City of Parkville, MO
Platte County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted by the Board of Aldermen of the City of Parkville 2-7-2017 by Ord. No. 2884. Amendments noted where applicable.]
A. 
Intent. It is the intent of this Chapter is to:
1. 
Improve the aesthetic character of development with natural landscape materials, and in particular emphasize distinct areas throughout the community as reflected in the Master Plan or any specific plans.
2. 
Coordinate landscape and design amenities across multiple sites, with special attention to the relationship between lots and streetscapes, and improving the character of districts and neighborhoods.
3. 
Enhance the environmental and ecological function of unbuilt portions of sites, including reduced air or water pollution and reduced heat gain from large expanses of blank walls or paved surfaces.
4. 
Screen and mitigate the visual, noise or other impacts of high-intensity areas of sites, buildings and land uses.
B. 
Applicability.
1. 
The standards of this Chapter shall apply to all new development except:
a. 
Detached houses and duplexes being built on an individual basis and on a previously platted lot, and which are not part of a larger residential neighborhood or subdivision plan; and
b. 
Improvements or repairs to existing development that do not result in an increase in building footprint by more than ten percent (10%), an increase in impervious surface, or changes in use that do not result in an increase in intensity.
2. 
In cases where improvements or repairs increase the building footprint by more than ten percent (10%), increase the impervious surface or intensity of use, the intent is to bring the site into full compliance with these standards, except that the Director or Planning Commission may prorate the requirements to the extent of new development on the site where full compliance is not possible or practical.
A. 
Landscape Requirements. Required landscape materials shall be based on specific site elements as follows:
Table 407-1: Landscape Requirements
Site Element
Requirement
Street trees1
1 large tree for every 40 feet of lot frontage, averaged
Foundation planting
Continuous shrub massing along 75% of all non-paved building frontages or any non-paved building facade facing a publicly accessible area.
Any facade greater than 200 linear feet and not fronting on a street or civic and open space shall have 1 large tree per 50 linear feet, 1 small or evergreen tree per 50 linear feet and 1 shrub per 10 linear feet
Parking lot planting
1 large tree for every 25 parking spaces, or 1 small or ornamental tree for every 10 parking spaces
1 shrub for every 10 linear feet of perimeter landscape buffer, and continuous shrub massing for any perimeter within 25 feet of a street or internal access street
All other landscape buffers or internal landscape islands shall be permeable surfaces with perennial vegetative ground cover such as sod or turf grass. Alternative materials designed to infiltrate runoff may be approved as part of the stormwater management plan.
All parking lot landscape materials shall be allocated in the perimeter buffers and internal islands required by Section 408.050.
Buffers
See Section 407.030.
Open space
See Section 404.020, for any areas or sites required to have civic and open spaces.
Other
All other unbuilt and permeable surfaces on the site shall include ground cover to prevent dust and soil erosion. Perennial vegetative ground cover, such as sod or turf grass shall be required on at least 80% of the ground cover. Non-living ground cover, such as stones, rocks or mulch may be permitted on up to 20% of the ground cover.
NOTE:
1
Street trees shall be planted in tree lawns between the sidewalk and curb, at least six (6) feet wide, or in tree wells with a minimum permeable surface area of twenty-four (24) square feet and minimum width of four (4) feet. In cases where tree lawns cannot accommodate a large tree or where overhead utilities are present, small trees may be substituted. In cases where streets cannot accommodate planting in the right-of-way, planting shall be within the first ten (10) feet of the front lot line. Any lot fronting on a street with a specific streetscape plan approved by the Planning Commission may substitute the design specification of that plan for street tree requirements.
B. 
Plant Species. All trees and shrubs shall be selected and planted according to Great Trees for the Kansas City Region, incorporated in Appendix B.[1] The Director is authorized to supplement and amend the list of required, preferred and prohibited plan species. In addition to any species on these lists, alternatives may be proposed and approved as part of the site plan, provided that they:
1. 
Are documented by a landscape architect or other credible information comparable in type and performance to any species on this list;
2. 
Are adaptable to the climate of the metropolitan region and the specific conditions in which they are proposed; and
3. 
Are not invasive or otherwise problematic to the overall health of the landscape.
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix B is included as an attachment to this Title.
C. 
Planting Specifications. All landscape materials shall meet the American Standards for Nursery Stock (ASNS), published by the American Nurserymen's Association, and be selected for its native characteristics or survival in the climate for the Kansas City region, and be planted and maintained according to ASNS specifications. Plants shall meet the following specifications at planting:
Table 407-2: Plant Specifications
Type
Specification
Large tree
2-inch caliper
Small or ornamental tree
1.5-inch caliper
Evergreen
6 feet minimum height
Shrub
18 inches minimum height
Ground cover
50% coverage at planting;
Full coverage within 2 growing seasons
Turf
All proposed or required turf areas shall be sodded
D. 
Tree Diversity. The required trees planted shall promote diversity with the following species selection criteria.
Table 407-3: Tree Diversity
Required Number of Trees
Diversity1
1 to 4
May be all 1 species, but should be diverse from other species or genus in the vicinity
5 to 10
At least 2 genus
No more than 50% of any 1 species
11 to 20
At least 3 genus; and
At least 5 species
No more than 33% of any 1 species
21 to 50
At least 3 genus; and
At least 5 species
No more than 20% of any 1 species
NOTE:
1
Any streetscape master plan or public realm plan may achieve street tree diversity on a block-scale basis, while planting the same species on individual segments for the urban design effect.
E. 
Credits For Existing Vegetation. Successful incorporation of existing and healthy vegetation that meets these performance criteria may be credited towards any landscape requirement. Credits shall be on a one-for-one basis for any vegetation that meets the minimum specifications, except that landscape material more than three (3) times the specified size or otherwise of exceptional quality may be credited on a two-for-one basis.
F. 
Design And Performance Criteria. In addition to the above planting requirements, all landscape plans shall be designed according to the following performance criteria, and in individual cases additional plantings may be warranted in order to meet these criteria:
1. 
Existing natural features of the site, such as groves of trees, extreme slopes, areas intended to serve as buffers and areas not intended for development, shall be retained and incorporated into the design to the maximum extent practical.
2. 
Landscape areas shall be utilized to the maximum extent possible for natural stormwater mitigation practices and to satisfy stormwater management criteria. Examples of natural stormwater mitigation practices include filter strips, vegetative swales, pervious pavement systems and sand filters.
3. 
Native plants and vegetation shall be utilized to the maximum extent reasonable, i.e., drought-tolerant plants should be planted in landscape islands and water-resistant plants should be planted near stormwater retention facilities.
4. 
All required landscape and open space areas shall remain free of debris and refuse and be appropriately maintained.
5. 
Designs shall best integrate sites and projects into their surroundings, or promote any distinct characteristics of the area identified in the Master Plan or any specific plans.
6. 
Designs should emphasize any focal points of an area or project, and pay particular attention to the relationship with the streetscapes.
A. 
Buffer Types. In addition to the general site and landscape requirements, certain projects, land uses, or elements of site design have potential impacts that require them to be buffered or screened from adjacent property. The following buffer types are established to be incorporated into site designs in specific contexts.
Table 407-4: Buffer Planting Requirements
Buffer Type
Buffer Size and Planting Requirement
Type 1: A compact, and more densely landscaped area used to screen and mitigate potential impacts on abutting property. Type 1 buffers may be necessary in combination with other buffers on particular portions of the site plan.
At least 5 feet wide
1 evergreen per 8 linear feet or 1 shrub per 5 linear feet
Or a fence or ornamental wall that provides a solid screen between 6 feet and 8 feet with a lesser combination of plant material to soften the wall or fence
Type 2: A landscape strip used to soften and provide aesthetic improvements within the setback area and improve the compatibility of certain land use transitions.
At least 10 feet
1 large tree or 2 small trees per 50 linear feet
1 shrub per 10 linear feet
Type 3: A landscape strip used to separate and screen potentially incompatible sites or land use transitions.
At least 20 feet wide
1 large tree or 2 small trees per 40 linear feet
1 evergreen per 20 linear feet
1 shrub for every 10 linear feet
Or a 6-foot berm or solid fence combination with a lesser combination of plant materials to the outside
Type 4: A landscape area along the frontage of thoroughfares and corridors designed to preserve or strengthen the natural features and characteristics of the area through more dense vegetation in a compact area.
At least 35 feet wide along frontage
1 large, small or evergreen tree per 4 linear feet
1 shrub or evergreen per 2 linear feet of frontage
Type 5: A landscape area along the frontage of thoroughfares and corridors designed to preserve or strengthen the natural features and characteristics of the area through more moderate vegetation in a larger area.
At least 50 feet wide along frontage
1 large, small or evergreen tree per 10 linear feet
1 shrub 4 linear feet
Type 6: A landscape area along the frontage of thoroughfares and corridors designed to preserve or strengthen the natural features and characteristics of the area through dispersed vegetation in a wide area.
At least 100 feet wide along frontage
1 large, small or evergreen tree per 20 linear feet
1 shrub per 20 linear feet
B. 
Buffer Requirements. In general, each buffer type is required in the following specific circumstances. In instances where the specifics of any particular project or context would allow a different buffer type to equally or better meet the intent of this Chapter and the design and performance criteria of this Section, the Director or Planning Commission may approve an alternative buffer through the site plan application. In addition to these specific circumstances, any combination of these buffers may be required as a condition of any special use permit review for particular uses.
Table 407-5: Buffer Requirements
Buffer Type
When Required
Type 1
For screening high-intensity portions of site from streetscape or abutting property according to design and performance standards in Section 407.030(D). Specifically applicable for trash enclosures; outdoor storage; drive-through, loading, or service areas abutting residential areas; or surface parking located within 10 feet of residentially used or zoned property. Type 1 buffers may be required in addition to or in combination with other buffer types.
Type 2
Along non-commercial frontages of collector and arterial streets, except those with activity street designs.
Any multibuilding or apartment project greater than 1/2 acre but less than 2 acres abutting R-4 or lesser intense zoning
Any non-residential project under 1 acre abutting residentially used or zoned property
Any I-1 project abutting lesser intense districts
Type 3
Any I-2 or I-3 abutting lesser intense districts
Any multi-unit building or apartment project of 2 acres or more abutting R-4 or lesser intense zoning
Any non-residential property of 1 acre or more abutting R-4 or lesser intense zoning
Types 4, 5 and 6
Along frontages of major thoroughfares that have a natural street design
Landscape should be designed to provide a mix of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs dispersed throughout the buffer area.
May incorporate civic and open space requirements, if any, into this area
C. 
Fence Specifications. All fencing for screening, security, or privacy shall meet the following standards:
1. 
Front And Street-Side Fencing. All fencing in front of the front building line, or on the street side on corner lots shall:
a. 
Be limited to no higher than forty -two (42) inches; and
b. 
Have a transparency of at least thirty-three (33%) up to four (4) feet [i.e., a three-and-one-half-foot-high picket fence shall have a picket to void ratio of two to one (2:1) or greater transparency; or ornamental walls should similarly have voids comprising at least thirty-three percent (33%) of the area below three and one-half (3 1/2) feet].
c. 
Any fence or wall constructed within fifteen (15) feet of the street right-of-way shall be limited to decorative or ornamental fencing and screening, with materials complementing the architectural style and materials of the principal building.
d. 
On corner lots, street-side fencing behind the front building line may meet the standards for rear and side fencing in Subsection (C)(2) below, provided that it is no closer than five (5) feet from any sidewalk located in the right-of-way.
2. 
Rear And Side Fencing. All rear and interior side fencing located behind the front building line:
a. 
Shall be limited to no higher than six (6) feet, or up to seven (7) feet in all non-residential districts.
b. 
May have a solid screen.
3. 
Other Fencing Design Standards.
a. 
Any fencing that could potentially create a sight obstruction for vehicles crossing pedestrian areas or entering the street may require greater transparency or additional location restrictions to allow for safe sight distances for the vehicle.
b. 
All fencing located along adjacent lot lines shall be constructed so that either:
(1) 
The fence is on the property line; or
(2) 
The fence is at least three (3) feet from the property line. Any areas set back three (3) feet or more from the property line, which could become enclosed by other similarly located fences, shall provide at least one (1) gate for access and maintenance equipment.
c. 
All fences shall be constructed so that the finished side faces adjacent property or any public right-of-way.
d. 
Fences shall be constructed out of any of the following materials:
(1) 
Wood or vinyl simulating wood;
(2) 
Wrought iron or aluminum simulating wrought iron;
(3) 
Stone, brick, concrete with stone or brick veneer, or precast concrete simulated stone or brick; or
(4) 
Chain-link or vinyl clad chain-link:
(a) 
In all residential districts, in the rear or side yard only with a maximum height of four (4) feet;
(b) 
In the I-1, I-2, and I-3 Districts, in the rear and side only, but no closer than thirty (30) feet from any public street;
(c) 
In commercial districts, in the rear or side only, except prohibited in the OTD District.
D. 
Design And Performance Standards. Buffers, screens and fences shall be designed to meet the following performance standards. In addition to the requirements specified for each buffer type, the arrangement of plants, grading or berming of land, or inclusion of fences, walls or other screens may be necessary to meet these design and performance standards.
1. 
Eliminate glare from traffic internal to the site, outdoor lighting or other operations on the site.
2. 
Mitigate noise to comparable ambient noise levels found by other compatible uses throughout the area or district.
3. 
All buffers, screens and fences shall meet the proper lines of site at all intersections of streets, all driveway entrances and the intersection of internal access streets. The proper lines of site shall be based upon the control of the intersection or access, the stopping point, and the expected speeds of oncoming traffic as provided in Section 404.010(E)(2).
4. 
All high-impact site elements, such as trash enclosures, service and loading areas, utility and mechanical equipment, or outdoor storage, shall be located on remote portions of sites away from streetscapes, public view and from adjacent residential property. In cases were these facilities are near interior boundaries which may impact abutting property, a combination of Level 1 and Level 2 buffers shall be designed to limit potential impacts.
5. 
Trash receptacles, in addition to perimeter buffers for the site, shall be located on a remote area and stored inside a structure or enclosure compatible with the design and materials of the surrounding buildings. Enclosures shall be constructed of a durable material designed to withstand regular use by heavy equipment, including masonry, steel, and hard wood. If the trash receptacle is not visible from a public street or adjoining residential property, alternative screening methods may be allowed.
A. 
Mounting Height. All exterior lighting shall be limited to the mounting heights specified in the following table:
Table 407-6: Mounting Height
Location
Height Limit
(feet)
Driveways and parking areas
37.5 in B-2, B-4, I-1, I-2, I-3 Districts
25 in all other districts
Pedestrian walkways, plazas or courtyards
16
Facade lights
Below the eave or cornice line, provided that the light is directed downward
Other site lighting
12
B. 
Shielding. All exterior lighting shall be shielded as specified in the following table:
Table 407-7: Required Shielding
Watts (or Equivalent Lumens) or Mounting Height
Shield Type
Full Cutoff1
Cutoff2
Semi-Cutoff3
All lights mounted above 25 feet; or all lights above 450 watts
Required
Prohibited
Prohibited
All lights between 100 watts and 450 watts
Permitted
Required
Prohibited
All lights between 55 watts and 99 watts; or
Any light mounted between 12 feet and 25 feet
Permitted
Permitted
Required
All lights mounted below 12 feet and less than 55 watts
No shielding is required; all shielding types permitted.
NOTES:
1
Full cutoff fixtures emit zero percent (0%) of its light above ninety degrees (90°) and ten percent (10%) above eighty percent (80%) from horizontal.
2
Cutoff fixtures emit no more than two and five-tenths percent (2.5%) of its light above ninety degrees (90°) and ten percent (10%) of its light above eighty percent (80%) from horizontal.
3
Semi-cutoff fixtures emit no more than five percent (5%) of its light above ninety percent (90%) and twenty percent (20%) of its light above eighty degrees (80°).
C. 
Design And Performance Criteria. In addition to the mounting height and shielding standards, exterior site lighting shall meet the following design and performance standards:
1. 
All lighting shall be designed and located to not provide direct light or glare onto any adjacent property.
2. 
All lighting shall be reduced to levels necessary only for security purposes within one (1) hour after closing of the business.
3. 
All facade lighting and or other externally illuminating lights shall use shielded, directional fixtures, designed and located to minimize uplighting and glare.
A. 
General Requirement. All sites shall provide improvement necessary to adequately handle stormwater. In areas already subject to a stormwater management plan at the block- or area-scale as provided in Chapter 404, compliance with that plan shall satisfy the site design requirements. In all other cases, site specific best management practices shall be used to manage the peak flow, quantity and quality of stormwater runoff expected from development activity in a manner that poses no significant impact on other sites compared to predevelopment conditions.
B. 
Best Management Practices. In general, stormwater management should prioritize strategies that manage stormwater at the largest scale possible, strategies that infiltrate stormwater into the ground within or as close to the site as possible, and strategies that integrate stormwater functions into other site and landscape design elements. The appropriate strategy will be highly dependent on the surrounding natural systems, the presence of broader stormwater facilities, and the specific topography and soil conditions of the site. The following strategies should be used in descending order of preference to meet site-specific stormwater standards.
1. 
Integration into a district, area, or block stormwater management plan.
2. 
Constructed wetlands that mimic retention, filtration and infiltration of natural systems.
3. 
Infiltration systems and porous materials that infiltrate runoff into the ground.
4. 
Filtration systems that use natural materials to slow, filter and convey stormwater to other systems.
5. 
Retention areas that capture and store runoff in permanent ponds, provided that they are designed as an amenity to the site or vicinity.
6. 
Detention ponds or detention vaults that capture and store runoff temporarily, but serve little other purpose on the site.