Township of Plainfield, PA
Northampton County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.1]
1. 
Evaluating Plans. The design standards and improvements required in this Part shall be the minimum requirements applied by the Planning Commission and the Board of Supervisors in evaluating plans for any proposed subdivision or land development.
2. 
Additional Improvements. Additional or higher type improvements may be required in specific cases where, in the determination of the Board of Supervisors, they are clearly necessary to protect the public health and safety.
3. 
Modifications and Exceptions. See § 22-107 of this Chapter.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.2]
The remainder of this Part sets forth the design and construction standards for required improvements. These minimum standards shall apply to any improvement, regardless of whether required by this Chapter or not.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.3]
1. 
Land shall be suited to the purpose for which it is to be subdivided or developed.
2. 
Hazardous Conditions. Land subject to hazardous conditions (such as open quarries, unconsolidated fill, floods, excessive erosion or unsafe water supply) shall not be subdivided until the hazards have been eliminated or overcome by adequate safeguards provided by the developer and approved by the Board of Supervisors. See the floodplain requirements of the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27].
3. 
Comprehensive Plan. The subdivision or land development shall generally be designed in consideration of any applicable provisions of the Township Comprehensive Plan.
4. 
Zoning. All aspects of a proposed subdivision or land development shall conform to the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27] and floodplain regulations and all other Township ordinances and specifications.
5. 
Nearby Development. A subdivision or land development and its street pattern shall be coordinated with existing or approved nearby developments or neighborhoods so that the area as a whole may be developed harmoniously and to prevent serious conflicts between neighboring development.
6. 
Safety. No subdivision or land development shall occur in such a way that would significantly threaten the public health and safety, including hazards of toxic substances, groundwater pollution, traffic hazards and explosive and fire hazards.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.4; as amended by Ord. 263, 10/14/1998, §§ 1.F-1.G; by Ord. 313, 11/8/2006, §§ 1, 4, 6 — 8; by Ord. 324, 9/12/2007, §§ 1 — 10; by Ord. 326, 9/12/2007, §§ 1, 3, 9 — 16; and by A.O.]
1. 
Access to Proposed Subdivisions and Land Developments. All proposed subdivisions and land developments shall have adequate and safe access to the public street system.
A. 
Deceleration Lanes.
(1) 
A deceleration lane shall be considered on the arterial road at an access point when any one or a combination of the following conditions exists:
(a) 
Forty or more right turns into the site during the peak hour.
(b) 
Three percent or greater downgrade on the arterial with 20 or more right turns into the site during the peak hour.
(c) 
An arterial roadway speed limit greater than 40 miles per hour.
(d) 
An average daily volume of 5,000 vehicles or greater (all lanes of the arterial combined).
(2) 
Design Criteria. Deceleration distance in accordance with AASHTO publication, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, shall be provided. The posted speed limit shall be used for the retrofit of existing deceleration lanes. If the arterial's speed limit is not posted, the 85th percentile speed observed during a recent traffic survey of the arterial shall be used as the initial speed and a maximum speed of 25 miles per hour shall be used as the final speed in the design of deceleration lanes.
B. 
Acceleration Lanes.
(1) 
Acceleration lanes may be required along arterial roads where the speed limit is greater than 40 miles per hour and where access points are located sufficiently apart to permit installation.
(2) 
Design Criteria. The design length and width shall follow criteria found in the latest edition of the AASHTO publication, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, and shall conform to PennDOT requirements. A maximum initial speed of 25 miles per hour shall be assumed in the design of acceleration lanes. The final speed shall be the posted speed limit of the arterial. If the arterial's speed limit is not posted, the 85th percentile speed observed during a recent traffic survey of the arterial shall be used.
C. 
The provision of a left turn lane along the arterial road shall be required pursuant to the following provisions.
(1) 
Unsignalized Intersections.
(a) 
A left turn lane shall be provided when the appropriate Highway Research Record 211 (HRR) nomograph indicates that the warrant for a one-hundred-foot long left turn lane is met for the anticipated completion date of the development.
(b) 
A left turn lane shall be provided if the visibility to the rear of a vehicle stopped to turn left into the proposed access does not meet minimum sight distance requirements and no alternative is available.
(2) 
Signalized Intersections. A left turn lane shall be required when a capacity analysis indicates that the operation of an intersection, approach or movement will operate at a level of service D, E or F and the operation of the intersection, approach or movement can be improved with the installation of one or more left turn lanes.
(3) 
Design Criteria.
(a) 
The minimum width of the left turn lane shall be 10 feet, unless the percent of trucks is projected to exceed 5%, in which case the minimum width shall be 11 feet.
(b) 
The storage length of the left turn lane shall consider the following components as may be applicable. The storage length shall accommodate the 95th percentile queue length for signalized intersections. The storage length shall be determined from the appropriate nomograph in HRR 211 for the uncontrolled approach of an unsignalized intersection. The deceleration length and the taper length shall be in accordance with AASHTO publication A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.
D. 
Right-Turn Lanes on Access Roads.
(1) 
A right turn lane shall be required on the driveway or access road if a capacity analysis shows a level of service D, E or F for the site access's approach to the arterial and the operation of the intersection can be improved by the installation of a right turn lane.
(2) 
Design Criteria.
(a) 
The width of the right turn lane shall be 13 feet with curb and 11 feet without curb. If not curbed, shoulders shall be designed in accordance with PennDOT 3R criteria found in PennDOT Publication 13M, Design Manual, Part II.
(b) 
The right-turn storage bay length on an approach to an unsignalized intersection shall, at a minimum, accommodate the number of turning vehicles likely to arrive in an average two-minute period during the peak hour. The right-turn storage bay length on an approach to a signalized intersection shall, at a minimum, accommodate 95th percentile queue length.
2. 
Streets and Topography. Proposed streets shall be adjusted to the contour of the land so as to produce usable lots and streets of reasonable gradient. See the steep slope regulations in Part 5 of the Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27].
3. 
Street Continuations.
A. 
Where deemed appropriate by the Board of Supervisors and upon recommendation by the Planning Commission, proposed streets shall be extended to the boundary line of the tract being subdivided so as to eventually provide for normal circulation of traffic within the vicinity.
B. 
Where a subdivision or land development abuts or contains an existing street of inadequate right-of-way width, additional right-of-way width and widening of the cartway shall be required in conformance with Table 22-1004.1, "Plainfield Township Standard Roadway Dimensions," and § 27-405 of the Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27]. This provision shall not apply to state highways, unless the dedication or widening of the cartway is required by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.
4. 
Intersections.
A. 
The center lines of streets shall intersect at right angles unless existing conditions dictate otherwise. In such case the intersection shall be as nearly at right angles as possible, but not less than 75° at intersections.
B. 
Intersections of more than two streets at one point shall be avoided. Where streets intersect other streets, the intersecting street shall be aligned with any street intersecting on the other side, or be offset by the minimum distance stated in this subsection. This minimum offset and the minimum distance between center lines of parallel or approximately parallel streets intersecting a cross street from opposite directions shall be:
(1) 
One hundred fifty feet along a local street.
(2) 
Four hundred feet along a minor collector and 800 feet along a major collector.
(3) 
One thousand feet along an arterial street. (See figures below.)
(4) 
The distances of this subsection shall be measured between the intersections of the center lines of the legal rights-of-way of the streets.
022l Unacc Intersection Design.tif
Figure 22-1004.4.B.1
022k Acc Intersection Design.tif
Figure 22-1004.4.B.2
C. 
At street intersections, the property line and cartway edge or curbline shall be rounded by arcs with the radii listed below. The radius shall be based on the higher classification road. For streets anticipated as having bus and/or truck traffic, the Township may require a larger radius. (See chart below.)
Type of Street
Minimum Radius of Arc at Intersection of Caraway Edge or Curb Line
Minimum Radius of Arc at Intersection of ROW
Arterial
50 feet
40 feet
Collector
40 feet
30 feet
Local
35 feet
25 feet
5. 
Arterial and Major Collector Street Frontage. Where a subdivision or land development abuts or contains an existing or proposed arterial or major collector street, as the Board of Supervisors determines is reasonable, feasible and necessary to avoid increased traffic congestion and further traffic safety, based upon recommendations of the Planning Commission, the Township Engineer, any comments from PennDOT and any professional traffic studies that have been submitted, the Board of Supervisors shall require one or more of the following methods of layout and site design.
A. 
The use of a marginal access or frontage streets or access only onto side or interior streets, to collect traffic from numerous driveways and direct it to a select few number of entrances to the arterial or major collector street.
B. 
The minimization of the number and length of driveway cuts or street intersections onto an arterial or major/minor collector street.
C. 
The restriction of ingress and egress involving left-hand turns onto or off of the arterial or major collector street.
D. 
The prohibition of driveways from individual dwellings entering directly onto an arterial street. If there is no alternative to this, each driveway entering onto an arterial street shall have adequate turnaround space for vehicles provided within the lot so that vehicles do not back onto the street. (See illustration below.)
022m Street Design.tif
Figure 22-1004.5.D
E. 
A subdivision (excepting minor subdivision) fronting on an arterial or major collector road shall be designed to minimize access to these roads by utilizing access onto adjoining roads of a lesser classification in accordance with relevant sections of this Chapter and the Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27] or by construction of an interior road system utilizing reverse frontage lots along the arterial or major collector roads. Each case shall be considered on an individual basis taking into consideration specific site conditions.
F. 
Driveways for nonresidential uses shall be spaced the following minimum distances apart: arterial road — 300 feet, major collector road — 200 feet. Driveway spacing shall be measured from the end of one driveway required radius to the beginning of the next driveway required radius. Driveway center lines shall be aligned with existing driveways and roadways on the opposite site side of the arterial or collector road absent identifiable safety deficiencies.
G. 
The installation of a non-traversable median may be required along an arterial road where, in the opinion of the Township Engineer in conjunction with PennDOT, the median is needed to reinforce the prohibition of left turns to or from a driveway. The placement, type and design of the median barrier shall be in accordance with the most recent edition of PennDOT Publication 13M, Design Manual, Part II, and the AASHTO publications, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets and Road Design Guide.
6. 
Street Design Standards.
A. 
Minimum street design standards shall be as shown in Table 22-1004.1, unless a more restrictive requirement is established by PennDOT.
B. 
All approaches to an intersection of two streets shall have a leveling area not greater than 4% grade for a distance of 25 feet measured from the nearest right-of-way line of the intersecting street. The profile of the higher order street shall be maintained.
C. 
The minimum grade across the paving in a cul-de-sac shall be 1.5%. The maximum grade across the paving in a cul-de-sac shall be 6%.
D. 
To provide for adequate drainage, the minimum grade of any street gutter or roadside swale shall be not less than 1%. Gutters across the intersections shall be a minimum grade of 2% unless inlets are provided to collect surface flow.
E. 
The Board of Supervisors, upon the recommendation of the Township Engineer and the Planning Commission, and after consultation with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation if a state road is involved, shall require a subdivision or land development to partially or wholly fund or accomplish the widening of an abutting intersection (including but not limited to moving the curbline inward to increase the curve radius) and/or providing a left and/or right turn lane if the Board of Supervisors determine that such improvement(s) is needed to avoid increased traffic congestion and to provide for traffic safety and if the Board of Supervisors determine that such improvement is reasonably the responsibility of the applicant.
7. 
Street Grades.
A. 
There shall be a minimum center line grade on all streets of 1%.
B. 
Unless approval is obtained from the Township Planning Commission upon recommendation from the Township Engineer, center line grades shall not exceed the following:
(1) 
Local streets: 10%.
(2) 
Collector streets: 8%.
(3) 
Arterial streets: 6%.
8. 
Horizontal Curves.
A. 
Whenever street center lines are deflected more than 5° within 500 feet, connection shall be made by horizontal curves.
B. 
Horizontal curves shall be designed to produce the following minimum sight distances:
(1) 
Local streets/roads: 150 feet.
(2) 
Collector streets/roads: 300 feet.
(3) 
Arterial streets/roads: 600 feet.
C. 
A minimum tangent of 100 feet shall be required between curves on major collector and arterial streets and between a curve and a street intersection where one of the intersecting streets is a collector or an arterial street.
9. 
Vertical Curve.
A. 
Vertical curves shall be used in changes of grade exceeding 1%.
B. 
Vertical curves shall be designed to produce the following minimum sight distances:
(1) 
Local streets/roads: 150 feet.
(2) 
Collector streets/roads: 300 feet.
(3) 
Arterial streets/roads: 600 feet.
C. 
Minimum lengths of vertical curves.
(1) 
Local streets/roads: 50 feet.
(2) 
Collector streets/roads: 100 feet.
(3) 
Arterial streets/roads: 250 feet.
D. 
A minimum tangent of 100 feet shall be required between curves on collector and arterial streets.
10. 
(Reserved)
11. 
Easements.
A. 
Easements shall be provided adjacent to street rights-of-way, tract boundaries and lot lines and other required areas, within the following standards (Also see "Covenant," Appendix 22-E):
(1) 
Drainage, sanitary or domestic water easements shall be provided as indicated and required by the plans. The minimum width of easement shall be 20 feet (which may include 10 feet on each side of abutting lots within a subdivision) with an additional width of five feet for each additional utility.
(2) 
Utility easements of a minimum of 10 feet in width shall be provided adjacent to all street rights-of-ways for electricity, telephone and television cable lines so that each lot or dwelling unit can be served. Any natural gas distribution lines shall be placed within the cartway.
(3) 
No company intending to install any petroleum, petroleum products or natural gas transmission line shall be allowed to construct the line on less than a fifty-foot right-of-way, such line to be installed in the center of the right-of-way, and shall comply with the applicable standards imposed by state and federal laws and regulations. Lines intended to be installed in the cartway shall be located in relation to other utilities.
(4) 
There shall be a minimum distance of 25 feet, measured from the right-of-way, line, between any proposed dwelling unit and any petroleum, petroleum products or natural gas transmission line which traverses the subdivision.
12. 
Sight Lines at Intersections of Streets.
A. 
See § 27-404, Subsection 3A, of the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27].
B. 
Proposed intersections shall be designed and constructed to meet the minimum sight distances as listed in the "Formula Sight Distance Table" (Figure 21-2-1 of the Plainfield Township Driveway Ord. 229, as amended [Chapter 21, Part 2]). The method of measurement shall conform to the "Formula Sight Distance Measurement" worksheet, (Figure 21-2-2 of the Plainfield Township Driveway Ord. 229, as amended [Chapter 21, Part 2]) which should be completed and submitted to the Township with the preliminary subdivision plan application. By means of deed or lease restriction or plan amendment (whichever method is applicable), clear sight triangles formed by street center lines and the line of sight shall be shown on the plan with a notation that they shall be kept free of obstructions which would impair the view of the driver.
13. 
Single Access Streets and Cul-de-Sac Streets.
A. 
Streets ending with a cul-de-sac bulb (temporary and permanent), loop roads, and other street networks which have a single point of access to the surrounding road network shall be considered single access streets. Single access streets shall be permitted with a minimum length of 250 feet, measured from edge of pavement of the intersecting street to edge of pavement in rear of the cul-de-sac, and must be provided with a turn-around bulb with a minimum radius of 48 feet to the outside edge of paving or curb. The same width between the edge of cartway and the edge of the right-of-way shall be maintained around the cul-de-sac as is required along the main stem of the street.
B. 
A single access street shall serve a maximum of 10 dwelling units.
C. 
No street shall dead-end without an approved cul-de-sac; "T" type turnarounds are not allowed.
D. 
The circular paving of the cul-de-sac shall be connected to the approach paving by an arc having a radius of not less than 25 feet. The turn-around may be offset to the left, but turnarounds offset to the right shall be prohibited.
E. 
All culs-de-sac shall be designed with a snow plowing easement. The snow plow easement shall generally straddle a property line as close to the center line extension as possible and be a minimum of 30 feet wide and extend 15 feet beyond the right-of-way line. The area of the easement and between the easement and the edge of paving shall be kept clear offences, plantings, driveway, above grade utilities and obstructions to allow for pushing and stacking snow and the surrounding area shall be designed to consider snow melt. The easement shall be shown on the record plan and the provision shall be stated in the notes and covenants on the record plan.
F. 
A single access street to serve any nonresidential use shall be permitted with a maximum length of 500 feet measured from the edge of pavement of the intersecting street to the edge of pavement in the rear of the cul-de-sac.
14. 
Maintenance. As a condition for final plan approval, the developer must enter into a legally binding agreement which shall state who is to be responsible for the improvement and maintenance of any street not offered for dedication. If an association of lot owners is to be made responsible, such association must be legally organized prior to plan approval by an agreement approved by the Township.
15. 
Street Design and Traffic Improvements.
A. 
In general, streets shall be graded, improved and surfaced to the grades and dimensions shown on approved plans, profiles and cross-sections and in conformance to the Township street improvement standards.
B. 
Right-of-Way Grading.
(1) 
The entire right-of-way shall be graded to the approved cross-section. All trees, stumps and other material deemed unsuitable by the Township Engineer shall be removed. The excavation shall be backfilled and suitably compacted to the satisfaction of the Township Engineer.
(2) 
The entire street structure shall be crowned in conformance with the Township street and improvement specifications.
(3) 
A proper super-elevation (banked curves) shall be provided on arterial, major collector streets and when required by the Township Engineer.
C. 
Grading Beyond Right-of-Way.
(1) 
The subdivider or developer may be required to grade beyond the right-of-way line in order to provide continuous slope from the right-of-way line to the proposed elevation of the abutting property.
(2) 
Such grading beyond the right-of-way shall maintain the original conditions of slope and contours except where stormwater runoff designs dictate or warrant improvement or alteration of the original slope and contours.
(3) 
In areas of earth excavation or earth fill such grading shall be done to a maximum slope of three feet horizontal to one foot vertical.
D. 
Drainage of Streets.
(1) 
Parallel and cross drainage facilities shall be properly located, designed and installed to maintain proper drainage of the completed streets.
(2) 
Proper design and construction in accordance with those requirements may require the use of curb and gutter or paved drainage swales to prevent erosion. Drainage facilities shall be designed in accordance with requirements of § 22-1009.
(3) 
No open pipes shall be allowed to end within the Township street right-of-way, except in cases where new driveways must cross existing deep roadside swales adjacent to existing Township streets. In the case of these exemptions to the standard, the pipe shall be located as far off the edge of pavement as possible (at least 20 feet from the street center line).
(4) 
Bridges and culverts shall be designed to support expected loads in accordance with Federal Highway Administration standards, to carry expected flows in accordance with this Chapter and DEP standards, and to be constructed to the full width of the right-of-way in accordance with PennDOT standards. The applicant shall determine whether a DEP permit is required.
(5) 
Consideration shall be given for subgrade drainage of those soils subject to frost heave. Design of the road bed in such locations may require parallel drainage facilities and/or underdrains to properly stabilize the sub grade. The Board of Supervisors may require that such drainage facilities be provided. The design of such sub grade drainage facilities shall be subject to the review and approval of the Township Engineer.
(6) 
If during excavation/construction, subsurface water is found, the Township Engineer may require subsurface drainage to be installed.
(7) 
Where an underground storm sewerage system is in place, inlets shall be required on the upstream side of all intersections to collect gutter flow prior to its flowing across the street. Where this is not practical, a minimum gutter grade of 2% must be maintained across the intersection to ensure positive drainage.
(8) 
Sedimentation and erosion control. See § 22-1021.
(9) 
Stormwater drainage. See § 22-1009.
(10) 
A set of approved design plans shall be maintained on file at the site during construction, as record drawings.
16. 
Private Streets. Any private street or accessary that will eventually serve traffic from three or more dwelling units or two or more industrial, commercial, and/or institutional uses shall be designed and constructed to Township construction standards, including the provision of a street right-of-way.
17. 
Required Traffic Improvements.
A. 
If there is a reasonable relationship between the need for a traffic improvement (including but not limited to one or more of the following: new or upgraded traffic signal, land dedication or trade for an intersection, intersection realignment or widening, curve improvement, sight distance improvement or installation of sidewalks), and a proposed subdivision or land development, the subdivision or land development shall be required to fund its fair share of the cost of such improvement. In place of funding the improvement at the time of final approval, the Township may enter into an agreement to allow the developer to accomplish or fund the improvement in relationship to the stages of the development or require the funds to be placed in escrow until such time as sufficient funds are available for a more comprehensive improvement. Any such funds received under this Part shall be accounted for separately and remain committed to traffic improvements. Funds not expended within five days of receipt of same shall be refunded to the developer that contributed them.
B. 
This Section shall be carried out through determinations of the Board of Supervisors, based upon recommendations of the Planning Commission, which shall make determinations based directly upon the recommendations of the Township Engineer, any comments from PennDOT and any professional traffic studies that have been submitted. The Board of Supervisors may authorize the Township Engineer to prepare an independent traffic impact study.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.5; as amended by Ord. 263, 10/14/1998, § 1H; and by Ord. 313, 11/8/2006, §§ 2, 3]
1. 
Curbs shall be provided along both sides of all public and private streets as designated in Table 27-1004.1.
2. 
All curbing in this Chapter shall consist of a six-inch top, eight-inch bottom, 22 inches deep and shall be constructed of concrete with a minimum compressive strength of 3,000 psi in accordance with specifications of the Township Engineer. The curbing side away from the street shall be vertical and the batter side shall be toward the street. Along state roads, PennDOT specifications shall prevail.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.6; as amended by Ord. 326, 9/12/2007, § 4]
1. 
Block Length.
A. 
Residential blocks shall ordinarily be no less than 500 feet in length or more than 1,800 feet in length.
B. 
In the design of blocks longer than 1,000 feet, special consideration shall be given to the requirements of satisfactory fire protection.
C. 
Where practicable, blocks along arterial and major collector roads shall not be less than 1,000 feet long.
2. 
Block Depth.
A. 
Residential blocks shall be of sufficient depth to accommodate two tiers of lots, except:
(1) 
Where reverse frontage lots are required.
(2) 
Where prevented by the size, topographical conditions or other inherent conditions of property, in which case the Township Planning Commission may approve a single tier of lots.
B. 
Nonresidential. Nonresidential blocks generally shall not be less than 800 feet in length. Blocks in nonresidential and planned residential developments may vary from this length if required by the nature of the use. In all cases, however, adequate provision shall be made for traffic circulation, off-street parking, and loading areas.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.7; as amended by Ord. 324, 9/12/2007, § 11]
1. 
Lots shall conform to the applicable minimum lot sizes, lot widths, setback and all other requirements as set forth in the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27].
2. 
All lots shall front on a public or private street improved to meet Township standards or for which such improvements have been insured by the posting of an acceptable performance guarantee under this Chapter.
3. 
The depth-to-width ratio of a lot shall generally not be greater than 3 to 1.
4. 
Side lines of lots shall abut and be at right angles to straight streets and on radial lines to curved streets. Pointed or very irregularly shaped lots shall be avoided. (See § 22-1006, Subsection 1 and 2A and B).
5. 
_____
A. 
Double frontage lots shall ordinarily not be created except as needed to avoid direct vehicular access onto an arterial street by individual driveways.
B. 
_____
(1) 
On any double frontage or reverse frontage lots, each lot shall include a fifteen-foot deep planting strip along one of the streets with access across this strip clearly prohibited by notes on any approved plan (see § 22-1002).
(2) 
In addition to the street trees required by § 22-1019 of this Chapter, this planting strip shall meet the requirements of the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27]. Any fencing in the rear of such lots shall be placed on the inside side of such plantings.
(3) 
This planting strip shall be placed along the street that the Planning Commission determines will eventually serve the most through-traffic (for example, if a lot abuts a major collector and a local street, the planting strip shall be placed along the major collector street and the lot shall only have vehicular access onto the local street).
6. 
If the remnants of land (other than rights-of-way) exist after subdividing, they shall be incorporated in existing or proposed lots. No lot shall be created that would abut a minor arterial street that would not be suitable for a use permitted in that zoning district.
7. 
Bus Stops.
A. 
Residential land developments or subdivisions that involve 15 or more dwelling units shall contact the school district to establish one or more acceptable and safe locations for a school bus stop.
B. 
A major subdivision or land development may be required by the Planning Commission to contact the local public transportation agency to seek an appropriate location for a public bus stop.
8. 
A lot may not be approved fronting on a roadway that does not meet minimum Township design standards for right-of-way width if it is within the capabilities to meet that design standard through reasonable action of the applicant.
9. 
The natural terrain of the proposed subdivision tract will be retained wherever possible with cut and fill operations being kept to a minimum. Areas with slopes greater than 15% shall generally not be planned for developed uses. If such land is planned for development, the natural slope of the building site or sites shall be 15 or less. The building site shall be at least 50 feet by 80 feet.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.8; as amended by Ord. 335, 10/8/2008, §§ 1, 2; and by Ord. 352, 6/13/2012, §§ 1, 2]
1. 
Intent. It is the intent of this Part to provide open spaces that are essential to the general welfare and the physical and mental health of Township residents. These open spaces are needed to preserve environmentally sensitive lands and for active and passive recreation.
2. 
Land or Fees-in-Lieu of Land Required. Every new dwelling unit created in the Township shall be required to make a contribution of land or fees-in-lieu of land for recreation to the Township.
3. 
Developments of less than 10 Dwelling Units. Every new dwelling unit for which a building permit is applied for after this amendment goes into effect shall be required to pay a fee to the Township as established by resolution by the Board of Supervisors.
4. 
Developments of 10 Dwelling Units or Greater.
A. 
For these developments, the Board of Supervisors shall have the following options, based upon any and all recommendations of the Planning Commission and the Township Engineer.
(1) 
Dedication of Land. The Board of Supervisors upon the recommendation of the Municipal Planning Commission, may require that the developer dedicate land for open space and recreation in accordance with the following guidelines:
Families to Be Served
Minimum Open Space and Recreation Acreage
10-25
1.0
25-50
2.0
50-174
3.0
175-374
5.5
375-624
6.5
625-800
8.0
For each additional 175 families
1.5
B. 
This land may be within a different zoning district and may be noncontiguous to the site. The Board of Supervisors may reject any proposed dedication deemed unsuitable for the needs of recreation or open space.
(1) 
Management and Maintenance. If land is dedicated as open space and the Township decides not to accept the dedication, an appropriate mechanism shall be established by the developer to ensure proper management and maintenance of the open space.
(2) 
Condition of Land. Any dedicated open space shall be turned over to the Township in a condition that is appropriate and acceptable to the Board of Supervisors. This shall include the removal of all construction debris. Areas intended for active recreation should have a slope of less 4% and be free from large rocks. Areas intended for passive recreation should include suitable natural or planted vegetation. Remnant land or land otherwise deemed unsuitable by the Board of Supervisors will not be acceptable. Stormwater detention basins shall not be acceptable as dedicated open space.
(3) 
Priority for selecting areas for passive open space preservation should be given to areas along watercourses, with steep slopes, with alluvial soils and with large trees.
(4) 
Fees-in-Lieu of Land. If the Board of Supervisors does not wish to accept a dedication of land, a recreation fee as established by resolution by the Board of Supervisors, shall be required to be paid to the Township.
5. 
Nonresidential Land Development. For nonresidential land developments resulting in less than 10,000 square feet of aggregate total additional gross floor area[1] and additional hardscape area,[2] within any five-year period, no recreation contribution of land or cash is required. For all others, the amount of land or cash payment in lieu of the dedication of open space for nonresidential land developments shall be determined as follows:
A. 
Recreation Land Area Requirements. When the dedication of land for recreation or open space is required, the following formula shall determine the amount of land required. The location and physical features of such land must be acceptable to the Township and suitable for its intended purpose prior to dedication. The required land area is based on the size of the proposed building and additional hardscape area. There is an initial requirement of 2,000 square feet with the cumulative additional area as per the below table. Where small amounts of land result or at the discretion of the Board of Supervisors, a fee in lieu of land will be required.
Gross Floor Area
(square feet)
Land Area Required
Subtotal
Base for each land development
X 2,000
2,000 square feet
0-50,000 square feet of GFA[3]
X 0.45
Square feet
Over 50,000 square feet of GFA[4]
X 0.30
Square feet
Other additional hardscape areas[5]
X 0.15
Square feet
TOTAL _____
        square feet
[3]
For this Section, gross floor area (GFA) shall be the total area of all floors, of principal and accessory buildings, as measured to the outside surface of exterior walls (or from the center line of party walls separating two buildings), but excluding basements which are more than 70% below grade and existing building floor areas. For building additions, the GFA of the existing building shall be taken into account when determining under which GFA payment category the addition will fall.
[4]
For this Section, gross floor area (GFA) shall be the total area of all floors, of principal and accessory buildings, as measured to the outside surface of exterior walls (or from the center line of party walls separating two buildings), but excluding basements which are more than 70% below grade and existing building floor areas. For building additions, the GFA of the existing building shall be taken into account when determining under which GFA payment category the addition will fall.
[5]
For this Section, additional hardscape area shall include all areas within the lot area (net of ultimate road right-of-way areas) which are to be stabilized with paving or aggregate of any type for walkways, patios, access, parking, material handling and storage or laydown space, excluding the square footage of existing hardscape areas.
B. 
Fees in Lieu of Land Dedication. Fees, as provided herein, may be accepted in lieu of the dedication of land or open space, if both the developer and the Board of Supervisors agree. Whenever fees are accepted in lieu of land, fees are required to be paid prior to the recording of the plan. The fee is based on the size of the proposed building and additional hardscape area. There is an initial requirement of $1,250 with the cumulative additional fees as per the below table.
Gross Floor Area
(square feet)
Fee
Subtotal
Base fee for each land development
$1,250
$1,250
0-50,000 square feet of GFA[6]
X 0.15
$
Over 50,000 square feet of GFA[7]
X 0.10
$
Other additional hardscape
X 0.05
$
TOTAL $_____
[6]
For this Section, gross floor area (GFA) shall be the total area of all floors, of principal and accessory buildings, as measured to the outside surface of exterior walls (or from the center line of party walls separating two buildings), but excluding basements which are more than 70% below grade and existing building floor areas. For building additions, the GFA of the existing building shall be taken into account when determining under which GFA payment category the addition will fall.
[7]
For this Section, additional hardscape area shall include all areas within the lot area (net of ultimate road right-of-way areas) which are to be stabilized with paving or aggregate of any type for walkways, patios, access, parking, material handling and storage or laydown space, excluding the square footage of existing hardscape areas.
[1]
For this Section, gross floor area (GFA) shall be the total area of all floors, of principal and accessory buildings, as measured to the outside surface of exterior walls (or from the center line of party walls separating two buildings), but excluding basements which are more than 70% below grade and existing building floor areas. For building additions, the GFA of the existing building shall be taken into account when determining under which GFA payment category the addition will fall.
[2]
For this Section, additional hardscape area shall include all areas within the lot area (net of ultimate road right-of-way areas) which are to be stabilized with paving or aggregate of any type for walkways, patios, access, parking, material handling and storage or lay-down space, excluding the square footage of existing hardscape areas.
6. 
Limits on Use of Funds. Any fees collected under this Part and any proceeds that might ever be received from the Township from lands dedicated under this Part are hereby strictly limited to park and recreational uses within the Township. Uses of these funds shall include only the following-acquisition of land for recreation and open space preservation, development of active or passive recreational facilities, landscaping and closely related engineering and design work. These funds shall not be used for routine maintenance, recreational programming or general governmental purposes and shall be deposited in an interest-bearing account clearly identifying the specific recreation facilities for which the fee was received.
7. 
Timing of Fees. Fees required by this Part shall be paid by the developer prior to the issuance of a building permit.
8. 
Change in Fees. The Board of Supervisors may adjust the land dedication amount or the required fee by a resolution, which would then apply to all later building permit applications.
9. 
Refund of Fees. If the Township fails to utilize any fee for the purpose for which it was received within three years from the date such fee was paid, the Township shall refund such fee plus any accumulated interest.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.9; as amended by Ord. 313, 11/8/2006, § 5; and by A.O.]
1. 
General Provisions.
A. 
Stormwater runoff from any subdivision or land development, both during construction and after completion, shall not occur at a peak rate (measured in cubic feet per second) that is greater after development than occurred prior to development, unless otherwise approved by the Township Engineer.
B. 
Control of runoff from a site shall occur using appropriate means of detention of the water on the site and/or other approved types of stormwater management, within the requirements of this Chapter.
C. 
Runoff that is detained shall be held and released at a predetermined controlled rate by appropriately installed devices. The release shall be in the same manner as the natural or predevelopment means of discharge from a site, such as point discharge or sheet flow.
D. 
Stormwater runoff shall not be increased or redirected in such a way that it results in hazards to persons or property or interferes with the normal movement of vehicles.
E. 
All stormwater management methods are subject to approval by the Township Engineer.
F. 
All stormwater management plans shall consider and provide for existing flow from upstream tributary areas.
G. 
The existing points of natural drainage discharge onto adjacent properties shall not be altered nor shall the concentration of water runoff be increased because of development without the written approval of all affected landowners who own property from the point of discharge to the confluence of the nearest flowing stream.
H. 
No stormwater runoff or natural drainage water shall be so diverted as to overload existing drainage systems, or create flooding or the need for additional drainage structures on other private properties or public lands, without complete provisions being made by the developer for properly handling such flows.
I. 
All lots shall be laid out and graded to prevent cross lot drainage, and to provide positive drainage away from proposed building locations and from any primary or alternate septic system locations.
J. 
An adequate storm sewerage system consisting of inlets and other underground drainage structures with approved outlets shall be constructed where control of the stormwater runoff and the prevention of erosion cannot be accomplished satisfactorily by surface drainage facilities, as determined by the Board of Supervisors, based upon the recommendation of the Township Engineer.
K. 
Outlet locations shall be approved by the Township Engineer.
L. 
Sequence of Construction. No substantial grading shall occur and no building permits shall be issued for any building unless any detention basin, siltation basin or improved major swale to handle the resulting runoff is in place. Any detention basin shall be seeded and have an installed outlet structure prior to the construction of any streets or buildings within that drainage basin.
2. 
Calculation of Stormwater Runoff.
A. 
Stormwater calculations shall be submitted in a clear and legible manner for any subdivision or land development that would result in more than 5,000 square feet of total impervious cover.
B. 
These calculations shall follow either a method pre-approved by the Township Engineer or one of the following methods:
(1) 
Rational Method. See description in Appendix 22-D.
(2) 
Soil Cover Complex Method. See U.S. Soil Conservation Service Technical Release No. 55, "Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds."
C. 
Rainfall data shall be from the National Weather Service or PennDOT for the Lehigh Valley.
D. 
The stormwater calculations shall include the following:
(1) 
Pre- and post-development drainage maps showing tributary areas to every discharge point and/or collection point. The map should also depict existing and proposed grades and include any off-site tributary area.
(2) 
Pre- and post-development runoff calculations.
(3) 
Detention basin design calculations (as applicable).
(4) 
Pipe and swale sizing calculations.
(5) 
All other information that is needed to construct the proposed stormwater drainage facilities, including, but not limited to, pipe types, sizes and slopes, proposed elevations, typical cross sections and details.
(6) 
Such information as is needed to determine compliance with this Chapter.
(7) 
If the development occurs in phases, the entire system shall be shown.
E. 
Meadow in good condition shall be used as the starting base for the calculation. This shall apply to areas located in the site. Off-site conditions shall reflect the existing condition.
F. 
Design Storms. The following shall apply unless superseded by PennDOT or other stricter standards.
(1) 
At a minimum, the applicant shall prove to the satisfaction of the Township Engineer that no increase in the peak rate of stormwater discharge will occur during earthmoving, construction or after development than occurred prior to any of these activities, for the two, five, ten, twenty-five and fifty-year frequency storms (considered individually), unless any more restrictive requirements of an applicable official Stormwater Management Plan adopted by DEP and the county pursuant to State Act 167 of 1978, as amended, apply.
(2) 
If using the SCS calculation method, a twenty-four-hour Type II storm shall be used in the calculations required by this subsection.
(3) 
Storm sewer piping, roadside swales and inlet systems shall be designed for a fifteen-year frequency storm. The opening of culverts and under bridges shall be designed for a fifty-year frequency storm. (Except within the one-hundred-year floodplain.) Bridges shall be designed with one foot of freeboard.
(4) 
Stormwater detention basins shall be designed using a fifty-year twenty-four-hour storm. The plan must show that a one-hundred-year, twenty-four-hour storm can be safely conveyed without jeopardizing any principal building on or adjacent to the site.
(5) 
Within the one-hundred-year floodplain, all stormwater management structures and systems shall be designed to handle a one-hundred-year frequency storm.
(6) 
The stormwater management plan shall show that a one-hundred-year frequency storm can be safely conveyed without jeopardizing any principal building on or adjacent to the site.
(7) 
Conveyance swales with a drainage area of 20 acres or more shall be designed to handle the one-hundred-year storm.
(8) 
Conveyance swales with a drainage area of less than 20 acres shall be designed to handle the twenty-five-year storm.
(9) 
Driveway pipe shall be sized for the fifteen-year storm. In addition, the design must allow for the safe conveyance of the one-hundred-year storm.
(10) 
Inlet spacing shall be designed such that in a fifteen-year storm, one traffic lane of at least 10 feet in width shall be free from stormwater.
(11) 
All inlet grates shall be bicycle safe.
(12) 
Appropriate safety grates shall be attached to all catch basins, stormwater inlets, pipe openings and other stormwater receiving structures, as needed, to ensure that maximum openings do not exceed 25 square inches.
3. 
Design Submission.
A. 
All plans showing the proposed storm drainage construction must be accompanied by complete design calculations, signed and sealed by a Pennsylvania professional engineer.
B. 
Phased Developments.
(1) 
When subdivisions or land development are submitted to the Township for approval in sections, a complete general storm sewer design for the proposed subdivision or land development shall be submitted at the preliminary plan level. If necessary, detailed design calculations for any proposed detention basins will be submitted at this time to verify that the predevelopment rate of runoff from the tract will not be exceeded. The proposed design must take into account the entire tract and any upstream watershed.
(2) 
All stormwater controls shall be designed to function properly after the completion of each phase of a development. This may require the use of temporary structures, which shall be shown on the submitted plans.
(3) 
In general, phasing shall be so arranged that phase 1 is the most downstream point of the development. If this is not practical, construction of stormwater controls in areas of future phases will be required if the Township Engineer determines that it is necessary for the proper functioning of the overall system. This shall, for example, include the extension of the main outfall line.
C. 
PennDOT approval of drainage structures that are located on or discharge onto state highway rights-of-way shall be a condition of final plan approval by the Township.
D. 
The submission requirements for stormwater management plans for preliminary and final plans within Parts 5 and 6 of this Chapter shall apply to all required submissions under this Chapter.
E. 
All information described in this Part shall be included with the plan submission.
4. 
County Watershed Plans.
A. 
For areas of a development that are located within a watershed for which a stormwater management plan has been adopted by DEP and Northampton County (pursuant to Act 167, Stormwater Management Act, 32 P.S. § 680.1 et seq.), the County Plan shall supersede any conflicting parts of this Part. This specifically includes reconsideration of detention of stormwater where the County Plan so recommends.
5. 
Joint Storm Drainage Facilities.
A. 
Stormwater management facilities may be planned and constructed in coordination by two or more developments, provided that all other parts of this Chapter are complied with.
B. 
The Township may require a developer to contribute its fair share of the costs of a comprehensive regional or subregional stormwater system in place of requiring an on-site detention basin.
6. 
Methods of Detention.
A. 
The following methods of peak flow reduction and detention may be found to be acceptable by the Township Engineer:
(1) 
Wet or dry ponds and detention basins.
(2) 
Roof Storage. If a roof is to be used for detention, the applicant must submit appropriate calculations and a signed statement from a registered architect or professional engineer that the structure will be able to support the roof loadings during a one-hundred-year frequency storm event. Overflow controls shall be provided to prevent failure during a more severe storm event. This statement shall be required prior to preliminary plan approval. No rooftop storage will be permitted for residential buildings.
(3) 
Parking Lot Detention. A paved parking lot may be found acceptable as a stormwater detention but not retention facility. Ponding shall be arranged so that pedestrians may cross the parking lot relatively dryly. There shall be a maximum designed depth of six inches, and the pavement shall be designed to withstand the effects of ponded water. The area used for the storage shall be the least used portions of the parking lot.
(4) 
Infiltration trenches.
(5) 
Porous pavements, grassed channels and vegetated strips.
(6) 
Cisterns, underground reservoirs or covered ponds.
(7) 
Decreased percentage of impervious area.
(8) 
Groundwater Recharge. In general, all runoff control measures shall be designed to encourage groundwater recharge, if suitable subsurface conditions are present. However, in any such recharge, proper precautions shall be taken to prevent pollution of the groundwater, prevent the formation of sinkholes and to promote safety.
(9) 
Routing flow over lawns in swales within stormwater easements.
(10) 
Detention storage within the storm sewer.
(11) 
Other methods that may be approved by the Township Engineer.
7. 
Detention Basins Standards.
A. 
For the purpose of this Part, a retention basin shall be required to meet the same standards as a detention basin.
B. 
Emergency Spillways. All detention basins shall be designed with an emergency spillway.
(1) 
These spillways at a minimum shall be able to handle the one-hundred-year post development peak discharge from the site.
(2) 
Whenever possible, the emergency spillway for detention basins shall be constructed on undisturbed ground. If the emergency spillway cannot be constructed on undisturbed ground, it shall be constructed of suitable material adequately compacted in accordance with generally accepted construction methods.
(3) 
Emergency spillways shall be constructed of reinforced concrete, vegetated earth or mortared-in-place rock. All emergency spillways shall be constructed so that the detention basin berm is protected against erosion.
(4) 
The emergency spillway shall convey the one-hundred-year storm at a maximum depth of one foot over spillway.
(5) 
The downstream slope of the spillway shall as a minimum extend to the toe of the berm embankment. The edge of the basin grading shall be within the subject property.
(6) 
All detention basin outflow structures shall be designed with trash racks over the outflows.
C. 
The maximum slope of earthen detention basin embankments shall be three horizontal to one vertical. The top or toe of any slope shall be located a minimum of five feet from any property line. Whenever possible the side slopes and basin shape shall be amenable to the natural topography.
D. 
The minimum top width of detention basin berms shall be 10 feet, unless the Township Engineer determines that a greater width is needed for maintenance.
E. 
In order to insure proper drainage of the detention basin, a minimum grade of 2% shall be maintained across the basin bottom. A grade of less than this percent shall be permissible provided that a concrete low flow channel is provided.
F. 
Anti seep collars shall be installed around the principal pipe barrel within the normal saturation zone of the detention basin berms. Antiseep collars shall not be required on basins designed to have a depth of water of less than three feet. The antiseep collars and their connections to the pipe barrel shall be watertight. The antiseep collars shall extend a minimum of two feet beyond the outside of the principal pipe barrel. The maximum spacing between collars shall be 10 times the minimum projection of the collar measured perpendicular to the pipe.
G. 
Fencing. A detention basin shall be required to be surrounded with a three-rail, four-foot high (measured to the top of the top rail), split rail fence utilizing hardwood or hemlock jumbo rails and seven-foot (min.) locust posts with two inches (horizontal) by four inches (vertical) 14 gauge (min.) green or black vinyl coated wire fence stapled to the outside of the split rail fence or an alternative type of fence acceptable to the Township if any of the following conditions are present:
(1) 
The maximum depth of water in the basin during the twenty-five-year frequency storm is greater than 30 inches.
(2) 
The basin is intended to hold water for periods of longer than 30 hours after each rainfall subsides.
(3) 
The basin inside berm slope is steeper than 4:1.
(4) 
The basin is to be dedicated to the Township and the Board of Supervisors request fencing.
(5) 
The Board of Supervisors determines that public safety would be endangered if the basin were not fenced. (The Planning Commission may recommend and/or the Board of Supervisors may require a six-foot high vinyl clad galvanized chain link fence.)
Detention pond fences shall have a lockable ten-foot (min.) gate, constructed of the same fence material, positioned to allow easy access of maintenance equipment.
H. 
Landscaped Screening of Detention Basins.
(1) 
A detention basin shall be screened from view of existing residences, a residential zoning district or a public street, unless the basin would meet both of the following conditions:
(a) 
It would have an average inside slope of less than five to one on the outside of the basin and both the inside and outside would be planted in grass and intended to be mowed or would be designed to closely resemble a natural pond.
(b) 
It would not be surrounded by a primarily metal fence.
(2) 
Any required screening shall meet the standards of the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27]. This landscaping shall not be required along an area where natural vegetation will be maintained that will completely fulfill this purpose.
I. 
The use of multiple detention basins should be investigated over the use of one larger storage facility.
J. 
An outflow control structure shall be provided at the outlet of all detention basins. This structure shall be constructed of galvanized steel or concrete. A trash rack or similar device shall be provided to prevent debris from entering the outflow structure. The crest elevation shall be set at a minimum of six inches below the emergency spillway.
K. 
Aeration devices may be required for retention basins, dependent upon the quality of the influent, detention time, and proximity to residential buildings.
L. 
When reasonable, efforts should be made to allow suitable recreational uses of portions of detention areas. This might include designing a detention basin so that only a portion would be wet after a minor storm, and the remainder would be well drained during all except the most serious storms. These areas may be acceptable at the discretion of the Township as part of any recreation land that may be required under any other Township ordinance.
M. 
Detention basins shall not be placed within an existing sinkhole or a location known to be highly vulnerable to sinkholes. If sinkholes are encountered during excavation, the Township Engineer may require a hydro geologic study to determine the extent of the sink holes and what precautions or methods shall be used in construction of said basins.
8. 
Construction Standards.
A. 
Construction of storm drainage facilities and erosion control facilities shall be in accordance with the approved plans, Township specifications, and any supplementary specifications. Supplementary specifications shall include the construction details and, standards of the following publications, or their successor publications, in their most recent revision.
(1) 
"County Erosion and Sedimentation Control Handbook."
(2) 
PennDOT, Form 408, "Construction Specifications."
(3) 
PennDOT, RC Series, "Roadway Construction Standards."
(4) 
In cases where the above documents conflict with Township specifications, the Township's specifications shall govern, except in areas of PennDOT jurisdiction.
9. 
Storm Sewers.
A. 
The construction of new storm sewers or the connection into acceptable existing storm sewers shall be required by the Board of Supervisors if the Board of Supervisors determines on the basis of the recommendation of the Township Engineer that this is the most feasible and desirable option.
B. 
All storm sewers shall be constructed to Township specifications and shall not interconnect with sanitary sewers.
10. 
Drainage Pipe, Culvert and Catch Basin Design.
A. 
The minimum diameter of any storm sewer pipe shall be 18 inches.
B. 
Open pipe ends must be fitted with concrete end walls or prefabricated end sections.
C. 
Drainage pipes and paved channels shall have a minimum slope of 0.5% and turf drainage, swales shall have a minimum slope of 1.0%. The tops of all pipes should be at the same elevation when increasing pipe sizes along a storm sewer.
D. 
Manholes or inlets shall be used at changes in horizontal alignment, at changes of vertical grade and at all pipe intersections. No run of pipe shall exceed 400 feet in length, without appropriate measures to allow clean out. Trash racks shall be placed on all stormwater entrance structures where appropriate. Note: All trash racks should be designed to allow for easy cleaning and maintenance.
E. 
Bridges and culverts shall meet DEP and Township design criteria and PennDOT Construction Standards. DEP shall be contacted to determine if any permits are required.
F. 
Appropriate safety grates shall be attached to all catch basins, stormwater inlets, pipe openings and other stormwater receiving structures, as needed, to ensure that maximum openings do not exceed 25 square inches. Along residential streets and in park areas, bicycle safe grates shall be used as needed.
G. 
Storm sewer outfall pipes and invert elevations shall be designed, to permit unimpeded conveyance of flow when the receiving watercourse is carrying the twenty-five-year frequency flow rate.
H. 
To minimize sheet flow of stormwater across lots located on the lower side of streets, and to divert flow away from building areas, the cross-section of the street as constructed shall provide for parallel ditches or swales or curbing on the lower side which shall discharge only at drainage easements.
I. 
Inlet spacing shall be designed such that in a twenty-five-year storm, one traffic lane of at least 10 feet in width shall be free from stormwater.
J. 
Energy dissipater shall be placed at the outlets of all pipes where flow velocities exceed maximum permitted channel velocities.
11. 
Stormwater Easements.
A. 
Where a subdivision or development is traversed by a watercourse, drainage way, channel or stream, there shall be provided a drainage easement conforming substantially with the high water line of such watercourse attributable to a flood of one-hundred-year frequency, in order to preserve the unimpeded flow of natural drainage and to provide for future possible widening, deepening, relocating, improving or protecting of such drainage facilities. This easement shall encompass, at a minimum, a distance of 25 feet from the top of each stream bank.
B. 
Structures and other obstructions to flow (except fences made of such materials and placed so as to not obstruct flow) shall be prohibited within stormwater easements. Such easements shall grant the Township the right to enter the easement to accomplish maintenance work, although the Township assumes no responsibility for such work.
C. 
It shall be the responsibility of the applicant to obtain all stormwater easements on, over or through other properties that are needed to carry out the proposed stormwater management plan.
D. 
Areas where stormwater easements have been or will be granted shall not be obstructed during or after construction.
12. 
Surface Waters. All natural streams, channels, swales, drainage systems and/or areas of concentration of surface water shall be maintained in their existing condition unless alteration is approved by the Township Engineer. The applicant shall be responsible for obtaining all necessary DEP permits (see Chapter 105 of Title 25, Pa. Code).
13. 
Ownership and Maintenance of Stormwater Facilities. A system for the ownership and maintenance responsibilities of all permanent stormwater facilities that is satisfactory to the Board of Supervisors shall be established prior to final plan approval including:
A. 
Maintenance of temporary facilities shall be the sole responsibility of the owner.
B. 
Identification of responsible individual, corporation, association or other entity for ownership and maintenance of permanent stormwater management and erosion and sedimentation facilities.
C. 
Establishment of suitable easements for access to all facilities.
D. 
Where the grading and storm drainage plan proposes Township ownership and/or maintenance, a description of the methods, procedures and the extent to which any facilities shall be turned over to the Township, including a written approval and agreement from the Township indicating acceptance of responsibilities as proposed, shall be incorporated as an integral part of the plan.
E. 
The Board of Supervisors may accept or not accept an offer by the applicant for Township ownership of stormwater facilities. If the Township accepts ownership and maintenance responsibilities for stormwater facilities, the applicant shall fund a dedicated account to fund the first 25 years of such maintenance. This funding shall be based upon a reasonable estimate by the Township Engineer.
F. 
Stormwater facilities shall be designed to require minimal maintenance and shall have suitable access for maintenance.
G. 
All storm drainage facilities shall be properly maintained by the party designated as responsible on the final subdivision plan, unless the Board of Supervisors agrees to accept a change in the party responsible or the party owning the facility.
H. 
Should a facility not be maintained in proper working order, the Board of Supervisors, may after due notice to the responsible party, arrange for the needed maintenance to be accomplished with all such expenses charged to the responsible party. These expenses shall be collectible as municipal claims are now collected by law.
I. 
The Township Engineer and authorized Township staff shall have the right to enter private property to inspect storm drainage facilities. Reasonable effort should be made to contact the property owner prior to any such inspection.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.10; as amended by A.O.]
1. 
In General. All subdivision and land developments shall be served with an adequate sewage disposal system (either on-lot or centralized systems) that will meet state regulations.
2. 
Central Sewage Service. In addition to the above general requirements, central sewage disposal systems shall also be reviewed and approved by the appropriate municipal authority or agency.
3. 
On-lot Sewage Disposal System.
A. 
Where it is not deemed by the municipal authority to be feasible and reasonable to connect to a centralized sewage disposal system, on-lot systems may be used and shall be constructed in accordance with DEP regulations.
B. 
The Township Sewage Enforcement Officer's site and soils investigation and favorable report are required prior to approval of the preliminary plan.
C. 
Any use with an on-lot septic system that does not have capped sewers shall include a secondary septic area set aside in reserve should the first system fail. This area must be tested and approved by the Township SEO.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.11; as amended by A.O.]
1. 
In General. All subdivisions and land developments shall be served with an adequate water supply system (either on-lot or centralized system) that will meet DEP requirements. Any non-public water supply system serving two or more principal uses or lots shall be required to provide adequate water pressure, in the determination of the Township.
2. 
Centralized Water System. Proposed extensions of centralized water systems shall meet all applicable procedures, reviews and requirements of the appropriate municipal authority or public utility and meet with their approval prior to final plan of any plan relying upon such system.
3. 
On-lot Water Supply System.
A. 
The Board of Supervisors, based upon any recommendations of the Planning Commission, the Township Engineer and the appropriate water supplier, shall require all lots and principal uses within a subdivision or land development to be connected to the central water system where the Supervisors determine that such connection would be feasible and reasonable. When a subdivision or land development is not required to connect to a central water system, on-lot water systems shall be constructed in accordance with regulations of DEP.
B. 
Wells should be located no closer than 25 feet from any future street right-of-way.
4. 
Fire Hydrants. All subdivisions and land developments that will be served by public water service shall provide fire hydrants as needed with appropriate water pressure so that all dwelling units and principal buildings are within 600 feet of an active fire hydrant.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.12]
All electric power, telephone, cable television and natural gas distribution lines shall be placed underground except where the Planning Commission determines it is not feasible, and in accordance with the current standards of the utility serving the subdivision or development.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.13; as amended by Ord. 324, 9/12/2007, §§ 12 and 3; and by Ord. 326, 9/12/2007, §§ 5 — 8]
1. 
Access. A state highway occupancy permit is required for all entrances of an access drive or driveway onto state road. A Township occupancy permit is required for all access drives or driveways onto Township roads.
2. 
Location. The minimum distance between an access drive or driveway to a street intersection shall be as follows:
Type of Subdivision or Land Development
Distance between or Driveway and Street by Type
Center lines of Nearest of Intersecting
Access Drive Intersection Street
Arterial
Major Collector
Minor Collector or Local
Residential
150 feet
100 feet
75 feet
Residential/Other than single-family detached dwelling or family detached dwelling or garden apartments
150 feet
75 feet
50 feet
Nonresidential or Mixed
300 feet
200 feet
150 feet
NOTE:
Driveways must be at least 10 feet from side and rear property line except when built pursuant to § 27-406, Subsection 1E.
3. 
Sight lines at intersections of driveways or access drives with streets.
A. 
See § 27-404, Subsection 3A(1), of the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27].
4. 
Design.
A. 
Widths of access roads or driveways shall be in accordance with the following standards:
(1) 
Access roads for multifamily residential, mobile home parks and all nonresidential subdivisions shall be no less than 20 feet in width, shall not exceed 30 feet in width at the street line and shall be clearly defined by use of curbing.
(2) 
Driveways for single-family residential subdivisions shall be no less than 10 feet in width but shall not exceed 20 feet in width at the street line.
B. 
To provide safe and convenient ingress and egress, access road and driveway entrances shall be rounded at the following minimum radii:
(1) 
Access road entrances for multifamily residential developments, mobile home parks, and all nonresidential subdivisions shall be rounded at a minimum radius of 20 feet (non-curbed roads), 10 feet (curbed roads) along local and minor collector roads.
(2) 
Driveway entrances for single-family residential subdivisions shall be rounded at a minimum radius of 10 feet (non-curbed roads) and five feet (curbed roads) along local and minor collector roads.
(3) 
For driveways or access roads serving single-family residential uses, the minimum radius shall be 15 feet along major collector and arterial roads. For all other driveways or access roads, the minimum radius shall be 25 feet along major collector and arterial roads.
C. 
All driveways to an arterial or collector roadway, or where the existing roadway is judged unsuitable by reason of grade, curvature or visibility, shall provide an on-lot turnaround so that it is not necessary to back into the cartway.
D. 
Throat length. Throat length for driveways and access roads that intersect arterial and major collector roads, serving nonresidential development, apartment complexes and mobile home parks shall comply with the following standards. The throat length shall be measured from the point where the access road meets the edge of paving or curbline extension, of the arterial or major collector road to the first point where the access road meets an on-site circulation road or lane.
(1) 
Twenty-five feet for minimum use access roads.
(2) 
Fifty feet for low volume driveways.
(3) 
One hundred twenty feet for medium volume driveways.
(4) 
One hundred fifty feet or as determined by a queuing analysis for high volume driveways and in consideration of the operational transition into the internal road network.
5. 
Grades. Grades of access drives or driveways shall not exceed 10% when connecting to a local or minor collector street and 7% when connecting onto a major collector or an arterial street, however, the initial 20 feet from the edge of the cartway shall not exceed 5%
6. 
Drainage.
A. 
The developer shall make adequate provisions to maintain uninterrupted parallel drainage along a public street where intersected by an access drive or driveway. Access drives and aisles within parking lots shall be graded and drained to keep the primary travel lane free of stormwater.
B. 
_____
(1) 
Prior to any driveway improvement or widening within 50 feet of the public road right-of-way, it should be determined by a PE or PLS that the gutter, shoulder or culvert, existing or proposed, is adequate to safely convey the fifteen-year storm.
(2) 
A lot, part of an approved subdivision with an approved stormwater management plan, shall be exempt if the driveway is built to a design approved as part of that subdivision, unless it is found that the design previously approved is inadequate. A revised design can be approved by the Township Engineer for the remainder of the subdivision or on an individual basis. If no known problems exist, the owner may request permission of the Township Engineer to extend, in like material, any existing gutter, shoulder or culvert.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.14]
See Part 7 of the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27].
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.15]
(See "Covenant," Appendix 22-E.)[1]
1. 
Sidewalks shall be installed as required below:
A. 
Sidewalks shall generally be required on both sides of the street in subdivisions with:
(1) 
Typical lot width of less than 100 feet at the building setback lines.
(2) 
Where semidetached or townhouses are planned, with the exception that sidewalks shall be required on only one side of the street in the above subdivisions if there are residential lots on only one side of the street.
B. 
Sidewalks may also be required on both sides of the street in subdivisions where lots are 100 feet or more in width if it would be desirable to continue sidewalks that are existing in adjacent subdivisions, or to provide access to community facilities, such as schools, shopping areas and recreation areas.
C. 
Sidewalks shall be required on both sides of streets and adjacent to parking areas in multifamily developments.
D. 
Sidewalks shall be located within the street right-of-way, no closer than one foot from the right-of-way line, and shall be a minimum of four feet wide, except along collector and arterial streets, and adjacent to shopping centers, schools, recreation areas, and other community facilities, where they shall be a minimum of five feet wide.
E. 
Generally, a grass planting strip should be provided between the curb and sidewalk.
F. 
Sidewalks shall be constructed of concrete and be at least four inches thick, underlain by three inches of compacted cinder, gravel, or crushed stone.
G. 
Where a comprehensive interior walkway system is designed and proposed for the subdivision, some or all of the requirements set forth in § 22-1015 may be waived by the Township Planning Commission.
H. 
Where unusual or unique conditions prevail with respect to prospective traffic and/or safety of pedestrians, different standards of improvements than those set forth in the previous subsections may be required. Crosswalks may be required when deemed necessary by the Township Planning Commission.
2. 
Pathway or Bikeway.
A. 
If deemed necessary for the convenient and safe circulation of bicycles and pedestrians, the Board of Supervisors, upon the recommendation of the Planning Commission, may require that a major subdivision or land development include and construct a pathway or bikeway. Such pathway or bikeway shall be described by metes and bounds and shall be dedicated to the Township.
B. 
A bikeway or pathway shall have a minimum right-of-way width of 20 feet and a path width of eight feet and may be requested to be illuminated and/or paved to Township standards.
3. 
Handicapped Access. All sidewalks and curbs at the intersection of two or more public streets shall include a sloped curb cut suitable for use by wheelchairs.
4. 
Maintenance. It shall be the responsibility of adjacent landowners to maintain sidewalks.
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix 22-E is included as an attachment to this Chapter.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.16]
1. 
The developer shall be required to provide streetlights when the Board of Supervisors, upon the recommendation of the Planning Commission, deems them necessary to provide safe traffic or pedestrian circulation. Streetlights shall be required to be provided at each intersection of the development, at ends of culs-de-sac and at intervals not to exceed 350 feet between intersections.
2. 
Such lights shall meet design standards established by the Township and the public utility. The Planning Commission may approve alternative pole designs that still meet electric company standards.
3. 
The Board of Supervisors may require a developer to establish a homeowner or condominium association to fund the maintenance of and electricity for streetlights in a development.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.17]
1. 
The developer shall provide the subdivision or land development with adequate street signs at the intersections of all streets and with any other signs required, or fund such signs if provided by the Township.
2. 
Sign style, color and lettering shall be subject to the approval of the Board of Supervisors.
3. 
Street names are subject to the approval of the Board of Supervisors and U.S. Postal Service, and shall continue the name of any street with the same alignment, and shall not duplicate or be closely similar to the name of another street within the Township or the zip code.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.18]
The developer shall be required to provide or fund traffic regulatory signs that shall meet current design standards as established by PennDOT.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.19; as amended by Ord. 342, 8/12/2009, § 1]
1. 
Street Trees.
A. 
Street trees are required to be planted under this Part within all land developments and major subdivisions.
(1) 
The Planning Commission or any Township shade tree commission may approve other species of trees than those listed below if the applicant proves to the satisfaction of either commission that the trees would be sturdy, attractive and resistant to disease and road salt.
(2) 
If more than 20 street trees are required, no more than 50% of the trees shall be of any one species.
(3) 
Permitted species of trees.
(a) 
Deciduous.
Gleditsia triacanthos
Thornless honey locust
Acer rubrum
American red maple
Acer saccharum
Sugar maple
Celtis occidentalis
Common hackberry
Fagus sylvatica
European beech
Fraxinus pennsylvania
Green ash
Fraxinus americana
White ash
Gingko biloba fastigiata
Maiden hair tree (male only)
Juglans nigra
Eastern black walnut
Liquidambar styraciflua
Sweet gum
Liquidambar tulipifera
Tulip poplar
Quercus phellos
Willow oak
Quercus acutissima
Sawtooth oak
Quercus imbricaria
Shingle oak
Quercus borealis
Red oak
Quercus coccinea
Scarlet oak
Quercus japonica
Chinese scholar tree
Quercus macrocarpa
Bur oak
Quercus alba
White oak
Populus deltoides
Eastern poplar
Quercus montana
Chestnut oak
Quercus velutina
black oak
Tilia american
American linden
Tilia petiolaris
Silver linden
Tilia euchlora
Crimean linden
Tilia cordata
Littleleaf European linden
Zelkova serrata
Zelkova
(b) 
Evergreen.
Ilex opaca
American holly
Picea omorika
Serbian spruce
Picea pungens
Colorado spruce
Pinus thunbergi
Japanese black pine
Pseudotsuga taxifolia
Douglas fir
Tsuga canadensis
Canada hemlock
Tsuga caroliniana
Carolina hemlock
Larix decidua
European larch
B. 
Quality of Trees.
(1) 
Trees permitted shall be of symmetrical growth, free of insect pests and disease, and durable under the maintenance contemplated.
(2) 
Trees which have died or have become diseased or pest-ridden within 18 months from the time of planting shall be replaced by the developer.
C. 
Minimum Size.
(1) 
The trunk diameter (measured at a height of one foot above the finished grade level) shall be a minimum of two inches.
D. 
Planting and Maintenance.
(1) 
Trees shall be planted and staked in conformance with good landscaping practices.
(2) 
Trees adjacent to or within parking areas shall be properly protected from damage by vehicles by raised curbs, similar devices or sufficient setback.
(3) 
Required trees shall be properly maintained and shall not be removed by the developer without being replaced by another tree that meets the requirements of this Part.
E. 
Required Number of Street Trees.
(1) 
Within and abutting all land developments and major subdivisions, along any street, or any access drive serving more than one commercial, industrial or institutional principal use, an average of one deciduous street tree shall be required for every 50 feet of distance along the street right-of-way line on each affected side of the street.
(2) 
In a residential subdivision or land development, if dwellings do not front onto the street right-of-way, evergreen trees meeting the requirements of this Part should be substituted for deciduous trees.
F. 
Spacing. The trees required under this Part shall be, generally, spaced throughout the development, but may be clustered at locations acceptable to the Planning Commission. If trees are to be planted on both sides of a street, they should be planted so that the trees alternate and are not lined up exactly with the tree on the other side of the street.
G. 
Location of Street Trees. Trees shall not be retained or planted within three feet of the street curb or the sidewalk. Trees may be retained or planted between the curb and the sidewalk if there is a minimum distance of six feet. Street trees shall be planted at least five feet from the edge of the cartway and the shoulder of a street right-of-way if no curbline is established, unless the Board of Supervisors approve another location or another location is needed to ensure adequate sight distance. Where trees are to be planted between the curb and the sidewalk, special consideration shall be given to the species of trees that are planted.
H. 
Other Requirements. The street trees required under this Part shall be in addition to any trees required under other Township regulations, including the parking lot landscaping requirements of the Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27].
I. 
Credit for Existing Trees. If existing healthy street trees are to be preserved that would, in the determination of the Planning Commission, generally meet the intent and requirements of this Part, they may serve as a credit toward the number of street trees required to be planted.
2. 
Ground Cover.
A. 
Exposed ground surface in all parts of the subdivision shall be paved or covered with stone screenings or other solid material, or protected with a vegetative growth that is capable of preventing soil erosion and the emanation of dust during dry weather.
B. 
The vegetative cover shall not be poisonous in nature.
3. 
Buffer Yards. See the requirements for buffer yards in § 27-404 of the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27].
4. 
Preservation of Existing Trees. All trees six inches or more in diameter (measured at a height of four feet above original grade) shall not be removed as part of or in preparation for a subdivision or land development unless they are located within five feet of a proposed cartway or street shoulder, or within a stormwater detention basin, parking area, sidewalk portion of the right-of-way, driveway, on-site sewage system, within 20 feet of the foundation area of a new structure, or unless they are diseased or are excessive in number and thinning will promote and enhance the healthy development of the remaining trees.
5. 
Natural and Historic Feature Preservation.
A. 
Substantial and sensitive natural features and historic structures and important archaeological sites worthy of protection, as determined by the Board of Supervisors upon the advice of the Planning Commission shall be respected, incorporated into and protected in any subdivision or land development.
B. 
These features include, but are not limited to, natural drainage channels, waterways and falls, large trees or groves, highly scenic views and important community landmarks.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.20]
1. 
Permanent stone or concrete monuments shall be accurately placed at the intersection of all lines forming angles and at changes in directions of lines in the boundary (perimeter) of the property subdivided.
2. 
Monuments shall be of reinforced concrete with minimum dimensions of four inches by four inches by 30 inches.
3. 
All monuments shall be placed by a registered professional engineer or surveyor so that the 1/2-inch rebar which may not protrude more than 1 1/2 inches above the top of the monument and shall coincide exactly with the point of intersection of the line being monumented.
4. 
Monuments shall be set with their top level with the finished grade of the surrounding ground, except:
A. 
Monuments which are placed within the lines of existing or proposed sidewalks shall be so located (preferably beneath the sidewalks) that their tops will not be affected by lateral movement of the sidewalks.
B. 
Where monuments are located beneath a sidewalk, proper access shall be provided for their use.
C. 
Where sidewalks are existing, a stone point (a four-inch square chisel cut in the sidewalk with a drill hole in the center) may be substituted for a monument.
5. 
All streets shall be monumented, on the right-of-way lines, at the following locations.
A. 
At least one monument at each intersection.
B. 
At PCs and PTs of all streets.
C. 
At intermediate points, wherever topographical or other conditions make it impossible to sight between two otherwise required monuments.
D. 
At such other place along the line of streets as may be determined by the Township Engineer to be necessary so that any street may be readily defined in the future.
6. 
Markers shall consist of iron pipes or steel bars at least 30 inches long, and not less than 3/4 inches in diameter. Markers shall be set at all lot corners.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.21; as amended by A.O.]
1. 
Erosion and Sedimentation Control Plan.
A. 
Any land development or subdivision that will involve the disturbance of more than one acre of earth shall be required to submit to the County Conservation District and the plans administrator, an "erosion and sedimentation control plan" that will show how the requirements of DEP Title 25, Rules and Regulations, Chapter 102, Pa. Code, as amended, will be met. These DEP requirements are hereby made a part of this Chapter by reference, any violation of these erosion and sedimentation control regulations or an approved erosion and sedimentation control plan shall be a violation of this Chapter.
B. 
The Planning Commission may require any land development or subdivision involving more than 5,000 square feet of earth disturbance submit an "erosion and sedimentation plan" and have the plan reviewed by the Township Engineer, at the cost of the applicant.
C. 
Compliance with the submitted erosion and sedimentation control plan (and any revisions officially filed with the Township) shall automatically be a condition of any final plan approval.
D. 
The County Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook shall be used as a resource in soil protection planning and in the review of such plans.
E. 
The landowner shall be responsible for carrying out the requirements of the erosion and sedimentation control plan during earthmoving activities.
2. 
All areas of the subdivision shall be stabilized by seeding or planting. Slopes steeper than 15% shall be further protected by mulching which shall be adequately tied down.
[Ord. 3/6/1991, § 10.22; as amended by A.O.]
All mobile home parks shall be developed in accordance with Plainfield Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27] and with applicable Parts of this Chapter.
[Ord. 3/6/1991; as added by Ord. 342, 8/12/2009, § 2]
1. 
Purpose. It is the purpose of this Section to establish requirements for the establishment, maintenance and preservation of riparian buffers and open space, as defined herein, to protect the watercourses, ponds, lakes and wetlands in Plainfield Township, and to limit the surface areas of buildings and structures within these areas.
2. 
Authority. This Section is established in accordance with the Pennsylvania Constitution, Art. 1, § 27 (the "Environmental Rights Amendment"), and §§ 301(a)(6), 503(2)(v), 603(c)(7), 605(2)(ii, iii, and vii), 606, 609.1c(3)(4), 916.1(c)(5)(fii and iv) of the PA Municipalities Planning Code, 53 P.S. § 10101 et seq.
3. 
Applicability.
A. 
This Section shall apply to all lands within Plainfield Township that are adjacent to a watercourse, pond, lake or wetland.
B. 
This Section shall apply to any subdivision or land development plan, submitted after the effective date of this Section.
C. 
For land development plans and lots in excess of three acres proposed on subdivision plans, the requirements for riparian and wetland buffers shall only apply to that area which is within 250 feet of any area proposed to be disturbed.
4. 
General Design Standards.
A. 
For sites where a riparian buffer does not exist, it is acceptable to allow the buffer to succeed naturally by utilizing a "no-mow" area where native vegetation is able to establish itself naturally.
B. 
The riparian buffer shall be:
(1) 
One hundred feet from the top of the stream bank of a watercourse.
(2) 
One hundred feet from the outer delineated boundary of any wetland. Wetlands which total less than 250 square feet in size and are further than 75 feet from any other wetland boundary or the top of stream bank of a watercourse shall be excluded from this requirement.
C. 
Principal structures and areas of impervious coverage, unless permitted in Subsection 5, of this Section, shall be set back from the outer edge of the riparian buffer a minimum of 25 feet.
D. 
It shall be lawful, but not required, to supplement the riparian buffer with planting of native vegetation. Native plants can include ferns, shrubs and trees. Native vegetation (as defined in the Plants of Pennsylvania: An illustrated Manual, (Ann Fowler Rhoads and Timothy A. Block, June 2000, or current version thereof) and The Trees of Pennsylvania: A Complete Reference Guide (Ann Fowler Rhoads and Timothy A. Block, May 2004, or current version thereof) must be used in such efforts. Any supplemental plantings shall be installed to allow for proper plant growth and maintenance.
E. 
All areas within 50 feet of the top of the bank of any pond or lake shall be open space. Stormwater control ponds, not intended to permanently retain water, are not subject to this requirement.
F. 
For those projects involving subdivision or land development plan submission, the plan shall show the limits of riparian buffers along a watercourse and the limits of open space along ponds or lakes defined by bearings and distances tied to property corners at two points. Wetland boundaries must be defined on the plan as described in Subsection 8, and, as a minimum, the limits of riparian buffers shall be dimensioned as an offset line from the wetland boundary.
5. 
Permitted Uses/Activities Within the Riparian Buffer.
A. 
Roads, bridges, trails, storm drainage, stormwater management facilities and utilities are permitted within the buffer area provided that an alternatives analysis has clearly demonstrated that no other feasible alternative exists and that minimal disturbance will take place.
B. 
Stream restoration projects and activities permitted under an active DEP permit which has been approved by Plainfield Township.
C. 
Horticulture practices used to maintain the health of vegetation in the riparian buffer.
D. 
Removal of Nonnative Vegetation. Removal of trees in danger of falling, causing damage to dwellings or other structures, or the blockage of a watercourse or a public road.
E. 
Agricultural uses in compliance with an approved, up to date, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NCRS) Conservation Plan.
F. 
Lawn areas of no greater than 10% of the total riparian and wetland buffer on the lot or 10,000 square feet, whichever is more restrictive. Lawn areas must conform to the natural grade of the land and must be mowed no lower than four inches in height.
6. 
Prohibited Uses/Activities Within the Riparian Buffer.
A. 
All structures.
B. 
Impervious coverage unless permitted in Subsection 5.
C. 
Grading, filling and any earth disturbance in the creation of new lawn areas or the maintenance of existing lawn areas.
D. 
The placing of chemicals or fertilizers.
E. 
Planting of non-native vegetation.
F. 
Mowing (except as allowed under Subsection 5F, above), removal or burning of native vegetation.
G. 
Soil disturbance, inclusive of grading, stripping of topsoil, plowing, cultivating or other practices.
H. 
Septic systems.
I. 
The production, storage or use of a substance or material, underground or aboveground, that is buoyant, flammable, explosive, or injurious to property, water quality, or human, animal, plant, fish or aquatic life.
J. 
Cutting or removal of trees (except as allowed under Subsection 5D, above).
K. 
The storage or disposal of materials used for snow and ice control including sand, salt and other deicing chemicals.
L. 
Sanitary landfills, dumps, junk and salvage yards, and outdoor storage of vehicles and/or materials.
M. 
The storage or disposal of any soil, loam, peat, sand, gravel, rock, or other mineral substance, refuse, trash, rubbish, debris, or dredged/excavated spoil.
N. 
Draining, excavating, or dredging, or removal or relocation of loam, peat, sand, gravel, soil, rock, or other mineral substance, except as accessory to work permitted as of right or by special permit.
O. 
Manure storage facilities and manure stockpiles.
P. 
The maintenance, housing or grazing of animals.
7. 
Permitted Uses Within the Riparian Buffer Setback. Lawns, lawn care service, accessory structures, roads, driveways, utilities and passive outdoor recreation and education facilities are permitted within the setback area provided any structure associated with such uses is located outside the riparian buffer.
8. 
Boundary Determination. The developer, applicant, property owner or designated representative shall be responsible for the initial width determination of the riparian corridor and identifying this area on any plan that is submitted to the municipality for subdivision or land development. This determination shall be subject to review by the Plainfield Township Engineer, Wetlands boundaries shall be delineated in the field by a qualified professional and a delineation report for the site must be submitted. Wetland boundaries must be field located and defined by bearings and distances on a plan sealed by a professional land surveyor. Each wetland area shall be tied to property corners at two points. The plan shall also contain a certification by the qualified professional responsible for the field delineation, indicating that he has reviewed the plan and does hereby certify that to the best of his knowledge and belief, it is a correct representation of the wetlands boundaries which he delineated in the field on (DATE).
9. 
Waivers.
A. 
Waiver request shall be filed in writing to the Township Planning Commission and Board of Supervisors and shall contain the basis for the request and a description of the relief requested. A site plan shall be submitted and shall be prepared by a licensed professional acceptable to the Township and shall include the following:
(1) 
Location of streams, ponds or other water resources on the property to be developed.
(2) 
Species, location and size of trees within the riparian buffer setback.
(3) 
Location of any proposed building or stature.
(4) 
Any other information deemed relevant by the Board of Supervisors.
B. 
In addition to these standards and criteria, the following shall be considered by the Plainfield Township Planning Commission or Board of Supervisors in rendering affirmative decisions where applicable:
(1) 
A showing of good and sufficient cause.
(2) 
Whether plan modifications or conditions of approval can achieve conservation objectives of this Section.
(3) 
That the relief granted is the minimum necessary and does not conflict with any municipal, state or federal regulations.
10. 
Definitions.
FLOOD, ONE-HUNDRED-YEAR
A flood that has a 1% chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
FLOODPLAIN AREA
A relatively flat or low land area which is subject to partial or complete inundation from an adjoining or nearby stream, river or watercourse; and/or any area subject to the unusual and rapid accumulation of surface waters from any source.
LAWN
An area maintained with grass adjacent to a structure. The term does not include athletic fields, cemeteries, golf courses, fields, parks and public utility or highway rights-of-way.
LAWN CARE SERVICE
Providing services for lawn upkeep including fertilizing, mowing or performing other lawn treatment services.
NATIVE VEGETATION
Vegetation that has arrived and inhabited an area naturally, without deliberate assistance by man.
NATURAL SUCCESSION
The process by which a habitat or environment naturally rejuvenates itself.
NON-NATIVE VEGETATION
Vegetation reproducing outside its native range and outside cultivation that disrupts naturally occurring native vegetation by altering structure, composition, natural processes or habitat quality.
PASSIVE OUTDOOR RECREATION
Recreational activities that do not involve a developed site, and have minimal impact on natural resources.
RIPARIAN BUFFER
An area of trees and other vegetation adjacent to a watercourse or wetland that forms a transition area between the aquatic and terrestrial environment, and designed to intercept runoff for the purpose of mitigating the effects of nutrients, sediment, organic matter, pesticides, or other pollutants before entry into surface waters and to provide control of water temperature.
RIPARIAN BUFFER SETBACK
The portion of a site where structures and uses of land are to be minimized expressly for the purpose of preserving and protecting a riparian buffer.
STREAMBANK
The break in the slope between the waterline of a watercourse and the surrounding land area.
WATERCOURSE
A watercourse is a channel or conveyance of surface water having defined bed and banks, whether natural or artificial, with perennial or intermittent flow, shown as Hydrology (blue lines) on the latest version of the Plainfield Township Zoning Map. Man-made swales, constructed specifically for stormwater management purposes, are excluded from this definition.
WATERLINE
The highest water level of a watercourse which is common and usual.
WETLAND
All lands regulated as wetlands by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and/or the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Such areas are inundated or saturated by surface water or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions, including swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas.