[Ord. No. 1654 Art. 1, 3-10-1999; Ord. No. 2249 §I, 5-8-2012]
Statutory Authorization. The legislature of the State of Missouri has in Section 77.260, RSMo., delegated the responsibility to local governmental units to adopt regulations designed to protect the health, safety and general welfare of its citizens. Therefore, the City Council of the City of Richmond, Missouri, ordains as follows:
Findings Of Fact.
Flood losses resulting from periodic inundation. The special flood hazard areas of Richmond, Missouri, are subject to inundation which results in loss of life and property, health and safety hazards, disruption of commerce and governmental services, extraordinary public expenditures for flood protection and relief, and impairment of the tax base; all of which adversely affect the public health, safety and general welfare.
General causes of flood losses. These flood losses are caused by:
Methods used to analyze flood hazards. The Flood Insurance Study (FIS) that is the basis of this Chapter uses a standards engineering method of analyzing flood hazards which consist of a series of interrelated steps.
Selection of a base flood that is based upon engineering calculations which permit a consideration of such flood factors as its expected frequency of occurrence, the area inundated, and the depth of inundation. The base flood selected for this Chapter is representative of large floods which are characteristic of what can be expected to occur on the particular streams subject to this Chapter. It is in the general order of a flood which could be expected to have a one percent (1%) chance of occurrence in any one (1) year as delineated on the Federal Insurance Administrator's FIS, and illustrative materials for Ray County dated June 19, 2012, as amended, and any future revisions thereto.
Calculation of water surface profiles are based on a standard hydraulic engineering analysis of the capacity of the stream channel and overbank areas to convey the regulatory flood.
Computation of a floodway required to convey this flood without increasing flood heights more than one (1) foot at any point.
Delineation of floodway encroachment lines within which no development is permitted that would cause any increase in flood height.
Delineation of flood fringe, i.e., that area outside the floodway encroachment lines, but still subject to inundation by the base flood.
Statement Of Purpose. It is the purpose of this Chapter to promote the public health, safety and general welfare; to minimize those losses described in Section 415.010(B)(1); to establish or maintain the community's eligibility for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) as defined in 44 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 59.22(a)(3); and to meet the requirements of 44 CFR 60.3(d) by applying the provisions of this Chapter to:
Restrict or prohibit uses that are dangerous to health, safety or property in times of flooding or cause undue increases in flood heights or velocities;
Require uses vulnerable to floods, including public facilities that serve such uses, be provided with flood protection at the time of initial construction; and
Protect individuals from buying lands that are unsuited for the intended development purposes due to the flood hazard.
[Ord. No. 1654 Art. 2, 3-10-1999; Ord. No. 2249 §I, 5-8-2012]
Lands To Which Chapter Applies. This Chapter shall apply to all lands within the jurisdiction of the City of Richmond, Missouri, identified as numbered and unnumbered A Zones and AE Zones on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) for Ray County on map panels 29177C0261D, 29177C0262D, 291770263D, 29177C0264D, and 29177C0270D, 29177C0355D dated June 19, 2012, as amended, and any future revisions thereto. In all areas covered by this Chapter, no development shall be permitted except through the issuance of a floodplain development permit granted by the City Council or its duly designated representative under such safeguards and restrictions as the City Council or the designated representative may reasonably impose for the promotion and maintenance of the general welfare, health of the inhabitants of the community, and as specifically noted in Section 415.040.
Compliance. No development located within the special flood hazard areas of this community shall be located, extended, converted or structurally altered without full compliance with the terms of this Chapter and other applicable regulations.
Abrogation And Greater Restrictions. It is not intended by this Chapter to repeal, abrogate or impair any existing easements, covenants or deed restrictions. However, where this Chapter imposes greater restrictions, the provisions of this Chapter shall prevail. All other ordinances inconsistent with this Chapter are hereby repealed to the extent to the inconsistency only.
Interpretation. In their interpretation and application, the provisions of this Chapter shall be held to be minimum requirements, shall be liberally construed in favor of the Governing Body, and shall not be deemed a limitation or repeal of any other powers granted by State Statutes.
Warning And Disclaimer Of Liability. The degree of flood protection required by this Chapter is considered reasonable for regulatory purposes and is based on engineering and scientific methods of study. Larger floods may occur on rare occasions or the flood heights may be increased by man-made or natural causes, such as ice jams and bridge openings restricted by debris. This Chapter does not imply that areas outside unnumbered A Zones or land uses permitted within such areas will be free from flooding or flood damage. This Chapter shall not create a liability on the part of the City of Richmond, any officer or employee thereof for any flood damage that may result from reliance on this Chapter or any administrative decision lawfully made thereunder.
Severability. If any Section, clause, provision or portion of this Chapter is adjudged unconstitutional or invalid by a court of appropriate jurisdiction, the remainder of this Chapter shall not be affected thereby.
[Ord. No. 1654 Art. 3, 3-10-1999; Ord. No. 2249 §I, 5-8-2012]
Floodplain Development Permit Required. A floodplain development permit shall be required for all proposed construction or other development, including the placement of manufactured homes in the areas described in Section 415.020(A). No person, firm, corporation or unit of government shall initiate any development or substantial improvement or cause the same to be done without first obtaining a separate floodplain development permit for each structure or other development.
Designation Of Floodplain Administrator. The Community Development Director is hereby appointed to administer and implement the provisions of this Chapter.
Duties And Responsibilities Of Floodplain Administrator. Duties of the Community Development Director shall include, but not be limited to:
Review of all applications for floodplain development permits to assure that sites are reasonably safe from flooding and that the floodplain development permit requirements of this Chapter have been satisfied;
Review of all applications for floodplain development permits for proposed development to assure that all necessary permits have been obtained from Federal, State or local governmental agencies from which prior approval is required by Federal, State or local law;
Review all subdivision proposals and other proposed new development, including manufactured home parks or subdivisions, to determine whether such proposals will be reasonably safe from flooding;
Issue floodplain development permits for all approved applications;
Notify adjacent communities and the Missouri State Emergency Management Agency prior to any alteration or relocation of a watercourse and submit evidence of such notification to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA);
Assure that maintenance is provided within the altered or relocated portion of any watercourse so that the flood-carrying capacity is not diminished; and
Where base flood elevation from other sources is utilized within unnumbered A Zones:
Verify and maintain a record of the actual elevation (in relation to mean sea level) of the lowest floor (including basement) of all new or substantially improved structures;
Verify and maintain a record of the actual elevation (in relation to mean sea level) that the new or substantially improved non-residential structures have been floodproofed; and
When floodproofing techniques are utilized for a particular non-residential structure, the Community Development Director shall require certification from a registered professional engineer or architect.
Application For Floodplain Development Permit. To obtain a floodplain development permit, the applicant shall first file an application in writing on a form furnished for that purpose. Every floodplain development permit application shall:
Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by lot, block, and tract, house and street address, or similar description that will readily identify and specifically locate the proposed structure or work;
Identify and describe the work to be covered by the floodplain development permit;
Indicate the use or occupancy for which the proposed work is intended;
Indicate the assessed value of the structure and the fair market value of the improvement;
Specify whether development is located in designated flood fringe or floodway;
Identify the existing base flood elevation and the elevation of the proposed development;
Give such other information as reasonably may be required by the Community Development Director;
Be accompanied by plans and specifications for proposed construction; and
Be signed by the permittee or his authorized agent who may be required to submit evidence to indicate such authority.
[Ord. No. 1654 Art. 4, 3-10-1999; Ord. No. 2249 §I, 5-8-2012]
No permit for floodplain development shall be granted for new construction, substantial improvements and other improvements, including the placement of manufactured homes, within any numbered or unnumbered A Zones and AE Zones, unless the conditions of this Section are satisfied.
All areas identified as unnumbered A Zones on the FIRM are subject to inundation of the 100-year flood; however, the base flood elevation is not provided. Development within unnumbered A Zones is subject to all provisions of this Chapter. If Flood Insurance Study data is not available, the community shall obtain, review and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation or floodway data currently available from Federal, State or other sources.
Until a floodway is designated, no new construction, substantial improvements, or other development, including fill, shall be permitted within any numbered A Zone or AE Zone on the FIRM, unless it is demonstrated that the cumulative effect of the proposed development, when combined with all other existing and anticipated development, will not increase the water surface elevation of the base flood more than one (1) foot at any point within the community.
All new construction, subdivision proposals, substantial improvements, prefabricated buildings, placement of manufactured homes, and other developments shall require:
Design of adequate anchorage to prevent flotation, collapse or lateral movement of the structure resulting from hydrodynamic and hydrostatic loads, including the effects of buoyancy;
Construction with materials resistant to flood damage;
Utilization of methods and practices that minimize flood damage;
All electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, air-conditioning equipment and other service facilities be designed and/or located so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding;
New or replacement water supply systems and/or sanitary sewage systems be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the systems and discharges from the systems into floodwaters and on-site waste disposal systems be located so as to avoid impairment or contamination; and
Subdivision proposals and other proposed new development, including manufactured home parks or subdivisions, located within special flood hazard areas are required to assure that:
All such proposals are consistent with the need to minimize flood damage;
All public utilities and facilities, such as sewer, gas, electrical and water systems, are located and constructed to minimize or eliminate flood damage;
Adequate drainage is provided so as to reduce exposure to flood hazards; and
All proposals for development, including proposals for manufactured home parks and subdivisions of five (5) acres or fifty (50) lots, whichever is less, included within such proposals base flood elevation data.
Storage, material and equipment.
The storage or processing of materials within the special flood hazard area that are in time of flooding buoyant, flammable, explosive or could be injurious to human, animal or plant life is prohibited.
Storage of other material or equipment may be allowed if not subject to major damage by floods, if firmly anchored to prevent flotation, or if readily removable from the area within the time available after a flood warning.
Accessory structures. Structures used solely for parking and limited storage purposes, not attached to any other structure on the site, of limited investment value and not larger than four hundred (400) square feet may be constructed at-grade and wet-floodproofed provided there is no human habitation or occupancy of the structure; the structure is of single-wall design; a variance has been granted from the standard floodplain management requirements of this Chapter; and a floodplain development permit has been issued.
Specific Standards. In all areas as numbered and unnumbered A Zones and AE Zones, where base flood elevation data have been provided as set forth in Subsection (A)(2) above, the following provisions are required:
Residential construction. New construction or substantial improvement of any residential structure, including manufactured homes, shall have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to one (1) foot above base flood level. [In all unnumbered and numbered A Zones and AE Zones, the FEMA, Region VII office recommends elevating to one (1) foot above the base flood elevation to accommodate floodway conditions when the floodplain is fully developed.]
Non-residential construction. New construction or substantial improvement of any commercial, industrial or other non-residential structure, including manufactured homes, shall have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to one (1) foot above the base flood level or, together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, be floodproofed so that below the base flood level the structure is water-tight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy. A registered professional engineer or architect shall certify that the standards of this Subsection are satisfied. Such certification shall be provided to the Floodplain Administrator as set forth in Section 415.030(C)(7). [The FEMA, Region VII office recommends elevating to one (1) foot above the base flood elevation to qualify for flood insurance rates based upon floodproofing.]
Require, for all new construction and substantial improvements, that fully enclosed areas below lowest floor used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage in an area other than a basement and that are subject to flooding shall be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the entry and exit of floodwaters. Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect or meet or exceed the following minimum criteria:
A minimum of two (2) openings having a total net area of not less than one (1) square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding shall be provided; and
The bottom of all openings shall be no higher than one (1) foot above grade. Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, valves or other coverings or devices provided that they permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters.
All manufactured homes to be placed within all unnumbered and numbered A Zones and AE Zones on the community's FIRM shall be required to be installed using methods and practices that minimize flood damage. For the purposes of this requirement, manufactured homes must be elevated and anchored to resist flotation, collapse, or lateral movement. Methods of anchoring may include, but are not limited to, use of over-the-top or frame ties to ground anchors.
Require manufactured homes that are placed or substantially improved within unnumbered or numbered A Zones and AE Zones on the community's FIRM on sites:
Outside of manufactured home park or subdivision;
In a new manufactured home park or subdivision;
In an expansion to an existing manufactured home park or subdivision; or
In an existing manufactured home park or subdivision on which a manufactured home has incurred "substantial damage" as the result of a flood,
Require that manufactured homes to be placed or substantially improved on sites in an existing manufactured home park or subdivision within all unnumbered and numbered A Zones and AE Zones on the community's FIRM, that are not subject to the provisions of Section 415.040(C)(2) of this Chapter, be elevated so that either:
The lowest floor of the manufactured home is at one (1) foot above the base flood level; or
The manufactured home chassis is supported by reinforced piers or other foundation elements of at least equivalent strength that are no less than thirty-six (36) inches in height above grade and be securely attached to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement.
Floodway. Located within areas of special flood hazard established in Section 415.020(A) are areas designated as floodways. Since the floodway is an extremely hazardous area due to the velocity of floodwaters that carry debris and potential projectiles, the following provisions shall apply:
The community shall select and adopt a regulatory floodway based on the principle that the area chosen for the regulatory floodway must be designed to carry the waters of the base flood without increasing the water surface elevation of that flood more than one (1) foot at any point.
The community shall prohibit any encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements, and other development, within the adopted regulatory floodway unless it has been demonstrated through hydrologic and hydraulic analyses performed in accordance with standard engineering practice that the proposed encroachment would not result in any increase in flood levels within the community during the occurrence of the base flood discharge.
Recreational Vehicles. Require that recreational vehicles placed on sites within unnumbered and numbered A Zones and AE Zones on the community's FIRM either:
Be on the site for fewer than one hundred eighty (180) consecutive days;
Be fully licensed and ready for highway use (a recreational vehicle is ready for highway use if it is on its wheels or jacking system, is attached to the site only by quick-disconnect type utilities and security devices, and has no permanently attached additions); or
Meets the permitting, elevation and the anchoring requirements for manufactured homes of this Chapter.
[Ord. No. 1654 Art. 5, 3-10-1999; Ord. No. 2249 §I, 5-8-2012]
Establishment Of Board Of Zoning Adjustment As Appeal Board. The Board of Zoning Adjustment shall hear and decide appeals and requests for variances from the floodplain management requirements of this Chapter.
Responsibility Of Board Of Zoning Adjustment.
Where an application for a floodplain development permit or request for a variance from the floodplain management regulations is denied by the Community Development Director, the applicant may apply for such floodplain development permit or variance directly to the Board of Zoning Adjustment as defined in Subsection (A) above.
The Board of Zoning Adjustment shall hear and decide appeals when it is alleged that there is an error in any requirement, decision or determination made by the Community Development Director in the enforcement or administration of this Chapter.
Further Appeals. Any person aggrieved by the decision of the Board of Zoning Adjustment or any taxpayer may appeal such decision to the Circuit Court as provided in Section 89.110, RSMo.
Floodplain Management Variance Criteria. In passing upon such application for variances, the Board of Zoning Adjustment shall consider all technical data and evaluations, all relevant factors, standards specified in other Sections of this Chapter, and the following criteria:
The danger to life and property due to flood damage;
The danger that materials may be swept onto other lands to the injury of others;
The susceptibility of the proposed facility and its contents to flood damage and the effect of such damage on the individual owner;
The importance of the services provided by the proposed facility to the community;
The necessity to the facility of a waterfront location, where applicable;
The availability of alternative locations, not subject to flood damage, for the proposed use;
The compatibility of the proposed use with existing and anticipated development;
The relationship of the proposed use to the Comprehensive Plan and floodplain management program for that area;
The safety of access to the property in times of flood for ordinary and emergency vehicles;
The expected heights, velocity, duration, rate of rise and sediment transport of the floodwaters, if applicable, expected at the site; and
The costs of providing governmental services during and after flood conditions, including maintenance and repair of public utilities and facilities such as sewer, gas, electrical and water systems; streets; and bridges.
Conditions For Approving Floodplain Management Variances.
Generally, variances may be issued for new construction and substantial improvements to be erected on a lot of one-half (½) acre or less in size contiguous to and surrounded by lots with existing structures constructed below the base flood level, providing Subparagraphs (2) through (6) below have been fully considered. As the lot size increases beyond the one-half (½) acre, the technical justification required for issuing the variance increases.
Variances may be issued for the reconstruction, rehabilitation or restoration of structures listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the State Inventory of Historic Places, or Local Inventory of Historic Places upon determination, provided the proposed activity will not preclude the structure's continued historic designation.
Variances shall not be issued within any designated floodway if any increase in flood levels during the base flood discharge would result.
Variances shall only be issued upon a determination that the variance is the minimum necessary, considering the flood hazard, to afford relief.
Variances shall only be issued upon:
A showing of good and sufficient cause;
A determination that failure to grant the variance would result in exceptional hardship to the applicant; and
A determination that the granting of a variance will not result in increased flood heights, additional threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, create nuisances, cause fraud on or victimization of the public, or conflict with existing local laws or ordinances.
The City of Richmond shall notify the applicant in writing over the signature of a City Official that:
The issuance of a variance to construct a structure below base flood level will result in increased premium rates for flood insurance up to amounts as high as twenty-five dollars ($25.00) for one hundred dollars ($100.00) of insurance coverage; and
Such construction below the base flood level increases risks to life and property. Such notification shall be maintained with the record of all variance actions as required by this Chapter.
Conditions For Approving Variances For Accessory Structures. Any variance granted for an accessory structure shall be decided individually based on a case-by-case analysis of the building's unique circumstances. Variances granted shall meet the following conditions, as well as those criteria and conditions set forth in Subsections (D) and (E) of this Section. In order to minimize flood damages during the 100-year flood and the threat to public health and safety, the following conditions shall be included for any variance issued for accessory structures that are constructed at-grade and wet-floodproofed.
Use of the accessory structures must be solely for parking and limited storage purposes in Zone A only as identified on the community's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM).
For any new or substantially damaged accessory structures, the exterior and interior building components and elements (i.e., foundation, wall framing, exterior and interior finishes, flooring, etc.) below the base flood elevation must be built with flood-resistant materials in accordance with Section 415.040(A)(4)(b) of this Chapter.
The accessory structures must be adequately anchored to prevent flotation, collapse or lateral movement of the structure in accordance with Section 415.040 (A)(4)(a) of this Chapter.
Any mechanical, electrical or other utility equipment must be located above the base flood elevation or floodproofed so that they are contained within a water-tight, floodproofed enclosure that is capable of resisting damage during flood conditions in accordance with Section 415.040(A)(4)(d) of this Chapter.
The accessory structures must meet all National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) opening requirements. The NFIP requires that enclosure or foundation walls, subject to the 100-year flood, contain openings that will permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters in accordance with Section 415.040(B)(3) of this Chapter.
The accessory structures must comply with the floodplain management floodway encroachment provisions of Section 415.040(D)(2) of this Chapter. No variances may be issued for accessory structures within any designated floodway if any increase in flood levels would result during the 100-year flood.
Equipment, machinery or other contents must be protected from any flood damage.
No disaster relief assistance under any program administered by any Federal agency shall be paid for any repair or restoration costs of the accessory structures.
The City of Richmond, Missouri shall notify the applicant in writing over the signature of a City Official that:
The issuance of a variance to construct a structure below base flood level will result in increased premium rates for flood insurance up to amounts as high as twenty-five dollars ($25.00) for one hundred dollars ($100.00) of insurance coverage; and
Such construction below the base flood level increases risks to life and property.
Wet-floodproofing construction techniques must be reviewed and approved by the community and registered professional engineer or architect prior to the issuance of any floodplain development permit for construction.
[Ord. No. 1654 Art. 6, 3-10-1999; Ord. No. 2249 §I, 5-8-2012]
Violation of the provisions of this Chapter or failure to comply with any of its requirements (including violations of conditions and safeguards established in connection with granting of variances) shall constitute a misdemeanor. Any person who violates this Chapter or fails to comply with any of its requirements shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than five hundred dollars ($500.00) and, in addition, shall pay all costs and expenses involved in the case. Each day such violation continues shall be considered a separate offense.
Nothing herein contained shall prevent the City of Richmond or other appropriate authority from taking such other lawful action as is necessary to prevent or remedy any violation.
[Ord. No. 1654 Art. 7, 3-10-1999; Ord. No. 2249 §I, 5-8-2012]
A structure or the use of a structure or premises which was lawful before the passage or amendment of this Chapter, but which is not in conformity with the provisions of this Chapter, may be continued subject to the following conditions:
If such use is discontinued for six (6) consecutive months, any future use of the building premises shall conform to this Chapter. The City of Richmond Utility Department shall notify the Community Development Director in writing of instances of non-conforming uses where utility services have been discontinued for a period of six (6) months.
Uses or adjuncts thereof which are or become nuisances shall not be entitled to continue as non-conforming uses.
If any non-conforming use or structure is destroyed by any means, including flood, it shall not be reconstructed if the cost is more than fifty percent (50%) of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred except that if it is reconstructed in conformity with the provisions of this Chapter. This limitation does not include the cost of any alteration to comply with existing State or local health, sanitary, building or safety codes or regulations or the cost of any alteration of a structure listed on the National Register of Historic Places or a State Inventory of Historic Places.
[Ord. No. 1654 Art. 8, 3-10-1999; Ord. No. 2249 §I, 5-8-2012]
The regulations, restrictions and boundaries set forth in this Chapter may from time to time be amended, supplemented, changed or appealed to reflect any and all changes in the National Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, provided however, that no such action may be taken until after a public hearing in relation thereto at which parties of interest and citizens shall have an opportunity to be heard. Notice of the time and place of such hearing shall be published in a newspaper of general circulation in Richmond, Missouri. At least twenty (20) days shall elapse between the date of this publication and the public hearing. A copy of such amendments will be provided to the Region VII office of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The regulations of this Chapter are in compliance with the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations.
[Ord. No. 1654 Art. 9, 3-10-1999; Ord. No. 2249 §I, 5-8-2012]
Unless specifically defined below, words or phrases used in this Chapter shall be interpreted so as to give them the same meaning they have in common usage and to give this Chapter its most reasonable application.
- 100-YEAR FLOOD
- See "BASE FLOOD".
- ACCESSORY STRUCTURE
- The same as "APPURTENANT STRUCTURE".
- ACTUARIAL RATES
- See "RISK PREMIUM RATES".
- The Federal Insurance Administrator.
- The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
- AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES
- Agricultural products and livestock.
- AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURE
- Any structure used exclusively in connection with the production, harvesting, storage, drying or raising of agricultural commodities.
- A request for review of the Floodplain Administrator's interpretation of any provision of this Chapter or a request for a variance.
- APPURTENANT STRUCTURE
- A structure that is on the same parcel of property as the principal structure to be insured and the use of which is incidental to the use of the principal structure.
- AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD
- The land in the floodplain within a community subject to a one percent (1%) or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
- BASE FLOOD
- The flood having a one percent (1%) chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
- Any area of the building having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides.
- See "STRUCTURE".
- CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER OR CHIEF ELECTED OFFICIAL
- The official of the community who is charged with the authority to implement and administer laws, ordinances and regulations for that community.
- The City of Richmond, Missouri, which has authority to adopt and enforce floodplain management regulations for the areas within its jurisdiction.
- Any man-made change to improved or unimproved real estate, including, but not limited to, buildings or other structures, levees, levee systems, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations, or storage of equipment or materials.
- ELEVATED BUILDING
- For insurance purposes, a non-basement building which has its lowest elevated floor raised above ground level by foundation walls, shear walls, posts, piers, pilings or columns.
- ELIGIBLE COMMUNITY OR PARTICIPATING COMMUNITY
- A community for which the Administrator has authorized the sale of flood insurance under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
- EXISTING CONSTRUCTION
- For the purposes of determining rates, structures for which the "start of construction" commenced before the effective date of the FIRM or before January 1, 1975, for FIRMs effective before that date. "Existing construction" may also be referred to as "existing structures".
- EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
- A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed before the effective date of the floodplain management regulations adopted by a community.
- EXPANSION TO AN EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
- The preparation of additional sites by the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads).
- FLOOD OR FLOODING
- A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from:
- FLOOD BOUNDARY AND FLOODWAY MAP (FBFM)
- An Official Map of a community on which the Administrator has delineated both special flood hazard areas and the designated regulatory floodway.
- FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATION
- A determination by the Administrator of the water surface elevations of the base flood, that is, the flood level that has a one percent (1%) or greater chance of occurrence in any given year.
- FLOOD ELEVATION STUDY
- An examination, evaluation and determination of flood hazards.
- FLOOD FRINGE
- The area outside the floodway encroachment lines, but still subject to inundation by the regulatory flood.
- FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP (FHBM)
- An Official Map of a community, issued by the Administrator, where the boundaries of the flood areas having special flood hazards have been designated as (unnumbered or numbered) A Zones.
- FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM)
- An Official Map of a community on which the Administrator has delineated both the special flood hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the community.
- FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY (FIS)
- An examination, evaluation and determination of flood hazards and, if appropriate, corresponding water surface elevations.
- FLOODPLAIN OR FLOOD-PRONE AREA
- Any land area susceptible to being inundated by water from any source (see "FLOODING").
- FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT
- The operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood damage, including, but not limited to, emergency preparedness plans, flood control works, and floodplain management regulations.
- FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS
- Zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations, special purpose ordinances (such as floodplain and grading ordinances) and other applications of police power. The term describes such State or local regulations, in any combination thereof, that provide standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction.
- Any combination of structural and non-structural additions, changes or adjustments to structures that reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitary facilities, or structures and their contents.
- FLOODWAY OR REGULATORY FLOODWAY
- The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one (1) foot.
- FLOODWAY ENCROACHMENT LINES
- The lines marking the limits of floodways on Federal, State and local floodplain maps.
- A factor of safety usually expressed in feet above a flood level for purposes of floodplain management. "Freeboard" tends to compensate for the many unknown factors that could contribute to flood heights greater than the height calculated for a selected size flood and floodway conditions, such as bridge openings and the hydrological effect of urbanization of the watershed.
- FUNCTIONALLY DEPENDENT USE
- A use that cannot perform its intended purpose unless it is located or carried out in close proximity to water. This term includes only docking facilities and facilities that are necessary for the loading and unloading of cargo or passengers, but does not include long-term storage or related manufacturing facilities.
- HIGHEST ADJACENT GRADE
- The highest natural elevation of the ground surface prior to construction next to the proposed walls of a structure.
- HISTORIC STRUCTURE
- Any structure that is:
- 1. Listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places (a listing maintained by the Department of Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;
- 2. Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary to qualify as a registered historic district;
- 3. Individually listed on a State Inventory of Historic Places in States with Historic Preservation Programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or
- 4. Individually listed on a Local Inventory of Historic Places in communities with Historic Preservation Programs that have been certified either:
- LOWEST FLOOR
- The lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area (including basement). An unfinished or flood-resistant enclosure, usable solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage in an area other than a basement area, is not considered a building's lowest floor, provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in violation of the applicable floodproofing design requirements of this Chapter.
- MANUFACTURED HOME
- A structure, transportable in one (1) or more sections, that is built on a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent foundation when attached to the required utilities. The term "manufactured home" does not include a "recreational vehicle".
- MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
- A parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two (2) or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale.
- The Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM) or the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), or the Flood Boundary and Floodway Map (FBFM) for a community issued by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
- MARKET VALUE OR FAIR MARKET VALUE
- An estimate of what is fair, economic, just and equitable value under normal local market conditions.
- MEAN SEA LEVEL
- For purposes of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929 or other datum to which base flood elevations shown on a community's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) are referenced.
- NEW CONSTRUCTION
- For the purposes of determining insurance rates, structures for which the "start of construction" commenced on or after the effective date of an initial FIRM or after December 31, 1974, whichever is later, and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures. For floodplain management purposes, "new construction" means structures for which the "start of construction" commenced on or after the effective date of the floodplain management regulations adopted by a community and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures.
- NEW MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
- A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lot on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed on or after the effective date of floodplain management regulations adopted by the community.
- The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
- PARTICIPATING COMMUNITY
- Also known as an "eligible community", means a community in which the Administrator has authorized the sale of flood insurance.
- Includes any individual or group of individuals, corporation, partnership, association or any other entity, including Federal, State and local governments and agencies.
- PRINCIPALLY ABOVE GROUND
- That at least fifty-one percent (51%) of the actual cash value of the structure, less land value, is above ground.
- RECREATIONAL VEHICLE
- A vehicle which is:
- 1. Built on a single chassis;
- 2. Four hundred (400) square feet or less when measured at the largest horizontal projections;
- 3. Designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable by a light-duty truck; and
- 4. Designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel or seasonal use.
- REMEDY A VIOLATION
- To bring the structure or other development into compliance with Federal, State or local floodplain management regulations; or, if this is not possible, to reduce the impacts of its non-compliance.
- REPETITIVE LOSS
- Flood-related damages sustained by a structure on two (2) separate occasions during a ten (10) year period for which the cost of repairs at the time of each such flood event equals or exceeds twenty-five percent (25%) of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
- RISK PREMIUM RATES
- Those rates established by the Administrator pursuant to individual community studies and investigations which are undertaken to provide flood insurance in accordance with Section 1307 of the National Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 and the accepted actuarial principles. "Risk premium rates" include provisions for operating costs and allowances.
- SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA
- See "AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD".
- SPECIAL HAZARD AREA
- An area having special flood hazards and shown on an FHBM, FIRM, or FBFM as Zones (unnumbered or numbered) A and AE.
- START OF CONSTRUCTION
- Includes substantial improvements, and means the date the building permit was issued, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition placement or other improvements were within one hundred eighty (180) days of the permit date. The "actual start" means either the first (1st) placement of permanent construction of a structure on a site such as the pouring of slabs or footings, the installation of piles, the construction of columns, any work beyond the stage of excavation, or the placement of a manufactured home on a foundation. Permanent construction does not include land preparation such as clearing, grading and filling, the installation of streets and/or walkways, excavation for a basement, footings, piers, foundations, the erection of temporary forms, nor installation on the property of accessory buildings, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure. For a substantial improvement, the "actual start of construction" means the first (1st) alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building.
- STATE COORDINATING AGENCY
- That agency of the State Government or other office designated by the Governor of the State or by State Statute at the request of the Administrator to assist in the implementation of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in that State.
- For floodplain management purposes, a walled and roofed building, including a gas or liquid storage tank, that is principally above ground, as well as a manufactured home. "Structure", for insurance purposes, means a walled and roofed building, other than gas or liquid storage tank, that is principally above ground and affixed to a permanent site, as well as a manufactured home on a permanent foundation. For the latter purpose, the term includes a building while in the course of construction, alteration or repair but does not include building materials or supplies intended for use in such construction, alteration or repair, unless such materials or supplies are within an enclosed building on the premises.
- SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE
- Damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to pre-damaged condition would equal or exceed fifty percent (50%) of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred. The term includes Repetitive Loss buildings (see definition).
- For the purposes of this definition, "repair" is considered to occur when the first (1st) repair or reconstruction of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of the building commences.
- The term does not apply to:
- 1. Any project for improvement of a building required to comply with existing health, sanitary, or safety code specifications which have been identified by the Code Enforcement Official and which are solely necessary to assure safe living conditions; or
- 2. Any alteration of a "historic structure" provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as a "historic structure"; or
- 3. Any improvement to a building.
- SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT
- Any combination of reconstruction, alteration, or improvement to a building, taking place during a ten (10) year period, in which the cumulative percentage of improvement equals or exceeds fifty percent (50%) of the current market value of the building. For purposes of this definition, an improvement occurs when the first (1st) alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of the building commences, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building. This term includes structures which have incurred "repetitive loss" or "substantial damage", regardless of the actual repair work done. The term does not apply to:
- 1. Any project for improvement of a structure to correct existing violations of State or local health, sanitary or safety code specifications that have been identified by the local Code Enforcement Official and which are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions; or
- 2. Any alteration of a "historic structure", provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as a "historic structure"; or
- 3. Any building that has been damaged from any source or is categorized as repetitive loss.
- SUBSTANTIALLY IMPROVED EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARKS OR SUBDIVISIONS
- Where the repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation or improvement of the streets, utilities and pads equals or exceeds fifty percent (50%) of the value of the streets, utilities and pads before the repair, reconstruction or improvement commenced.
- A grant of relief by the community from the terms of a floodplain management regulation. Flood insurance requirements remain in place for any varied use or structure and cannot be varied by the community.
- The failure of a structure or other development to be fully compliant with the community's floodplain management regulations. A structure or other development without the elevation certificate, other certifications or other evidence of compliance required by this Chapter is presumed to be in violation until such time as that documentation is provided.
- WATER SURFACE ELEVATION
- The height, in relation to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929 (or other datum where specified), of floods of various magnitudes and frequencies in the floodplain.