes and requirements of this chapter and to meet all requirements under Title 25 of the Pennsylvania Code, the Clean Streams Law, and the Stormwater Management Act.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: See 35 P.S. § 691.1 et seq. and 32 P.S. § 680.1 et seq., respectively.
L. 
The design of all BMPs and conveyances shall incorporate sound engineering principles and practices in a manner that does not aggravate existing stormwater problems as identified by the municipality. The municipality reserves the right to disapprove any design that would result in construction in an area affected by existing stormwater problem(s) or continuation of an existing stormwater problem(s).
M. 
Existing wetlands, either on the site or on an adjacent property, shall not be used to meet the minimum design requirements for stormwater management or stormwater runoff quality treatment. Stormwater discharges to existing wetlands shall not degrade the quality or hydrologic integrity of the wetland.
N. 
Hotspot runoff controls. Specific structural or pollution prevention practices may be required, as determined to be necessary by the Municipal Engineer, to pretreat runoff from hotspots prior to infiltration. Following is a list of examples of hotspots:
(1) 
Vehicle salvage yards and recycling facilities;
(2) 
Vehicle fueling stations;
(3) 
Vehicle service and maintenance facilities;
(4) 
Vehicle and equipment cleaning facilities;
(5) 
Fleet storage areas (bus, truck, etc.);
(6) 
Industrial sites based on Standard Industrial Classification Codes;
(7) 
Marinas (service and maintenance areas);
(8) 
Outdoor liquid container storage;
(9) 
Outdoor loading/unloading facilities;
(10) 
Public works storage areas;
(11) 
Facilities that generate or store hazardous materials;
(12) 
Commercial container nursery;
(13) 
Contaminated sites/brownfields;
(14) 
Other land uses and activities as designated by the municipality.
O. 
Contaminated and brownfield sites. Where BMPs may contribute to the migration of contaminants in groundwater, the water quality and runoff volume, stream channel protection, and peak rate control standards shall be met; however, at the Municipal Engineer's discretion, the minimum infiltration requirement may be reduced or eliminated commensurate with the contaminated area and the required water quality and runoff control measures may be increased to mitigate the reduced infiltration requirement for the contaminated area.
P. 
Additional water quality requirements. The municipality may require additional stormwater control measures for stormwater discharges to special management areas including, but not limited to:
(1) 
Water bodies listed as "impaired" by PADEP.
(2) 
Any water body or watershed with an approved total maximum daily load (TMDL).
(3) 
Areas of known existing flooding problems.
(4) 
Critical areas with sensitive resources (e.g., state-designated special-protection waters, cold-water fisheries, carbonate geology or other groundwater recharge areas that may be highly vulnerable to contamination, drainage areas to water supply reservoirs, etc.).
Q. 
Applicants shall utilize the Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual (PA BMP Manual), as amended, or other sources acceptable to the Municipal Engineer, for testing and design standards for BMPs, and where there is a conflict with the provisions of this chapter, the most restrictive applies.
R. 
For areas underlain by karst or carbonate geology that may be susceptible to the formation of sinkholes and other karst features, the location, type, and design of infiltration BMPs shall be based on a site evaluation conducted by a qualified licensed professional and based on the PA BMP Manual or other design guidance acceptable to the Municipal Engineer.
S. 
All regulated activities located within a special flood hazard area designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) shall comply with § 200-55, Flood hazard districts, of the East Whiteland Township Zoning Ordinance and shall be designed to maintain the flood-carrying capacity of the floodway such that the base flood elevations are not increased, either upstream or downstream. The natural conveyance characteristics of the site and the receiving floodplain shall be incorporated into the stormwater management practices proposed for the site.
T. 
Disturbance of existing ground cover during construction of the proposed regulated activity is prohibited within 50 feet of top-of-bank of all perennial and intermittent waterways, water bodies (lakes, ponds, etc.) and wetlands, except for activities otherwise approved by state or local agencies (e.g., stream restoration projects, road crossings, subsurface utility projects, etc.). At the Municipal Engineer's discretion, and with Conservation District and PADEP approval where necessary, the nondisturbance buffer may be reduced because of setback or other site constraints, but never be less than 10 feet.
U. 
Riparian buffer area.
(1) 
Areas immediately adjacent to the Township's perennial streams, intermittent streams and waterways as mapped on US Geological survey 1:24,000 scale quadrangle maps are defined as the riparian buffer area (RBA). In the RBA, special requirements as set forth in this section apply in order to maintain important natural functions. These RBA requirements are based on both the heightened sensitivity of the RBA zone and the potential to adversely impact the stream system when this RBA zone is disturbed, as well as the potential of this RBA zone to mitigate to the maximum extent of the adverse effects of development in areas adjacent to the stream system.
(2) 
For an existing developed lot with the RBA, the RBA extends landward from the top of each stream bank, for a designated area defined with a minimum width of 25 feet and continuous along the watercourse, as reviewed and approved by the Township.
(3) 
For new development within the RBA, no disturbance of vegetation and soil except for restoration and/or reforestation shall occur, in order to shade the stream with natural vegetation, to provide a source of numerous other organic inputs to the aquatic system, to anchor the stream bank and floodplain area and to consume and otherwise remove nitrogen, sediment and other substances which can adversely affect stream systems. Where prohibitive slopes of 25% or greater are located within the designated area, the RBA shall be increased in width such that, at any location, the minimum width of designated area with slopes less than 25% is 25 feet. Forested and unforested vegetation shall be established through natural succession. Selective planting shall be incorporated on sites devoid of vegetation to stimulate native species and discourage invasive species. Plant selection and planting shall be consistent with the Chester County Conservation District, PADEP and the USDA riparian forested buffer guidelines. Riparian buffer areas shall be restricted to the following uses: flood control, utility rights-of-way, pedestrian trails, passive recreational uses, street crossings, and stormwater BMPs.
(4) 
Tree removal in an RBA shall require prior Township approval in writing. Riparian buffer areas shall be preserved or restored with native vegetation that can be maintained through the delineation, plan review and permitting process, construction, and occupancy stages of the project.
The following permit or other regulatory requirements may apply to certain regulated activities and shall be met prior to (or as a condition of) final approval by the municipality of the SWM site plan and prior to commencement of any regulated activities, as applicable:
A. 
All regulated activities subject to permit or regulatory requirements by PADEP under regulations at Title 25 Pennsylvania Code Chapter 102, or erosion and sediment control requirements of the municipality.
B. 
Work within natural drainageways subject to permit by PADEP under Title 25 Pennsylvania Code Chapter 105.
C. 
Any BMP or conveyance that would be located in or adjacent to surface waters of the commonwealth, including wetlands, subject to permit by PADEP under Title 25 Pennsylvania Code Chapter 105.
D. 
Any BMP or conveyance that would be located on or discharge to a state highway right-of-way, or require access to or from a state highway and be subject to approval by PennDOT.
E. 
Culverts, bridges, storm sewers, or any other facilities which must pass or convey flows from the tributary area and any facility which may constitute a dam subject to permit by PADEP under Title 25 Pennsylvania Code Chapter 105.
A. 
No regulated activity within the municipality shall commence until:
(1) 
The municipality receives documentation that the applicant has received:
(a) 
A letter of adequacy from the Conservation District or other approval from PADEP in compliance with Title 25, Chapter 102, of the Pennsylvania Code of an erosion and sediment control plan for construction activities, if applicable;
(b) 
A PADEP NPDES Construction Activities Permit as required under Title 25 Pennsylvania Code Chapter 92, if applicable;[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Chapter 92 of Title 25 of the Pennsylvania Code was reserved 10-8-2010, effective 10-9-2010. It was replaced by Chapter 92a, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permitting, Monitoring and Compliance.
(c) 
Evidence of any other permit(s) or approvals required for the regulated activities; and
(2) 
An erosion and sediment control plan has been approved by the municipality, if required.
B. 
A copy of the erosion and sediment control plan and any required permit(s), as required by PADEP regulations, shall be available on the site at all times.
C. 
Additional erosion and sediment control measures shall be applied where infiltration BMPs are proposed, at a minimum including those required in § 170-306M.
The applicant shall design the site to minimize the disturbances to land, site hydrology, and natural resources, and to maintain the natural hydrologic regime, drainage patterns and flow conditions. The applicant shall demonstrate in its SWM site plan (as required in § 170-402C) that the design sequence, objectives and techniques described below were applied to the maximum extent practicable in the site design of the regulated activity while complying with all other requirements of this chapter. The site design shall:
A. 
First, identify and delineate all existing natural resources and natural and man-made hydrologic features listed in § 170-402B(8) that are located within the site, or receive discharge from, or may be impacted by the proposed regulated activity.
B. 
Second, provide a prioritized listing of these resources and features to identify:
(1) 
Those to be incorporated into the site design in a manner that provides protection from any disturbance or impact from the proposed regulated activity;
(2) 
Those to be protected from further disturbance or impact but for which the proposed regulated activity will provide improvement to existing conditions;
(3) 
Those that can be incorporated into and utilized as components of the overall site design in a manner that protects or improves their existing conditions while utilizing their hydrologic function within the limits of their available capacity (e.g., for infiltration, evapotranspiration, or reducing pollutant loads, runoff volume or peak discharge rates, etc.) to reduce the need for or size of constructed BMPs; and
(4) 
Those that may be considered for alteration, disturbance or removal.
C. 
Third, develop the site design to achieve the following:
(1) 
Recognize and incorporate the priorities identified in § 170-304B as the basis for the proposed site layout, grading, construction, and permanent ground cover design;
(2) 
Minimize earth disturbance (both surface and subsurface);
(3) 
Maximize protection of or improvement to natural resources and special management areas;
(4) 
Minimize the disturbance of natural site hydrology, in particular natural drainage features and patterns, discharge points and flow characteristics, natural infiltration patterns and characteristics, and natural channel and floodplain conveyance capacity;
(5) 
Incorporate natural hydrologic features and functions identified in § 170-304B into the site design to protect and utilize those features and their hydrologic functions to reduce the need for or size of constructed BMPs;
(6) 
Maximize infiltration and the use of natural site infiltration features, patterns and conditions, and evapotranspiration features;
(7) 
Apply selective grading design methods to provide final grading patterns or preserve existing topography in order to evenly distribute runoff and minimize concentrated flows;
(8) 
Minimize the cumulative area to be covered by impervious surfaces and:
(a) 
Minimize the size of individual impervious surfaces;
(b) 
Separate large impervious surfaces into smaller components;
(c) 
Disconnect runoff from one impervious surface to another; and
(d) 
Utilize porous materials in place of impervious wherever practicable;
(9) 
Minimize the volume and peak discharge rates of stormwater generated;
(10) 
Avoid or minimize stormwater runoff pollutant loads and receiving stream channel erosion;
(11) 
Locate infiltration and other BMPs:
(a) 
At or as near to the source of generation as possible; and
(b) 
At depths that are as shallow as possible;
(12) 
Prioritize the selection and design of BMPs as follows:
(a) 
Nonstructural and vegetation BMPs; then
(b) 
Structural (surface and subsurface) BMPs;
(13) 
For flow volumes requiring conveyance from the source of generation to a BMP for management, give preference to open-channel conveyance techniques that provide infiltration and water quality benefits, and landscaped-based management in common open space areas, where practicable; and
(14) 
Consider additional guidance for incorporating natural hydrology into the site and BMP designs, methods and techniques that support the objectives of § 170-304B and C. Appendix B presents additional discussion of natural hydrology site design and sources of information for conservation design, low-impact design, and sustainable design.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix B is included as an attachment to this chapter.
D. 
The procedures set forth above shall be utilized to the maximum extent practicable for the overall site design and selection, location and design of features and BMPs to be used to comply with the requirements of §§ 170-305, 170-306, 170-307 and 170-308.
To control postconstruction stormwater impacts from regulated activities and meet state water quality requirements, BMPs shall be provided in the site design that replicate predevelopment stormwater infiltration and runoff conditions, such that postconstruction stormwater discharges do not degrade the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the receiving waters. The applicant shall comply with the following water quality and runoff volume requirements for all regulated activities, including all new development and redevelopment activities:
A. 
The postconstruction total runoff volume shall not exceed the predevelopment total runoff volume for all storms equal to or less than the two-year, twenty-four-hour duration precipitation (design storm). The water quality and runoff volume to be managed shall consist of any runoff volume generated by the proposed regulated activity over and above the predevelopment total runoff volume and shall be captured and permanently retained or infiltrated on the site. Permanent retention options may include, but are not limited to, reuse, evaporation, transpiration, and infiltration.
B. 
For modeling purposes, the predevelopment ground cover conditions shall be determined using the corresponding ground cover assumptions presented in § 170-309D of this chapter.
C. 
The design of the facility outlet shall provide for protection from clogging and unwanted sedimentation.
D. 
BMPs that moderate the temperature of stormwater shall be used to protect the temperature of receiving waters.
(1) 
The applicant shall fulfill the requirements of the PADEP "Thermal Impact Analysis" for the "PAG-02 Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activities, NOI for Coverage under General or Individual Permit" if he or she cannot meet the volume control requirements.
E. 
Water quality improvement shall be achieved in conjunction with achieving the infiltration requirements of § 170-306. The infiltration volume required under § 170-306 may be included as a component of the water quality volume. If the calculated water quality and runoff volume is greater than the volume infiltrated, then the difference between the two volumes shall be managed for water quality and runoff volume control through other techniques or practices but shall not be discharged from the site.
F. 
Runoff from the disturbed area shall be treated for water quality prior to entering existing waterways or water bodies. If a stormwater management practice does not provide water quality treatment, then water quality BMPs shall be utilized to provide pretreatment prior to the runoff entering the stormwater management practice.
G. 
The municipality may require additional water quality and runoff control measures for stormwater discharging to special management areas such as those listed in § 170-301P.
H. 
When the regulated activity contains or is divided by multiple drainage areas, the water quality and runoff volume shall be separately addressed for each drainage area.
I. 
Weighted averaging of runoff coefficients shall not be used for manual computations or input data for water quality and runoff volume calculations.
J. 
Areas located outside of the site (i.e., areas outside of the regulated activity) may be excluded from the calculation of the water quality and runoff volume requirements.
K. 
Water quality and volume control practices shall be selected and designed to meet the criteria of § 170-304C that apply to water quality and volume control.
Providing for infiltration consistent with the natural hydrologic regime is required to compensate for the reduction in the recharge that occurs when the ground surface is disturbed or impervious surface is created or expanded. The applicant shall achieve the following infiltration requirements:
A. 
Wherever possible, infiltration should be designed to accommodate the entire water quality and runoff volume required in § 170-305.
B. 
For regulated activities involving new development, the volume of a minimum of one inch of runoff from all proposed impervious surfaces shall be infiltrated.
C. 
For regulated activities involving redevelopment, whichever is less of the following volume options shall be infiltrated:
(1) 
The volume of a minimum of one inch of runoff from all proposed impervious surfaces; or
(2) 
The total water quality and runoff volume required in § 170-305 of this chapter.
D. 
If the requirements of Subsection B or C cannot be physically accomplished, then the applicant shall be responsible for demonstrating with data or calculations to the satisfaction of the Municipal Engineer why this infiltration volume cannot be physically accomplished on the site (e.g., shallow depth to bedrock or limiting zone, open voids, steep slopes, etc.) and what alternative volume can be infiltrated; however in all cases at least the first 0.5 inch of runoff volume shall be infiltrated.
E. 
Only if a minimum of at least 0.5 inch infiltration requirement cannot be physically accomplished on the site, shall a waiver from § 170-306 be considered by the municipality.
F. 
If site conditions preclude capture of runoff from portions of the impervious surfaces, the infiltration volume for the remaining area shall be increased an equivalent amount to offset the loss.
G. 
When a project contains or is divided by multiple watersheds, the infiltration volume shall be separately addressed for each watershed.
H. 
Existing impervious surfaces located in areas outside of the site (i.e., outside of the regulated activity) may be excluded from the calculation of the required infiltration volume.
I. 
A detailed soils evaluation of the site shall be conducted by a qualified professional and at a minimum shall address soil permeability, depth to bedrock, and subgrade stability. The general process for designing the infiltration BMP shall be conducted by a qualified licensed professional and shall be consistent with the PA BMP Manual (as amended) (or other guidance acceptable to the Municipal Engineer) and in general shall:
(1) 
Analyze hydrologic soil groups as well as natural and man-made features within the site to determine general areas of suitability for infiltration practices. In areas where development on fill material is under consideration, conduct geotechnical investigations of subgrade stability; infiltration may not be ruled out without conducting these tests.
(2) 
Provide field tests such as double ring infiltrometer or other hydraulic conductivity tests (at the elevation of the proposed infiltration surface) to determine the appropriate hydraulic conductivity rate. Standard septic/sewage percolation tests are not acceptable for design purposes.
(3) 
Design the infiltration facility for the required retention (infiltration) volume based on field-determined infiltration capacity (and apply safety factor as per applicable design guidelines) at the elevation of the proposed infiltration surface.
(4) 
On-lot infiltration features are encouraged; however, it shall be demonstrated to the Municipal Engineer that the soils are conducive to infiltration on the identified lots.
J. 
Infiltration BMPs shall be selected based on suitability of soils and site conditions and shall be constructed on soils that have the following characteristics:
(1) 
A minimum depth of 24 inches between the bottom of the BMP and the top of the limiting zone. Additional depth may be required in areas underlain by karst or carbonate geology (see § 170-306N).
(2) 
An infiltration rate sufficient to accept the additional stormwater volume and drain completely as determined by field tests conducted by the applicant.
(3) 
The infiltration facility shall completely drain the retention (infiltration) volume within three days (72 hours) from the end of the design storm.
K. 
All infiltration practices shall:
(1) 
Be selected and designed to meet the criteria of § 170-304C that are applicable to infiltration;
(2) 
Be set back at least 15 feet from all buildings and features with subgrade elements (e.g., basements, foundation walls, etc.), unless otherwise approved by the Municipal Engineer;
(3) 
For any infiltration practice that collects runoff from shared or multiple features and that is located within 15 feet of a building or feature with subgrade elements (e.g., basements, foundation walls, etc.), the bottom elevation shall be set below the elevation of the subgrade element.
(4) 
All infiltration practices shall be set back at least 20 feet from a property line and right-of-way line.
L. 
Infiltration facilities shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be located to avoid introducing contaminants to groundwater:
(1) 
When a hotspot is located in the area draining to a proposed infiltration facility, an evaluation of the potential of groundwater contamination from the proposed infiltration facility shall be performed, including a hydrogeologic investigation (if necessary) by a qualified licensed professional to determine what, if any, pretreatment or additional design considerations are needed to protect groundwater quality.
(2) 
When located within a wellhead protection area of a public water supply well, infiltration practices shall be in conformance with the applicable approved source water protection assessment or source water protection plan.
(3) 
The applicant shall provide appropriate safeguards against groundwater contamination for land uses that may cause groundwater contamination should there be a mishap or spill.
M. 
During site construction, all infiltration practice components shall be protected from compaction due to heavy equipment operation or storage of fill or construction material. Infiltration areas shall also be protected from sedimentation. Areas that are accidentally compacted or graded shall be remediated to restore soil composition and porosity. Adequate documentation to this effect shall be submitted to the Municipal Engineer for review. All areas designated for infiltration shall not receive runoff until the contributory drainage area has achieved final stabilization.
N. 
Consideration of infiltration BMPs for areas underlain by karst or carbonate geology is encouraged, but only where the design, supporting calculations, results of soils or other site investigations or other documentation are provided to the municipality demonstrating that the potential or likelihood of subsidence or sinkholes is minimal. Evaluation of site conditions and infiltration design shall rely on guidance in the PA BMP Manual (as amended) or other guidance acceptable to the Municipal Engineer.
O. 
Groundwater quality of the carbonate aquifer shall be protected from infiltration of pollutants. At a minimum, stormwater runoff from hotspots (i.e., sources of significant pollutant runoff) shall first be discharged through a water quality BMP(s) to remove pollutants prior to infiltration. Where soil characteristics are insufficient to provide removal of pollutants from sources other than hotspots, stormwater runoff shall first be discharged through a water quality BMP(s) to remove pollutants prior to infiltration.
P. 
Where sediment transport in the stormwater runoff is anticipated to reach the infiltration system, appropriate permanent measures to prevent or collect sediment shall be installed prior to discharge to the infiltration system.
Q. 
Where roof drains are designed to discharge to infiltration practices, they shall have appropriate measures to prevent clogging by unwanted debris (for example, silt, leaves and vegetation). Such measures shall include but are not limited to leaf traps, gutter guards and cleanouts.
R. 
All infiltration practices shall have appropriate positive overflow controls.
S. 
No sand, salt or other particulate matter may be applied to a porous surface material for winter ice conditions.
T. 
The following procedures and materials shall be required during the construction of all subsurface facilities:
(1) 
Excavation for the infiltration facility shall be performed with equipment that will not compact the bottom of the seepage bed/trench or like facility.
(2) 
The bottom of the bed and/or trench shall be scarified prior to the placement of aggregate.
(3) 
Only clean aggregate with documented porosity, free of fines, shall be allowed.
(4) 
The tops, bottoms and sides of all seepage beds, trenches, or like facilities shall be covered with drainage fabric. Fabric shall be nonwoven fabric acceptable to the Municipal Engineer.
(5) 
Stormwater shall be distributed throughout the entire seepage bed/trench or like facility and provisions for the collection of debris shall be provided in all facilities.
For regulated activities involving new development with one or more acres of earth disturbance, the applicant shall comply with the following stream channel protection requirements to minimize stream channel erosion and associated water quality impacts to the receiving waters:
A. 
The peak flow rate of the postconstruction two-year, twenty-four-hour design storm shall be reduced to the predevelopment peak flow rate of the one-year, twenty-four-hour duration precipitation, using the SCS Type II distribution.
B. 
To the maximum extent practicable, and unless otherwise approved by the Municipal Engineer, the postconstruction one-year, twenty-four-hour storm flow shall be detained for a minimum of 24 hours and a maximum not to exceed 72 hours from a point in time when the maximum volume of water from the one-year, twenty-four-hour storm is stored in a proposed BMP (i.e., when the maximum water surface elevation is achieved in the facility). Release of water can begin at the start of the storm (i.e., the invert of the orifice is at the invert of the proposed BMP).
C. 
For modeling purposes, the predevelopment ground cover conditions shall be determined using the corresponding ground cover assumptions presented in § 170-309D of this chapter.
D. 
The minimum orifice size in the outlet structure to the BMP shall be three inches in diameter unless otherwise approved by the Municipal Engineer, and a trash rack shall be installed to prevent clogging. For sites with small drainage areas contributing to the BMP that do not provide enough runoff volume to allow a twenty-four-hour attenuation with the three-inch orifice, the calculations shall be submitted showing this condition.
E. 
When the calculated orifice size is below three inches, gravel filters (or other methods) are recommended to discharge low-flow rates subject to the Municipal Engineer's satisfaction. When filters are utilized, maintenance provisions shall be provided to ensure filters meet the design function.
F. 
All proposed stormwater facilities shall make use of measures to extend the flow path and increase the travel time of flows in the facility.
G. 
When a regulated activity contains or is divided by multiple drainage areas, the peak flow rate control shall be separately addressed for each drainage area.
The applicant shall comply with the following peak flow rate control requirements for all regulated activities including those that involve new development and redevelopment that are not located in the (East) Valley Creek Watershed.
A. 
Postconstruction peak flow rates from any regulated activity shall not exceed the predevelopment peak flow rates as shown for each of the design storms specified in Table 308.1.
Table 308.1
Peak Rate Control Standards
(Peak Flow Rate of the Postconstruction Design Storm Shall be Reduced to the Peak Flow Rate of the Corresponding Predevelopment Design Storm Shown in the Table)
Predevelopment Design Storm
Postconstruction Design Storm Frequency (24-Hour Duration)
New Development Regulated Activities
Redevelopment Regulated Activities
2-Year
2-Year
90% of 2-Year
5-Year
2-Year
90% of 5-Year
10-Year
2-Year
90% of 10-Year
25-Year
90% of 25-Year
90% of 25-Year
50-Year
90% of 50-Year
90% of 50-Year
100-Year
90% of 100-Year
90% of 100-Year
B. 
For modeling purposes, the predevelopment ground cover conditions shall be determined using the corresponding ground cover assumptions presented in § 170-309D of this chapter.
C. 
For regulated activities involving only redevelopment, no peak flow rate controls are required when and only if the total proposed impervious surface area is at least 20% less than the total existing impervious surface area to be disturbed by the regulated activity. In all cases where this requirement is not met, the redevelopment regulated activity shall achieve the peak flow rate controls presented in Table 308.1, using the redevelopment ground cover assumptions presented in § 170-309D.
D. 
Only the area of the proposed regulated activity shall be subject to the peak flow rate control standards of this chapter. Undisturbed areas for which the discharge point has not changed are not subject to the peak flow rate control standards.
E. 
Areas located outside of the site (i.e., areas outside of the regulated activity) that drain through a proposed site are not subject to peak flow rate control requirements. Drainage facilities located on the site shall be designed to safely convey flows from outside of the site through the site.
F. 
When a regulated activity contains or is divided by multiple drainage areas, the peak flow rate controls shall be separately addressed for each drainage area.
G. 
The effect of structural and nonstructural stormwater management practices implemented as part of the overall site design may be taken into consideration when calculating total storage volume and peak flow rates.
H. 
Regulated activities located within the (East) Valley Creek Watershed shall achieve the applicable peak flow release rate control requirements presented in the approved PA Act 167 Plan for that watershed and as presented in Table 308.1.
A. 
Stormwater runoff from all regulated activity sites with a drainage area of greater than five acres shall be calculated using a generally accepted calculation technique(s) that is based on the NRCS Soil Cover Complex Method. Table 309.1 summarizes acceptable computation methods. The method selected for use shall be based on the individual limitations and suitability of each method for a particular site. The use of the Rational Method to estimate peak discharges for drainage areas greater than five acres shall be permitted only upon approval by the Municipal Engineer.
Table 309.1
Acceptable Computation Methodologies for SWM Site Plan
Method
Developed By
Applicability
TR-20 (or commercial computer package based on TR-20)
USDA NRCS
Applicable where use of full hydrology computer model is desirable or necessary.
TR-55 (or commercial computer package based on TR-55)
USDA NRCS
Applicable for land development plans where limitations described in TR-55 are met.
HEC-1/HEC-HMS
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Applicable where use of a full hydrologic computer model is desirable or necessary.
Rational Method (or commercial computer package based on Rational Method)
Emil Kuichling (1889)
For sites up to five acres, or as approved by the municipality.
Other methods
Varies
Other computation methodologies approved by the municipality.
B. 
All calculations using the Soil Cover Complex Method shall use the appropriate design rainfall depths for the various return period storms consistent with this chapter. Rainfall depths used shall be obtained from NOAA Atlas 14 values consistent with a partial duration series. When stormwater calculations are performed for routing procedures or infiltration, water quality and runoff volume functions, the duration of rainfall shall be 24 hours.
C. 
All calculations using the Rational Method shall use rainfall intensities consistent with appropriate times of concentration (duration) and storm events with rainfall intensities obtained from NOAA Atlas 14 partial duration series estimates, or the latest version of the PennDOT Drainage Manual (PDM Publication 584). Times of concentration shall be calculated based on the methodology recommended in the respective model used. Times of concentration for channel and pipe flow shall be computed using Manning's equation.
D. 
The applicant shall utilize the following ground cover assumptions for all predevelopment water quality and runoff volume, infiltration volume and peak flow rate calculations:
(1) 
For regulated activities involving new development, the following ground cover assumptions shall be used:
(a) 
For areas that are woods (as defined in Article II of this chapter), predevelopment calculations shall assume ground cover of "woods in good condition."
(b) 
For all other areas (including all impervious surfaces), predevelopment calculations shall assume ground cover of "meadow."
(2) 
For regulated activities involving redevelopment, the following ground cover assumptions shall be used:
(a) 
For areas that are woods (as defined in Article II of this chapter), predevelopment calculations shall assume ground cover of "woods in good condition."
(b) 
For areas that are not woods or not impervious surfaces, predevelopment calculations shall assume ground cover of "meadow."
(c) 
For areas that are impervious surfaces, predevelopment calculations shall assume at least 20% of the existing impervious surface area to be disturbed as "meadow" ground cover.
(3) 
The applicant shall determine which stormwater standards apply to the proposed regulated activity as follows:
(a) 
Stormwater standards for new development shall apply to all proposed regulated activities that involve only new development activities as defined in this chapter.
(b) 
Stormwater standards for redevelopment shall apply to all proposed regulated activities that involve only redevelopment activities as defined in this chapter.
(c) 
At the discretion of the Municipal Engineer, regulated activities that involve a combination of both new development and redevelopment activities, as defined in this chapter, may either:
[1] 
Apply the stormwater standards (redevelopment or new development) that are associated with the activity that involves the greatest amount of land area; or
[2] 
Apply the redevelopment and new development stormwater standards to the corresponding redevelopment and new development portions of the proposed regulated activity.
E. 
Runoff curve numbers (CN) for both predevelopment and proposed (postconstruction) conditions to be used in the Soil Cover Complex Method shall be obtained from Table C-1 in Appendix C of this chapter.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix C is included as an attachment to this chapter.
F. 
Runoff coefficients (C) for both predevelopment and proposed (postconstruction) conditions for use in the Rational Method shall be obtained from Table C-2 in Appendix C of this chapter.
G. 
Weighted averaging of runoff coefficients shall not be used for manual computations or input data for water quality and runoff volume calculations.
H. 
Hydraulic computations to determine the capacity of pipes, culverts, and storm sewers shall be consistent with methods and computations contained in the Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Design Series Number 5 (Publication No. FHWA-NHI-01-020 HDS No. 5, as amended). Hydraulic computations to determine the capacity of open channels shall be consistent with methods and computations contained in the Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Engineering Circular Number 15 (Publication No. FHWA-NHI-05-114 HEC 15, as amended). Values for Manning's roughness coefficient (n) shall be consistent with Table C-3 in Appendix C of the chapter.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: Appendix C is included as an attachment to this chapter.
I. 
Runoff calculations shall include the following assumptions:
(1) 
Average antecedent moisture conditions (for the Soil Cover Complex Method only for example, TR-55, TR-20).
(2) 
A Type II distribution storm (for the Soil Cover Complex Method only for example, TR-55, TR-20).
A. 
Open vegetated channels.
(1) 
Open vegetated channels are conveyance systems that are engineered to also perform as water quality and infiltration practices. Such systems can be used for the conveyance, retention, infiltration and filtration of stormwater runoff.
(2) 
Open vegetated channels primarily serve a water quality function (WQv); they also have the potential to augment infiltration. Examples of such systems include, but are not limited to: dry swales, wet swales, grass channels, and biofilters. Open vegetated channels are primarily applicable for land uses such as roads, highways, residential developments (dry swales only) and pervious areas.
(3) 
Open vegetated channels shall be designed to meet the following minimum standards:
(a) 
The channel shall be designed to safely convey the ten-year frequency storm event with a freeboard of at least six inches. Freeboard is the difference between the elevation of the design flow in the channel and the top elevation of the channel.
(b) 
The peak velocity of the runoff from the ten-year storm shall be nonerosive for the soil and ground cover provided in the channel.
(c) 
The longitudinal slope shall be no greater than 4%.
(d) 
Channels shall be trapezoidal in cross section. The minimum bottom width shall be two feet. The maximum bottom width shall be eight feet.
(e) 
Channels shall be designed with moderate side slopes of four horizontal to one vertical. Flatter side slopes may be necessary under certain circumstances.
(f) 
The maximum allowable ponding time in the channel shall be less than 48 hours.
(g) 
Channels (for example, dry swales) may require an underdrain in order to function and dewater.
(h) 
Accumulated sediment within the channel bottom shall be removed when 25% of the original WQv volume has been exceeded.
(i) 
Check dams along the channel length may be warranted.
(j) 
The bottom of dry swales shall be situated at least two feet above the seasonal high water table.
(4) 
Additional design information for open vegetated channels is available in Design of Stormwater Filtering Systems (CWP, 1996).
B. 
Retention basins.
(1) 
Retention basins shall be designed to create a healthy ecological community with sufficient circulation of water to prevent the growth of unwanted vegetation and mosquitoes. Care should be taken to landscape retention basins in accordance with § 170-310E of this chapter.
(2) 
The retention basin shall be of sufficient size to allow the appropriate aquatic community needed to maintain healthy pond ecology and avoid mosquitoes capable of carrying West Nile Virus and other diseases. The Chester County Health Department, Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission, the Natural Resource Conservation Service, the Pennsylvania Extension Service, or other qualified professional consultant shall be consulted during the design of these facilities in order to ensure the health of aquatic communities and minimize the risk of creating mosquito breeding areas.
(3) 
An outlet structure shall be designed to allow complete drainage of the pond for maintenance.
(4) 
The design of a retention basin shall include the determination of the proposed site's ability to support a viable permanent pool. The design shall take into account such factors as the available and required rate and quality of dry weather inflow, the stormwater inflow, seasonal and longer-term variations in groundwater table, and impacts of potential pollutant loadings.
(5) 
Sediment storage volume equal to at least 20% of the volume of the permanent pool shall be provided.
(6) 
A sediment forebay with a hardened bottom shall be provided at each inlet into the retention basin. The forebay storage capacity shall at minimum be 10% of the permanent pool storage. The forebay shall be designed to allow for access by maintenance equipment for periodic cleaning.
(7) 
Emergency spillways shall be sized and located to permit the safe passage of stormwater flows from a one-hundred-year storm. The maximum velocities in vegetated spillways excavated in otherwise undisturbed soil shall be analyzed based upon the velocity of peak flow in the emergency spillway during an assumed clogged primary outlet condition. Where maximum velocities exceed design standards contained in the Engineering Field Manual for Conservation Practices (USDA, SCS, July 1984), suitable lining shall be provided. All emergency spillways placed on fill materials shall be lined. Lining for emergency spillways shall incorporate native colors and materials where possible including mono slab revetments, grass pavers and native stone.
(8) 
Existing ponds or permanent pool basins can be used for stormwater management provided that it can be demonstrated that the ponds are structurally sound and meet the design requirements herein.
(9) 
Inlet structures and outlet structures shall be separated to the greatest extent possible in order to maximize the flow path through the retention basin.
(10) 
Retention basins shall be designed to provide a length-to-width ratio of at least 3L:1W as measured in plan view (for example, a ratio of 4L:1W is too narrow).
(11) 
The retention basin depth shall average three feet to six feet with no area shallower than three feet. In residential areas, ponds shall be equipped with management practices that reduce the potential or unauthorized entry and use of the pond by the general public. Preference shall be given to split rail fences equipped with mesh wire or other such practices that are both functional and attractive. A securable gate shall be provided to allow for periodic maintenance equipment/vehicle access. Any fence or barrier around a retention basin shall be no less than 42 inches in height or as otherwise required by local building codes or ordinances.
(12) 
An aquatic bench/shelf at least 10 feet wide and with a gentle slope not exceeding 10H:1V shall be provided along the entire perimeter of the retention basin.
(13) 
Any side slopes below the permanent water surface level shall not exceed 5H:1V. Side slopes above the permanent water surface level shall not exceed 3H:1V.
(14) 
Stabilization. Proper stabilization structures, including stilling basins, energy dissipaters, and channel lining shall be constructed at the outlets of all retention basins and emergency spillways. The stabilization structures shall control water to: avoid erosion; reduce velocities of released water and direct water so that it does not interfere with downstream activities.
(15) 
Energy dissipaters and level spreaders. Energy dissipaters and/or level spreaders shall be installed to prevent erosion and/or initiate sheet flow at points where pipes or drainageways discharge to or from basins. Energy dissipaters shall comply with criteria in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 15 Design for Stable Channels with Flexible Linings (USDOT, FHWA, 1986) or the Engineering Field Manual for Conservation Practices (USDA, SCS, July 1984). Such facilities shall be both functional and harmonious with the surrounding environment; for example, native rock shall be used in constructing dissipaters where practical.
(16) 
Discharge points. The minimum distance between a proposed basin discharge point (including the energy dissipater, etc.) and a downstream property boundary shall in no case be less than 15 feet. Where there is discharge onto or through adjacent properties prior to release to a stream, designers shall demonstrate how downstream properties are to be protected. The Municipal Engineer may require that the setback distance be increased based upon factors such as topography, soil conditions, the size of structures, the location of structures, and discharge rates. A drainage easement may also be required.
(17) 
Outlet structures. Outlet structures shall meet the following specifications:
(a) 
To minimize clogging and to facilitate cleaning and inspecting, outlet pipes shall have an internal diameter of at least 18 inches and a minimum grade of 1%.
(b) 
Antiseep collars shall be provided on all outlet pipes within a constructed berm.
(c) 
All principal outlet structures shall be built using reinforced concrete with watertight construction joints.
(d) 
The use of architecturally treated concrete, stucco, painted surface or stone facade treatment shall be considered for enhancing the outlet structure. Such facilities shall be both functional and harmonious in design with the surrounding environment.
(e) 
Outlet pipes shall be constructed of reinforced concrete with rubber gaskets in conformance with AASHTO M170, M198 and M207.
(f) 
Basin outlet structures shall have childproof nonclogging trash racks over all design openings exceeding 12 inches in diameter except those openings designed to carry perennial stream flows. Periodic cleaning of debris from trash racks shall be included in the operation and maintenance plan.
(g) 
Antivortex devices, consisting of a thin vertical plate normal to the basin berm, shall be provided at the top of all circular risers or stand pipes.
C. 
Detention basins.
(1) 
Detention basins are generally discouraged as a stormwater management practice and should only be used as a last resort where no other management facility is practical. Detention basins typically collect and quickly release runoff from a site in a manner that is contrary to the principles, goals and standards presented within this chapter. The landscape standards of § 170-310E of this chapter shall apply.
(2) 
The maximum inside side slopes shall not exceed three horizontal to one vertical (3H:1V). The minimum required slope for the basin bottom is 2%. A level bottom is acceptable, provided the designer demonstrates to the Township Engineer's satisfaction that the basin bottom will be landscaped with appropriate wetland vegetation pursuant to § 170-310E. In addition, detention basins of sufficient size and slope may serve other functions as well, including recreational uses which do not hinder or conflict with the function of the detention basin.
(3) 
Inlet structures. The inlet pipe invert into a basin shall be six inches above the basin floor or lining so that the pipe can adequately drain after rainstorms. Inlets shall discharge into areas of the basin that slope toward the outlet structure.
(4) 
Inlet structures and outlet structures shall be separated to the greatest extent possible in order to maximize the flow path through the retention basin.
(5) 
Low-flow channels. Low-flow channels constructed of concrete or asphalt are not permitted. Where low-flow channels are necessary, they shall be composed of a natural or bioengineered material. Low-flow channels shall be designed to promote water quality and slow the rate of flow through the basin. Low-flow channels may also be designed to infiltrate where practical.
(6) 
Outlet structures. Outlet structures shall meet the following specifications:
(a) 
To minimize clogging and to facilitate cleaning and inspection, outlet pipes shall have an internal diameter of at least 18 inches and a minimum grade of 1%.
(b) 
Antiseep collars shall be provided on all outlet pipes within a constructed berm.
(c) 
All principal outlet structures shall be built using reinforced concrete with watertight construction joints.
(d) 
The use of architecturally treated concrete, stucco, painted surface or stone facade treatment shall be considered for enhancing the outlet structure. Such facilities shall be both functional and harmonious in design with the surrounding environment.
(e) 
Outlet pipes shall be constructed of reinforced concrete with rubber gaskets in conformance with AASHTO M170, Mi98 and M207.
(f) 
Energy dissipation practices that convert concentrated flow to uniform shallow sheet flow shall be used where appropriate.
(g) 
Basin outlet structures shall have childproof nonclogging trash racks over all design opening exceeding 12 inches in diameter except those openings designed to carry perennial stream flows.
(h) 
Antivortex devices, consisting of a thin vertical plate normal to the basin berm, shall be provided at the top of all circular risers or stand pipes.
(7) 
Emergency spillways shall be sized and located to permit the safe passage of stormwater flows from a one-hundred-year storm. The maximum velocities in vegetated spillways excavated in otherwise undisturbed soil shall be analyzed based upon the velocity of peak flow in the emergency spillway during an assumed clogged primary outlet condition. Where maximum velocities exceed design standards contained in the Engineering Field Manual for Conservation Practices (USDA, SCS, July 1984), suitable lining shall be provided. In general, emergency spillways should not be located in fill areas; all such practices placed on fill materials shall be lined. Lining for emergency spillways shall incorporate native colors and materials where possible, including mono slab revetments, grass pavers and native stone.
(8) 
Freeboard. Freeboard is the difference between the elevation of the design flow in the emergency spillway (usually the one-hundred-year peak elevation) and the top elevation of the settled basin embankment (that is, top of berm). The minimum freeboard shall be one foot.
(9) 
Energy dissipaters and level spreaders. Energy dissipaters and/or level spreaders shall be installed to prevent erosion and/or initiate sheet flow at points where pipes or drainageways discharge to or from basins. Energy dissipaters shall comply with criteria in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 15 Design for Stable Channels with Flexible Linings (USDOT, FHWA, 1986) or the Engineering Field Manual for Conservation Practices (USDA, SCS, July 1984). Such facilities shall be both functional and attractive; for example, native rock shall be used in constructing dissipaters where practical.
(10) 
Stabilization. Proper stabilization structures, including stilling basins, energy dissipaters, and channel lining, shall be constructed at the outlets of all basins and emergency spillways. The stabilization structures shall control water to: avoid erosion, reduce velocities of released water and direct water so that it does not interfere with downstream activities.
(11) 
Discharge points. The minimum distance between a proposed basin discharge point (including the energy dissipater, etc.) and a downstream property boundary shall in no case be less than 15 feet. Where there is discharge onto or through adjacent properties prior to release to a stream, designers shall demonstrate how downstream properties are to be protected. The Municipal Engineer may require that the setback distance be increased based upon factors such as topography, soil conditions, the size of structures, the location of structures, and discharge rates. A drainage easement may also be required.
(12) 
A sediment forebay with a hardened bottom shall be provided at each inlet into the detention basin. The forebay storage capacity shall at minimum be 10% of the permanent pool storage. The forebay shall be designed to allow for access by maintenance equipment for periodic cleaning.
D. 
Conveyance systems (open channels, drainageways, and storm sewers).
(1) 
Applicants are encouraged to design conveyance systems that encourage infiltration and improve water quality wherever practicable.
(2) 
Wherever conveyance channels are necessary, drainage shall be maintained by an open channel with landscaped banks designed to carry the ten-year, twenty-four-hour stormwater runoff from upstream contributory areas. The Municipal Engineer may increase the design storm, as conditions require. All open channels shall be designed with one foot of freeboard above the design water surface elevation of the design runoff condition.
(3) 
Flood relief channels shall be provided and designed to convey the runoff from the one-hundred-year, twenty-four-hour storm, such that a positive discharge of this runoff to an adequate receiving stream or conveyance system occurs without allowing this runoff to encroach upon other properties.
(4) 
Open channels along existing roadways may be required to be enclosed by the Township if PennDOT standards for safety and maintenance cannot be satisfied. All drainage structures shall conform to the latest edition of Form 408, PennDOT specifications.
(5) 
Manholes and/or inlets shall not be spaced more than 300 feet apart for pipe sizes up to 24 inches in diameter and not more than 450 feet apart for larger pipe sizes.
(6) 
Where drainage swales are used in lieu of or in addition to storm sewers, they shall be designed to carry the required runoff without erosion and in a manner not detrimental to the properties they cross. Drainage swales shall provide a minimum grade of 2% but shall not exceed a grade of 9%. Drainage swales used strictly for conveyance are not the same as open vegetated channels. Design standards for open vegetated channels are provided under § 170-310A of this chapter.
(7) 
Street curbing for the purpose of stormwater conveyance is discouraged. On streets that must contain curbing, storm sewers shall be placed in front of the curbing. To the greatest extent possible, storm sewers shall not be placed directly under curbing. At curbed street intersections, storm inlets shall be placed in the tangent section of the road.
(8) 
Use of grassed swales or open vegetated swales in lieu of curbing to convey, infiltrate and/or treat stormwater runoff from roadways is encouraged. Inlets shall be placed at the center of the shoulder swale draining the street and shall be located no closer than four feet from the edge of the cartway.
(9) 
The Township shall be granted a minimum twenty-foot-wide drainage easement over all storm sewers, drainage swales, channels, etc., that are a component of the stormwater management system when located within undedicated land. All permanent detention basins and/or other stormwater management facilities providing stormwater control for other than a single residential lot shall be located within a defined drainage easement that allows proper legal access and maintenance vehicle access by Township personnel if the need arises for such access.
(10) 
No property owner shall obstruct or alter the flow, location or carrying capacity of a stream, channel or drainage swale to the detriment of any other property owner, whether upstream or downstream. All subdivision and/or land development plans containing streams, channels, drainage swales, storm sewers or other conveyance systems that cross property boundaries, existing or proposed, or whose discharge crosses such boundaries shall contain a note stating the above.
(11) 
Water quality inlets. Storm drainage systems that collect runoff from parking areas and/or loading areas exceeding 10,000 square feet of impervious coverage and discharge to stormwater management systems, including surface or subsurface infiltration systems, shall have a minimum of one water quality inlet per each acre of drainage area. The purpose of water quality inlets is to remove oil, grease, and heavy particulates or total suspended solids, hydrocarbons and other floating substances from stormwater runoff. Methods other than water quality inlets may be permitted if the applicant demonstrates to the Township Engineer's satisfaction that any such alternative will be as effective and as easily maintained. Periodic cleaning of these systems shall be addressed in the operation and maintenance plan submitted to the Township.
E. 
Landscaping of stormwater management practices. Stormwater management practices shall be landscaped in accordance with the following standards. Landscape plans shall be prepared by a professional landscape architect licensed in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(1) 
Landscaping shall be required in and around all constructed stormwater management practices with a minimum surface area of 1,000 square feet for the purposes of:
(a) 
Assisting in the management of stormwater;
(b) 
Stabilizing the soil within such facilities to minimize and control erosion;
(c) 
Enhancing the visual appearance of such facilities; and
(d) 
Mitigating maintenance problems commonly associated with the creation of such facilities.
(e) 
A fence or suitable vegetative screen shall be provided around all detention and retention basins as required by the Township Engineer.
(f) 
All fencing shall be at least 3 1/2 feet in height and shall be composed of the following shrubs: 1) Barberry (Beris species); 2) Eleagnus (Eleagnus species); 3) Firethorn (Pyracantha species); or 4) Rose (Rose species).
(g) 
When vegetative screening is utilized, a wire mesh fencing shall also be installed on the reservoir side of the basin behind the vegetative screening so as to provide a barrier to prevent entrance to the basin area.
(2) 
A planting plan and planting schedule shall be submitted in accordance with the following:
(a) 
Wet meadows including floors of stormwater management practices.
[1] 
Wet meadows and floors of stormwater management practices shall be planted with wildflowers and nonaggressive grasses, the intent being to create a mixed meadow of such plantings, where appropriate. Selection of plantings shall be based on whether the area in question is usually well drained or permanently wet and whether the area will be used for recreation purposes. No woody plants shall be planted within the saturated zone (phreatic line) of a stormwater management practice or on a berm constructed for impounded water.
[2] 
Seeding by drills, corrugated rollers, cyclone or drop seeders or hand seeding of such areas is preferred; however, hydroseeding followed by hydromulching can be used on wet ground and steep slopes.
[3] 
Fertilizers, as a nutrient supplement, shall not be used unless it is documented that soil conditions warrant such use and nutrient applied does not exceed plant uptake. Soil for planting of wildflowers shall contain not less than 3% or more than 10% organic matter, as determined by an agricultural chemist, with certification of the test before planting.
[4] 
Seeding shall take place either between April 1 and May 15 or between September 1 and October 15. Planting areas shall be soaked to maintain a consistent level of moisture for at least four to six weeks after planting.
[5] 
Once established, a single annual mowing when plants are dormant should be sufficient to maintain a wet meadow and/or floor of a stormwater management practice.
(b) 
Wet edges that remain wet all or most of the year shall be planted with wildflowers, grasses and shrubs. Plants to be located on rims or banks, which remain dry most of the year, shall be planted with species tolerant of dry soil conditions.
(c) 
Wooded areas.
[1] 
Where stormwater management practices adjoin wooded areas, trees and shrubs shall be selected and planted outside the practice so as to blend with existing surroundings.
[2] 
Plantings in such areas shall be of sufficient density to eliminate the need for mowing.
[3] 
It is recommended that clusters of trees and shrubs be planted around stormwater management facilities but well away from outfalls and any constructed berms, where applicable, to provide for wildlife habitat, wind control and buffering and screening.
[4] 
Vegetation shall be planted during appropriate times of the year, predominantly between late March and mid-May or from early October until evidence of ground freezing, depending upon the species selected. Most deciduous trees and shrubs can be planted in either spring or fall. Evergreens are best planted in late summer or early fall.
(d) 
Slopes.
[1] 
Where slopes are gentle, a mixture of meadow grasses and wildflowers (for wet meadows) shall be planted.
[2] 
On slopes exceeding 15%, dense spreading shrubs (shrubs tolerant of dry soils) shall be planted. Heavy mat mulch shall be used during the period of establishment.
[3] 
No woody plant materials or trees shall be located on a constructed or natural berm acting as the impoundment structure of a stormwater management practice. Trees shall be located downstream of an impoundment berm a sufficient distance from the toe of the constructed slope to assure that the toe of the slope is outside the dripline of the species planted at maturity but in no case less than 15 feet.
[4] 
In cases where stormwater management practices are to be located in proximity to wetlands or waterways, the applicant's planting plan and schedule shall consider the sensitive conditions existing therein and be modified accordingly to reflect existing flora.
[5] 
Stormwater management practices shall be screened in a manner which complements the existing landscape and provides sufficient access for maintenance.
A. 
Any BMP intended to hold standing water for four days or longer shall be designed to incorporate biologic controls consistent with the West Nile Virus Design Guidance found in Appendix D,[1] PADEP Document 363-0300-001 "Design Criteria - Wetlands Replacement/Monitoring" (as amended), or contact the Pennsylvania State Cooperative Wetland Center or the Penn State Cooperative Extension Office for design information.
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix D is included as an attachment to this chapter.
B. 
Any stormwater basin required or regulated by this chapter designed to store runoff and requiring a berm or earthen embankment shall be designed to provide an emergency spillway to safely convey flow up to and including the one-hundred-year proposed conditions. The height of embankment shall provide a minimum one foot of freeboard above the maximum pool elevation computed when the facility functions for the one-hundred-year proposed conditions inflow. Should any BMP require a dam safety permit under PA Chapter 105 regulations,[2] the facility shall be designed in accordance with and meet the regulations of PA Chapter 105 concerning dam safety. PA Chapter 105 may require the safe conveyance of storms larger than one-hundred-year event.
[2]
Editor's Note: See 25 Pa. Code Chapter 105.
C. 
Any drainage conveyance facility and/or channel not governed by PA Chapter 105 regulations shall be designed to convey, without damage to the drainage facility or roadway, runoff from the twenty-five-year storm event. Larger storm events (fifty-year and one-hundred-year storms) shall also be safely conveyed in the direction of natural flow without creating additional damage to any drainage facilities, nearby structures, or roadways.
D. 
Conveyance facilities to or exiting from stormwater management facilities (i.e., detention basins) shall be designed to convey the design flow to or from the facility.
E. 
Roadway crossings or structures located within designated floodplain areas shall be able to convey runoff from a one-hundred-year design storm consistent with Federal Emergency Management Agency National Flood Insurance Program - Floodplain Management Requirements.
F. 
Any facility located within a PennDOT right-of-way shall comply with PennDOT minimum design standards and permit submission and approval requirements.
G. 
Adequate erosion protection and energy dissipation shall be provided along all open channels and at all points of discharge. Design methods shall be consistent with the Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Engineering Circular Number 11 (Publication No. FHWA-IP-89-016, as amended) and the PADEP Erosion and Sediment Pollution Control Program Manual (Publication No. 363-2134-008, as amended), or other design guidance acceptable to the Municipal Engineer.