City of Augusta, ME
Kennebec County
By using eCode360 you agree to be legally bound by the Terms of Use. If you do not agree to the Terms of Use, please do not use eCode360.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[Amended 5-17-2004 by Ord. No. 72; 4-19-2005 by Ord. No. 061; 3-20-2006 by Ord. No. 040; 4-20-2017 by Ord. No. 17-067]
Notwithstanding other provisions of this chapter, the following performance standards shall apply to structures and uses of land in shoreland areas. Where the provisions of this section impose a stricter standard than another applicable provision of this chapter, the requirement of this section shall prevail.
A. 
Agriculture.
(1) 
The following regulations shall apply to all agriculture uses proposed in the City.
(2) 
All spreading or disposal of manure shall be accomplished in conformance with the Manure Utilization Guidelines published by the former Maine Department of Agriculture on November 1, 2001, and the Nutrient Management Law (7 M.R.S.A. §§ 4201-4209).
(3) 
Manure shall not be stored or stockpiled within 100 feet, horizontal distance, of a great pond classified GPA or a river flowing to a great pond classified GPA, or within 75 feet, horizontal distance, of other water bodies, tributary streams, or wetlands. All manure storage areas within the shoreland zone must be constructed or modified such that the facility produces no discharge of effluent or contaminated stormwater.
(4) 
Agricultural activities involving tillage of soil greater than 40,000 square feet in surface area within the shoreland zone shall require a conservation plan to be filed with the Planning Bureau. Nonconformance with the provisions of said plan shall be considered a violation of this chapter. (Note: Assistance in preparing a conservation plan may be available through the Kennebec County Soil and Water Conservation District office.)
(5) 
There shall be no new tilling of soil within 100 feet, horizontal distance, of the normal high-water line of a great pond classified GPA, within 75 feet, horizontal distance, from other water bodies, nor within 25 feet, horizontal distance, of tributary streams and wetlands. Operations in existence on the effective date of this chapter and not in conformance with this provision may be maintained.
(6) 
Newly established livestock grazing areas shall not be permitted within 100 feet, horizontal distance, of the normal high-water line of a great pond classified GPA, within 75 feet, horizontal distance, of other water bodies, or within 25 feet, horizontal distance, of tributary streams and wetlands. Livestock grazing associated with ongoing farm activities, and which is not in conformance with the above setback provisions, may continue, provided that such grazing is conducted in accordance with a conservation plan that has been filed with the Planning Bureau.
B. 
Archeological sites. Any proposed land use activity involving structural development or soil disturbance on or adjacent to sites listed on, or eligible to be listed on, the National Register of Historic Places, as determined by the permitting authority, shall be submitted by the applicant to the Maine Historic Preservation Commission for review and comment, at least 20 days before action is taken by the permitting authority. The permitting authority shall consider comments received from the Commission before rendering a decision on the application.
C. 
Clearing or removal of vegetation for activities other than timber harvesting.
(1) 
In a Resource Protection District abutting a great pond, there shall be no cutting of vegetation within the strip of land extending 75 feet, horizontal distance, inland from the normal high-water line, except to remove hazard trees as described in Subsection T.
(2) 
Elsewhere, in any Resource Protection District, the cutting or removal of vegetation shall be limited to that which is necessary for uses expressly authorized in that district.
(3) 
Except in areas as described in Subsection C(1) above, within a strip of land extending 100 feet, horizontal distance, inland from the normal high-water line of a great pond classified GPA or a river flowing to a great pond classified GPA, or within a strip extending 75 feet, horizontal distance, from any other water body, tributary stream, or the upland edge of a wetland, a buffer strip of vegetation shall be preserved as follows:
(a) 
There shall be no cleared opening greater than 250 square feet in the forest canopy (or other existing woody vegetation if a forested canopy is not present) as measured from the outer limits of the tree or shrub crown. However, a single footpath not to exceed six feet in width as measured between tree trunks and/or shrub stems is allowed for accessing the shoreline, provided that a cleared line of sight to the water through the buffer strip is not created
(b) 
Selective cutting of trees within the buffer strip is allowed, provided that a well-distributed stand of trees and other natural vegetation is maintained. For the purposes of § 300-528B(3)(b), a "well-distributed stand of trees” adjacent to a great pond classified GPA or a river or stream flowing to a great pond classified GPA shall be defined as maintaining a rating score of 24 or more in each twenty-five-foot by fifty-foot rectangular (1,250 square feet) area as determined by the following rating system:
Diameter of Tree at 4 1/2 Feet Above Ground Level
(inches)
Points
2 to <4
1
4 to <8
2
8 to <12
8
12 or greater
12
Adjacent to other water bodies, tributary streams, and wetlands, a "well-distributed stand of trees" is defined as maintaining a minimum rating score of 16 per 25-foot-by-50-foot rectangular area.
NOTE: As an example, adjacent to a great pond, if a 25-foot-by-50-foot plot contains 4 trees between 2 and 4 inches in diameter, 2 trees between 4 and 8 inches in diameter, 3 trees between 8 and 12 inches in diameter, and 2 trees over 12 inches in diameter, the rating score is:
(4x1) + (2x2) + (3x4) + (2x8) = 36 points
Thus, the 25-foot-by-50-foot plot contains trees worth 36 points. Trees totaling 12 points (36 - 24 = 12) may be removed from the plot, provided that no cleared openings are created.
The following shall govern in applying this point system:
[1]
The 25-foot-by-50-foot rectangular plots must be established where the landowner or lessee proposes clearing within the required buffer;
[2]
Each successive plot must be adjacent to, but not overlap, a previous plot;
[3]
Any plot not containing the required points must have no vegetation removed except as otherwise allowed by this chapter;
[4]
Any plot containing the required points may have vegetation removed down to the minimum points required or as otherwise allowed by this chapter;
[5]
Where conditions permit, no more than 50% of the points on any 25-foot-by-50-foot rectangular area may consist of trees greater than 12 inches in diameter.
For the purposes of § 300-528C(3)(b), “other natural vegetation” is defined as retaining existing vegetation under 3 feet in height and other ground cover and retaining at least 5 saplings less than 2 inches in diameter at 4½ feet above ground level for each 25-foot-by-50-foot rectangle area. If 5 saplings do not exist, no woody stems less than 2 inches in diameter can be removed until 5 saplings have been recruited into the plot.
NOTE: A municipality may elect to retain its present point system that is based on 25-foot-by-25-foot plots. If so, the paragraph above must be modified as follows:
For the purposes of § 300-528C(3)(b), “other natural vegetation” is defined as retaining existing vegetation under 3 feet in height and other ground cover and retaining at least 3 saplings less than 2 inches in diameter at 4½ feet above ground level for each 25-foot-by-25-foot rectangular area. If 3 saplings do not exist, no woody stems less than 2 inches in diameter can be removed until 3 saplings have been recruited into the plot.
Section 300-528C(3)(b) must also be modified to make it clear that the point system establishes only a “well-distributed stand of trees,” not a well-distributed stand of trees and other vegetation. “Other vegetation” is described elsewhere.
Notwithstanding the above provisions, no more than 40% of the total volume of trees 4 inches or more in diameter, measured at 4½ feet above ground level, may be removed in any 10-year period.
(c) 
In order to protect water quality and wildlife, existing vegetation under three feet in height and other ground cover shall not be cut, covered, or removed, except to provide for a footpath or other permitted uses as described in Subsections C(3) and C(3)(a) above.
(d) 
Pruning of tree branches on the bottom 1/3 of the tree is allowed.
(e) 
In order to maintain a buffer strip of vegetation, when the removal of storm-damaged, dead or hazard trees results in the creation of cleared openings, these openings shall be replanted with native tree species in accordance with Subsection T below, unless existing new tree growth is present.
(f) 
In order to maintain the vegetation in the shoreline buffer, clearing or removal of vegetation for allowed activities, including associated construction and related equipment operation, within or outside the shoreline buffer, must comply with the requirements of Subsection C(3) above.
(g) 
Notwithstanding other provisions of this subsection, in the Historic Waterfront District, in order to protect water quality and wildlife habitat, and to maintain historical integrity, ground cover will be required but will not extend over three feet in height, except along the immediate water's edge. Taller vegetation may be left in place but will be left to the Tree Warden's discretion. To provide bank stabilization, a limited number of trees and tree species shall remain along the lower 25 feet of the river bank as determined by the Tree Warden. Nonnative invasive species will be permitted to be removed, so long as vegetation is replanted in these areas and soil disturbance remediation is in place until vegetation is established. Any vegetative cover needs prior approval, in writing, from the City Tree Warden.
The provisions contained in Subsection C(2) above shall not apply to those portions of public recreational facilities adjacent to public swimming areas. Cleared areas, however, shall be limited to the minimum area necessary.
(h) 
Notwithstanding other provisions of this subsection, in the Kennebec Arsenal Historic Waterfront District, in order to protect water quality and wildlife habitat, and to maintain historical integrity, maintainer grass cover will be required. Trees and shrubs will be permitted to be removed, so long as vegetation is replanted in these areas and soil disturbance remediation is in place until vegetation is established.
(4) 
At distances greater than 100 feet, horizontal distance, from a great pond classified GPA or a river flowing to a great pond classified GPA, and 75 feet, horizontal distance, from the normal high-water line of any other water body, tributary stream, or the upland edge of a wetland, there shall be allowed on any lot, in any ten-year period, selective cutting of not more than 40% of the volume of trees four inches or more in diameter, measured 4 1/2 feet above ground level. Tree removal in conjunction with the development of permitted uses shall be included in the 40% calculation. For the purposes of these standards, volume may be considered to be equivalent to basal area. In no event shall cleared openings for any purpose, including, but not limited to, principal and accessory structures, driveways, lawns and sewage disposal areas, exceed in the aggregate 25% of the lot area within the shoreland zone or 10,000 square feet, whichever is greater, including land previously cleared. This provision applies to the portion of a lot within the shoreland zone, including the buffer area, but shall not apply to the General Development District.
(5) 
Legally existing nonconforming cleared openings may be maintained but shall not be enlarged, except as allowed by this chapter.
(6) 
Fields and other cleared openings which have reverted to primarily shrubs, trees, or other woody vegetation shall be regulated under the provisions of this subsection.
D. 
Commercial and industrial uses. The following new commercial and industrial uses are prohibited within the shoreland zone adjacent to great ponds classified GPA, and rivers and streams which flow to great ponds classified GPA:
(1) 
Auto washing facilities.
(2) 
Auto or other vehicle service and/or repair operations, including body shops.
(3) 
Chemical and bacteriological laboratories.
(4) 
Storage of chemicals, including herbicides, pesticides or fertilizers other than amounts normally associated with individual households or farms.
(5) 
Commercial painting, wood preserving, and furniture stripping.
(6) 
Dry-cleaning establishments.
(7) 
Electronic circuit assembly.
(8) 
Laundromats, unless connected to a sanitary sewer.
(9) 
Metal plating, finishing, or polishing.
(10) 
Petroleum or petroleum product storage and/or sale except storage on same property as use occurs and except for storage and sales associated with marinas.
(11) 
Photographic processing.
(12) 
Printing.
E. 
Erosion and sedimentation control. See § 300-514B and the Technical Standards Handbook.
F. 
Essential services.
(1) 
Where feasible, the installation of essential services shall be limited to existing public ways and existing service corridors.
(2) 
The installation of essential services, other than roadside distribution lines, is not allowed in a Resource Protection or Stream Protection District, except to provide services to a permitted use within said district, or except where the applicant demonstrates that no reasonable alternative exists. Where allowed, such structures and facilities shall be located so as to minimize any adverse impacts on surrounding uses and resources, including visual impacts.
(3) 
Damaged or destroyed public utility transmission and distribution lines, towers and related equipment may be replaced or reconstructed without a permit.
G. 
Flood protection. Where applicable, all structures and uses in shoreland areas shall comply with the provisions of § 300-508.
H. 
Mineral exploration. See Chapter 198, Article I, Mineral Extraction.
I. 
Piers, docks, wharfs, bridges and other structures and uses extending over or below the normal high-water line of a water body or within a wetland, and shoreland stabilization. In addition to federal or state permits which may be required for such structures and uses, they shall conform to the following:
(1) 
No more than one pier, dock, wharf or similar structure extending or located below the normal high-water line of a water body or within a wetland is allowed on a single lot; except that when a single lot contains at least twice the minimum shore frontage, a second structure may be allowed and may remain as long as the lot is not further divided.
(2) 
Access from the shore shall be developed on soils appropriate for such use and constructed so as to control erosion.
(3) 
The location shall not interfere with existing developed or natural beach areas.
(4) 
The facility shall be located so as to minimize adverse effects on fisheries.
(5) 
The facility shall be no larger in dimension than necessary to carry on the activity and be consistent with the surrounding character and uses of the area.
(6) 
No new structure shall be built on, over or abutting a pier, wharf, dock or other structure extending beyond the normal high-water line of a water body or within a wetland unless the structure requires direct access to the water body as an operational necessity. (Note: A structure constructed on a float or floats is prohibited unless it is designed to function as, and is registered with the Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife as, a watercraft.)
(7) 
New permanent piers and docks on nontidal waters shall not be permitted unless it is clearly demonstrated to the Planning Board that a temporary pier or dock is not feasible and a permit has been obtained from the Department of Environmental Protection, pursuant to the Natural Resources Protection Act.
(8) 
No existing structures built on, over or abutting a pier, dock, wharf or other structure extending beyond the normal high-water line of a water body or within a wetland shall be converted to residential units in any district.
(9) 
Except in the General Development District, structures built on, over or abutting a pier, wharf, dock or other structure extending beyond the normal high-water line of a water body or within a wetland shall not exceed 20 feet in height above the pier, wharf, dock or other structure.
(10) 
Vegetation may be removed in excess of the standards in § 300-528C of this chapter in order to conduct shoreline stabilization of an eroding shoreline, provided that a permit is obtained from the Planning Board and the Department of Environmental Protection, pursuant to the Natural Resources Protection Act. Construction equipment must access the shoreline by barge when feasible as determined by the Planning Board.
(a) 
When necessary, the removal of trees and other vegetation to allow for construction equipment access to the stabilization site via land must be limited to no more than 12 feet in width. When the stabilization project is complete, the construction equipment accessway must be restored.
(b) 
Revegetation must occur in accordance with § 300-528S.
(11) 
A deck over a river may be exempted from the shoreland setback requirements if it is part of a downtown revitalization project that is defined in a project plan approved by the legislative body of the municipality, and may include the revitalization of structures formerly used as mills that do not meet the structure setback requirements, if the deck meets the following requirements:
(a) 
The total deck area attached to the structure does not exceed 700 square feet;
(b) 
The deck is cantilevered over a segment of a river that is located within the boundaries of the downtown revitalization project;
(c) 
The deck is attached to or accessory to an allowed commercial use in a structure that was constructed prior to 1971 and is located within the downtown revitalization project;
(d) 
The construction of the deck complies with all other applicable standards, except the shoreline setback requirements in § 300-528T; and
(e) 
The construction of the deck complies with all other state and federal laws.
NOTE: New permanent structures, and expansions thereof, projecting into or over water bodies shall require a permit from the Department of Environmental Protection pursuant to the Natural Resources Protection Act, 38 M.R.S.A. § 480-C. Permits may also be required from the Army Corps of Engineers if located in navigable waters.
J. 
Roads and driveways. The following standards shall apply to the construction of roads and/or driveways and drainage systems, culverts and other related features:
(1) 
See Driveway and Access Standards, § 5.3, City of Augusta Technical Standards Handbook.
(2) 
See City of Augusta Technical Standards Handbook, Road Standards.
(3) 
The maximum driveway length in the shoreland district is 500 feet.
(4) 
Roads and driveways shall be set back at least 100 feet, horizontal distance, from the normal high-water line of a great pond classified GPA or a river that flows to a great pond classified GPA, and 75 feet, horizontal distance, from the normal high-water line of other water bodies, tributary streams, or the upland edge of a wetland, unless no reasonable alternative exists as determined by the Planning Board. If no other reasonable alternative exists, the road and/or driveway setback requirement shall be no less than 50 feet, horizontal distance, upon clear showing by the applicant that appropriate techniques will be used to prevent sedimentation of the water body, tributary stream or wetland. Such techniques may include, but are not limited to, the installation of settling basins and/or the effective use of additional ditch relief culverts and turnouts placed so as to avoid sedimentation of the water body, tributary stream, or wetland.
(a) 
On slopes of greater than 20%, the road and/or driveway setback shall be increased by 10 feet, horizontal distance, for each 5% increase in slope above 20%.
(b) 
This subsection does not apply to approaches to water crossings or to roads or driveways that provide access to permitted structures and facilities located nearer to the shoreline or tributary stream due to an operational necessity, excluding temporary docks for recreational uses. Roads and driveways providing access to permitted structures within the setback area shall comply fully with the requirements of this subsection except for that portion of the road or driveway necessary for direct access to the structure.
(5) 
Existing public roads may be expanded within the legal road right-of-way regardless of their setback from a water body, tributary stream or wetland.
(6) 
New permanent roads are not allowed within the shoreland zone along significant river segments, except:
(a) 
To provide access to structures or facilities within the zone; or
(b) 
The applicant demonstrates that no reasonable alternative route exists outside the shoreland zone. When roads must be located within the shoreland zone, they shall be set back as far as practicable from the normal high-water line and screened from the river by existing vegetation.
(7) 
New roads and driveways are prohibited in a Resource Protection District, except that the Planning Board may grant a permit to construct a road or driveway to provide access to permitted uses within the district. A road or driveway may also be approved by the Planning Board in a Resource Protection District upon a finding that no reasonable alternative route or location is available outside the district. When a road or driveway is permitted in a Resource Protection District, the road and/or driveway shall be set back as far as practicable from the normal high-water line of a water body, tributary stream, or upland edge of a wetland.
(8) 
Road and driveway banks shall be no steeper than a slope of two horizontal to one vertical and shall be graded and stabilized in accordance with the provisions for erosion and sedimentation control contained in § 300-514B(1), General drainage and erosion control standards, of this chapter.
(9) 
Road and driveway grades shall be no greater than 10%, except for shore segments of less than 200 feet.
(10) 
In order to prevent road and driveway surface drainage from directly entering water bodies, tributary streams or wetlands, roads and driveways shall be designed, constructed, and maintained to empty onto an unscarified buffer strip at least 50 feet, plus two times the average slope, in width between the outflow point of the ditch or culvert and normal high-water line of a water body, tributary stream, or upland edge of a wetland. Surface drainage which is directed to an unscarified buffer strip shall be diffused or spread out to promote infiltration of the runoff and to minimize channelized flow of the drainage through the buffer strip.
(11) 
Ditch relief (cross drainage) culverts, drainage dips and water turnouts shall be installed in a manner effective in directing drainage onto unscarified buffer strips before the flow gains sufficient volume or head to erode the road, driveway or ditch. To accomplish this, the following shall apply:
(a) 
Ditch relief culverts, drainage dips and associated water turnouts shall be spaced along the road, or driveway, at intervals no greater than indicated in the following table:
Grade
(percent)
Spacing
(feet)
0% to 2%
250
3% to 5%
200 to 135
6% to 10%
100 to 80
11% to 15%
80 to 60
16% to 20%
60 to 45
21%+
40
(b) 
Drainage dips may be used in place of ditch relief culverts only where the road grade is 10% or less.
(c) 
On sections having slopes greater than 10%, ditch relief culverts shall be placed across the road at approximately a thirty-degree angle downslope from a line perpendicular to the center line of the road or driveway.
(d) 
Ditch relief culverts shall be sufficiently sized and properly installed in order to allow for effective functioning, and their inlet and outlet ends shall be stabilized with appropriate materials.
(12) 
Ditches, culverts, bridges, dips, water turnouts and other stormwater runoff control installations associated with roads and driveways shall be maintained on a regular basis to assure effective functioning.
K. 
Septic waste disposal.
(1) 
All subsurface sewage disposal systems shall be installed in conformance with the State of Maine Subsurface Wastewater Disposal Rules and the following:
(a) 
Clearing or removal of woody vegetation necessary to site a new system and associated fill extensions shall not extend closer than 75 feet, horizontal distance, from the normal high-water line of a water body or the upland edge of a wetland.
(b) 
A holding tank is not allowed for a first-time residential use in the shoreland zone.
(c) 
The Maine Subsurface Wastewater Disposal Rules require new systems, excluding fill extensions, to be constructed no less than 100 horizontal feet from the normal high-water line of a perennial water body. The minimum setback distances from water bodies for new subsurface sewage disposal systems shall not be reduced by variance.
L. 
Signs. See the sign standards in § 300-516.
M. 
Soils. All land uses shall be located on soils in or upon which the proposed uses or structures can be established or maintained without causing adverse environmental impacts, including severe erosion, mass soil movement or improper drainage and water pollution, whether during or after construction. Proposed uses requiring subsurface waste disposal, and commercial or industrial development and other similar intensive land uses, shall require a soils report, based on an on-site investigation, and be prepared by state certified professionals. Certified persons may include Maine certified soil scientists, Maine registered professional engineers, Maine state certified geologists and other persons who have training and experience in the recognition and evaluation of soil properties. The report shall be based upon the analysis of the characteristics of the soil and surrounding land and water areas, maximum groundwater elevation, presence of ledge, drainage conditions, and other pertinent data which the evaluator deems appropriate. The soils report shall include recommendations for a proposed use to counteract soil limitations where they exist.
N. 
Stormwater. See § 300-514.
O. 
Timber harvesting. The Bureau of Forestry shall administer the regulation of all forestry activities within the City of Augusta. Title 38 M.R.S.A. § 438-A provides that, notwithstanding other provisions of the Mandatory Shoreland Zoning Act, the regulation of timber harvesting and timber harvesting activities in shoreland areas must be in accordance with 38 M.R.S.A. § 438-B and rules adopted by the Maine Forest Bureau pursuant to Title 12 M.R.S.A. § 8867-B. Timber harvesting regulations were repealed December 19, 2016.
P. 
Water quality protection. No activity shall deposit on or into the ground or discharge to the waters of the state any pollutant that, by itself or in conjunction with other activities or substances, will impair designated uses or the water classification of the water body, tributary or wetland.
Q. 
Minimum dimensional requirements in shoreland areas. All land use activities within the shoreland zone shall conform with the following applicable provisions, with the exception of allowable land use activities utilizing existing structures and/or activities that utilize public sewer, in the GD District adjacent to the Kennebec River. For these above-stated exceptions, the dimensional requirements of the underlying zoning district shall apply. Provisions:
(1) 
Minimum lot standards.
Minimum Lot Area
(square feet)
Minimum Shore Frontage
(feet)
Residential, per dwelling unit:
(a)
Within the shoreland zone adjacent to tidal areas
30,000
150
(b)
Within the shoreland zone adjacent to nontidal areas
40,000
200
Governmental, institutional, commercial or industrial, per principal structure:
(a)
Within the shoreland zone adjacent to tidal areas
40,000
200
(b)
Within the shoreland zone adjacent to nontidal areas
60,000
300
Public and private recreational facilities:
(a)
Within the shoreland zone adjacent to tidal and nontidal areas
40,000
200
(2) 
Land below the normal high-water line of a water body or upland edge of a wetland and land beneath roads serving more than two lots shall not be included toward calculating minimum lot area.
(3) 
Lots located on opposite sides of a public or private road shall be considered each a separate tract or parcel of land unless such road was established by the owner of land on both sides thereof after September 22, 1971.
(4) 
The minimum width of any portion of any lot within 100 feet, horizontal distance, of the normal high-water line of a water body or upland edge of a wetland shall be equal to or greater than the shore frontage requirement for a lot with the proposed use.
(5) 
If more than one residential dwelling unit, principal governmental, institutional, commercial or industrial structure or use, or combination thereof, is constructed or established on a single parcel, all dimensional requirements shall be met for each additional dwelling unit, principal structure, or use.
NOTE: Cluster housing is permitted, provided that the overall dimensional requirements, including frontage and lot area per dwelling unit, are met. When determining whether dimensional requirements are met, only land area within the shoreland zone shall be considered.
R. 
Principal and accessory structures.
(1) 
All new principal and accessory structures shall be set back at least 100 feet, horizontal distance, from the normal high-water line of great ponds classified GPA and rivers that flow to great ponds classified GPA, and 75 feet, horizontal distance, from the normal high-water line of other water bodies, tributary streams, or the upland edge of a wetland, except that, in the Stream Protection 50 (SP50) District, the setback from the normal high-water line shall be at least 50 feet, and in the General Development District, the setback from the normal high-water line shall be at least 25 feet. In the Resource Protection District, the setback requirements shall be 250 feet, horizontal distance, except for structures, roads, parking spaces or other regulated objects specifically allowed in that district, in which case the setback requirements specified above shall apply. In addition:
(a) 
The water body, tributary stream, or wetland setback provision shall neither apply to structures which require direct access to the water body or wetland as an operational necessity, such as piers, docks and retaining walls, nor to other water-dependent uses.
(b) 
On a nonconforming lot of record on which only a residential structure exists, and it is not possible to place an accessory structure meeting the required water body, tributary stream or wetland setbacks, the Code Enforcement Officer may issue a permit to place a single accessory structure, with no utilities, for the storage of yard tools and similar equipment. Such accessory structure shall not exceed 80 square feet in area nor eight feet in height and shall be located as far from the shoreline or tributary stream as practical and shall meet all other applicable standards, including lot coverage and vegetation clearing limitations. In no case shall the structure be located closer to the shoreline or tributary stream than the principal structure.
NOTE: The Planning Board is authorized to increase the required setback of a proposed structure, as a condition to permit approval, if necessary to accomplish the purposes of this chapter. Instances where a greater setback may be appropriate include, but are not limited to, areas of steep slope, shallow or erodible soils, or where an adequate vegetative buffer does not exist.
NOTE: A tributary stream may be perennial or intermittent. Where a tributary stream is present within the shoreland zone, setback standards from that tributary stream are applicable.
(2) 
Principal or accessory structures and expansions of existing structures which are permitted in the Resource Protection, Limited Residential, Limited Commercial, and Stream Protection Districts shall not exceed 35 feet in height. This provision shall not apply to structures such as transmission towers, windmills, antennas, and similar structures having no floor area.
(3) 
The lowest floor elevation or openings of all buildings and structures, including basements, shall be elevated at least one foot above the elevation of the one-hundred-year flood, the flood of record, or, in the absence of these, the flood as defined by soil types identified as recent floodplain soils. In those municipalities that participate in the National Flood Insurance Program and have adopted the April 2005 version, or later version, of the Floodplain Management Ordinance, accessory structures may be placed in accordance with the standards of that ordinance and need not meet the elevation requirements of this subsection.
(4) 
Lot coverage.
(a) 
With the exception of General Development Districts located adjacent to coastal wetlands and rivers that do not flow to great ponds, nonvegetated surfaces shall not exceed a total of 20% of the portion of the lot located within the shoreland zone. This limitation does not apply to public boat launching facilities, regardless of the district in which the facility is located.
(b) 
In a General Development District located adjacent to coastal wetlands, or rivers that do not flow to great ponds, nonvegetated surfaces shall not exceed a total of 70% of the portion of the lot located within the shoreland zone.
(c) 
For the purposes of calculating lot coverage, nonvegetated surfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: structures, driveways, parking areas, and other areas from which vegetation has been removed. Naturally occurring ledge and rock outcroppings are not counted as nonvegetated surfaces when calculating lot coverage for lots of record on March 24, 1990, and in continuous existence since that date.
(5) 
Retaining walls that are not necessary for erosion control shall meet the structure setback requirement, except for low retaining walls and associated fill, provided all of the following conditions are met:
(a) 
The site has been previously altered and an effective vegetated buffer does not exist;
(b) 
The wall(s) is(are) at least 25 feet, horizontal distance, from the normal high-water line of a water body, tributary stream, or upland edge of a wetland;
(c) 
The site where the retaining wall will be constructed is legally existing lawn or is a site eroding from lack of naturally occurring vegetation, and which cannot be stabilized with vegetative plantings;
(d) 
The total height of the wall(s), in the aggregate, is no more than 24 inches;
(e) 
Retaining walls are located outside of the one-hundred-year floodplain on rivers, streams, coastal wetlands, and tributary streams, as designated on the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps or Flood Hazard Boundary Maps, or the flood of record, or, in the absence of these, by soil types identified as recent floodplain soils.
(f) 
The area behind the wall is revegetated with grass, shrubs, trees, or a combination thereof, and no further structural development will occur within the setback area, including patios and decks; and
(g) 
A vegetated buffer area is established within 25 feet, horizontal distance, of the normal high-water line of a water body, tributary stream, or upland edge of a wetland when a natural buffer area does not exist. The buffer area must meet the following characteristics:
[1] 
The buffer must include shrubs and other woody and herbaceous vegetation. Where natural ground cover is lacking, the area must be supplemented with leaf or bark mulch;
[2] 
Vegetation plantings must be in quantities sufficient to retard erosion and provide for effective infiltration of stormwater runoff;
[3] 
Only native species may be used to establish the buffer area;
[4] 
A minimum buffer width of 15 feet, horizontal distance, is required, measured perpendicularly to the normal high-water line or upland edge of a wetland;
[5] 
A single footpath not to exceed the standards in § 300-528C(3)(a) may traverse the buffer.
NOTE: If the wall and associated soil disturbance occurs within 75 feet, horizontal distance, of a water body, tributary stream or coastal wetland, a permit pursuant to the Natural Resource Protection Act is required from the Department of Environmental Protection.
(6) 
Notwithstanding the requirements stated above, stairways or similar structures may be allowed with a permit from the Code Enforcement Officer, to provide shoreline access in areas of steep slopes or unstable soils, provided that the structure is limited to a maximum of four feet in width, that the structure does not extend below or over the normal high-water line of a water body or upland edge of a wetland (unless permitted by the Department of Environmental Protection pursuant to the Natural Resources Protection Act, 38 M.R.S.A. § 480-C), and that the applicant demonstrates that no reasonable access alternative exists on the property.
S. 
Hazard trees, storm-damaged trees, and dead tree removal.
(1) 
Hazard trees in the shoreland zone may be removed without a permit after consultation with the Code Enforcement Officer if the following requirements are met:
(a) 
Within the shoreline buffer, if the removal of a hazard tree results in a cleared opening in the tree canopy greater than 250 square feet, replacement with native tree species is required, unless there is new tree growth already present. New tree growth must be as near as practicable to where the hazard tree was removed and be at least two inches in diameter, measured at 4.5 feet above the ground level. If new growth is not present, then replacement trees shall consist of native species and be at least four feet in height and be no less than two inches in diameter. Stumps may not be removed.
(b) 
Outside of the shoreline buffer, when the removal of hazard trees exceeds 40% of the volume of trees four inches or more in diameter, measured at 4.5 feet above ground level, in any ten-year period, and/or results in cleared openings exceeding 25% of the lot area within the shoreland zone, or 10,000 square feet, whichever is greater, replacement with native tree species is required, unless there is new tree growth already present. New tree growth must be as near as practicable to where the hazard tree was removed and be at least two inches in diameter, measured at 4.5 feet above the ground level. If new growth is not present, then replacement trees shall consist of native species and be at least two inches in diameter, measured at 4.5 feet above the ground level.
(c) 
The removal of standing dead trees, resulting from natural causes, is permissible without the need for replanting or a permit, as long as the removal does not result in the creation of new lawn areas or other permanently cleared areas and stumps are not removed. For the purposes of this provision, dead trees are those trees that contain no foliage during the growing season.
(d) 
The Code Enforcement Officer may require the property owner to submit an evaluation from a licensed forester or arborist before any hazard tree can be removed within the shoreland zone.
(e) 
The Code Enforcement Officer may require more than a one-for-one replacement for hazard trees removed that exceed eight inches in diameter measured at 4.5 feet above the ground level.
(2) 
Storm-damaged trees in the shoreland zone may be removed without a permit after consultation with the Code Enforcement Officer if the following requirements are met:
(a) 
Within the shoreline buffer, when the removal of storm-damaged trees results in a cleared opening in the tree canopy greater than 250 square feet, replanting is not required, but the area shall be required to naturally revegetate, and the following requirements must be met:
[1] 
The area from which a storm-damaged tree is removed does not result in new lawn areas or other permanently cleared areas;
[2] 
Stumps from the storm-damaged trees may not be removed;
[3] 
Limbs damaged from a storm event may be pruned even if they extend beyond the bottom 1/3 of the tree; and
[4] 
If, after one growing season, no natural regeneration or regrowth is present, replanting of native tree seedlings or saplings is required at a density of one seedling per every 80 square feet of lost canopy.
(b) 
Outside of the shoreline buffer, if the removal of storm-damaged trees exceeds 40% of the volume of trees four inches or more in diameter, measured at 4.5 feet above the ground level, in any ten-year period, or results, in the aggregate, in cleared openings exceeding 25% of the lot area within the shoreland zone or 10,000 square feet, whichever is greater, and no natural regeneration occurs within one growing season, then native tree seedlings or saplings shall be replanted on a one-for-one basis.
T. 
Exemptions to clearing and vegetation removal requirements. The following activities are exempt from the clearing and vegetation removal standards set forth in Subsection C of this section, provided that all other applicable requirements of this chapter are complied with and the removal of vegetation is limited to that which is necessary:
(1) 
The removal of vegetation that occurs at least once every two years for the maintenance of legally existing areas that do not comply with the vegetation standards in this chapter, such as, but not limited to, cleared openings in the canopy or fields. Such areas shall not be enlarged, except as allowed by this section. If any of these areas, due to lack of removal of vegetation every two years, reverts back to primarily woody vegetation, the requirements of Subsection C of this section apply.
(2) 
The removal of vegetation from the location of allowed structures or allowed uses, when the shoreline setback requirements of Subsection Q of this section are not applicable.
(3) 
The removal of vegetation from the location of public swimming areas associated with an allowed public recreational facility.
(4) 
The removal of vegetation associated with allowed agricultural uses, provided best management practices are utilized, and provided all requirements of Subsection A of this section are complied with.
(5) 
The removal of vegetation associated with brownfields or voluntary response action program (VRAP) projects, provided that the removal of vegetation is necessary for remediation activities to clean up contamination on a site in a General Development District, Commercial Fisheries and Maritime Activities District or other equivalent zoning district approved by the Commissioner that is part of a state or federal brownfields program or a voluntary response action program pursuant to 38 M.R.S.A § 343-E, and that is located along:
(a) 
A coastal wetland; or
(b) 
A river that does not flow to a great pond classified as GPA pursuant to 38 M.R.S.A § 465-A.
(6) 
The removal of non-native invasive vegetation species, provided the following minimum requirements are met:
(a) 
If removal of vegetation occurs via wheeled or tracked motorized equipment, the wheeled or tracked motorized equipment is operated and stored at least 25 feet, horizontal distance, from the shoreline, except that wheeled or tracked equipment may be operated or stored on existing structural surfaces, such as pavement or gravel;
(b) 
Removal of vegetation within 25 feet, horizontal distance, from the shoreline occurs via hand tools; and
(c) 
If applicable clearing and vegetation removal standards are exceeded due to the removal of non-native invasive species vegetation, the area shall be revegetated with native species to achieve compliance.
NOTE: An updated list of non-native invasive vegetation is maintained by the Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry’s Natural Areas Program: http://www.maine.gov/dacf/mnap/features/invasive_plants/invasives.htm
(7) 
The removal of vegetation associated with emergency response activities conducted by the Department, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the United States Coast Guard, and their agents.
U. 
Revegetation requirements. When revegetation is required in response to violations of the vegetation standards set forth in Subsection C of this section, to address the removal of non-native invasive species of vegetation, or as a mechanism to allow for development that may otherwise not be permissible due to the vegetation standards, including removal of vegetation in conjunction with a shoreline stabilization project, the revegetation must comply with the following requirements:
(1) 
The property owner must submit a revegetation plan, prepared with and signed by a qualified professional, that describes revegetation activities and maintenance. The plan must include a scaled site plan, depicting where vegetation was, or is to be removed, where existing vegetation is to remain, and where vegetation is to be planted, including a list of all vegetation to be planted.
(2) 
Revegetation must occur along the same segment of shoreline and in the same area where vegetation was removed and at a density comparable to the preexisting vegetation, except where a shoreline stabilization activity does not allow revegetation to occur in the same area and at a density comparable to the preexisting vegetation, in which case revegetation must occur along the same segment of shoreline and as close as possible to the area where vegetation was removed.
(3) 
If part of a permitted activity, revegetation shall occur before the expiration of the permit. If the activity or revegetation is not completed before the expiration of the permit, a new revegetation plan shall be submitted with any renewal or new permit application.
(4) 
Revegetation activities must meet the following requirements for trees and saplings:
(a) 
All trees and saplings removed must be replaced with native noninvasive species;
(b) 
Replacement vegetation must at a minimum consist of saplings;
(c) 
If more than three trees or saplings are planted, then at least three different species shall be used;
(d) 
No one species shall make up 50% or more of the number of trees and saplings planted;
(e) 
If revegetation is required for a shoreline stabilization project, and it is not possible to plant trees and saplings in the same area where trees or saplings were removed, then trees or saplings must be planted in a location that effectively reestablishes the screening between the shoreline and structures; and
(f) 
A survival rate of at least 80% of planted trees or saplings is required for a minimum five-year period.
(5) 
Revegetation activities must meet the following requirements for woody vegetation and other vegetation under three feet in height:
(a) 
All woody vegetation and vegetation under three feet in height must be replaced with native noninvasive species of woody vegetation and vegetation under three feet in height, as applicable;
(b) 
Woody vegetation and vegetation under three feet in height shall be planted in quantities and variety sufficient to prevent erosion and provide for effective infiltration of stormwater;
(c) 
If more than three woody vegetation plants are to be planted, then at least three different species shall be planted;
(d) 
No one species shall make up 50% or more of the number of planted woody vegetation plants; and
(e) 
Survival of planted woody vegetation and vegetation under three feet in height must be sufficient to remain in compliance with the standards contained within this chapter for a minimum of five years
(6) 
Revegetation activities must meet the following requirements for ground vegetation and ground cover:
(a) 
All ground vegetation and ground cover removed must be replaced with native herbaceous vegetation, in quantities and variety sufficient to prevent erosion and provide for effective infiltration of stormwater;
(b) 
Where necessary due to a lack of sufficient ground cover, an area must be supplemented with a minimum four-inch depth of leaf mulch and/or bark mulch to prevent erosion and provide for effective infiltration of stormwater; and
(c) 
Survival and functionality of ground vegetation and ground cover must be sufficient to remain in compliance with the standards contained within this chapter for a minimum of five years.
V. 
Campgrounds. See § 300-520A, Campgrounds and campsites.
W. 
Individual private campsites. See § 300-520B, Individual private campsites.
X. 
Parking areas. See § 300-513B(4), Parking areas in Shoreland Districts.
(Reserved)
(Reserved)
(Reserved)
(Reserved)