City of Parkville, MO
Platte County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted by the Board of Aldermen of the City of Parkville 2-7-2017 by Ord. No. 2884. Amendments noted where applicable.]
A. 
Intent. It is the intent of this Chapter is to:
1. 
Emphasize the importance of site access for a variety of modes of transportation.
2. 
Provide the optimal amount of vehicle parking for individual sites, recognizing that too much and too little parking each have negative impacts.
3. 
Create access and parking standards appropriate to the context of the project, considering street designs and surrounding development patterns.
4. 
Ensure appropriate site and design features that mitigate the physical and aesthetic impact of parking on surrounding sites.
5. 
Maximize opportunities for on-street parking, shared parking or reduced parking rates where appropriate, and reduce the need to dedicate areas of individual adjacent sites to under utilized and redundant surface parking.
6. 
Promote parking designs that minimize runoff and infiltrate stormwater into the ground.
B. 
Applicability.
1. 
An access and parking plan is required in association with a site plan, according to the application requirements in Chapter 403. Specifically the standards in this Chapter apply to:
a. 
A change of use for an existing site or building, but only where the new use would require one hundred twenty percent (120%) or more parking than exists.
b. 
An expansion of an existing building or use of a site by more than twenty percent (20%).
c. 
All new buildings or uses on a site.
2. 
Where additional parking is required for an existing site or building, the landscape and design standards shall only apply to the newly constructed parking, except when more than fifty percent (50%) of a parking area is added to, resurfaced or otherwise impacted, then all new parking and access shall comply with this Chapter.
A. 
Driveways.
1. 
Location And Spacing. Driveway location and spacing shall be limited based on the functional class of streets and the distance from intersections or other driveways as specified in Table 408-1: Access Location and Spacing. All measurements shall be along the right-of-way lines and taken from the edge of the access point or intersecting street.
Table 408-1: Access Location and Spacing
Use
Functional Class
Arterial1
Collector
Local
Residential
200 feet minimum separation
150 feet minimum from corner
50 feet minimum separation; 100 feet average separation along a block
100 feet minimum from corner
10 feet minimum separation; 100 feet average separation along a block
20 feet minimum from corner
Non-residential
200 feet minimum separation
150 feet minimum from corner
50 feet minimum separation; 150 feet average separation along a block
100 feet minimum from corner
25 feet minimum separation; 150 feet average separation along a block
50 feet minimum from corner
NOTES:
1
Direct access to an arterial street shall be permitted only when the subject property has no other reasonable access to the street system, and only if the Public Works Director determines that the proposed access point is safe and is subject to the limits of this table.
2
The Public Works Director may allow averaging of the separation of access points along any block face and alternative spacing through platting, provided that there are no adverse impacts on the transportation network, the street design types in Chapter 404 are followed, and the intent of this Section is equally or better served.
Figure 408-1: Access Location and Spacing
The figure illustrates the measurement of separation between intersections and lot access; measuring the distance from the center line of the roadway or access drive.
2. 
Width. Driveway widths shall be limited based on the design of the street types in Chapter 404, and based on Table 408-2: Driveway Widths. Widths shall apply to areas within the right-of-way and generally within the lot frontage areas between the right-of-way and front building line; however, driveways that taper to larger garage entries and parking areas are permitted.
Table 408-2: Driveway Widths
Use
Street Design Type
Standard
Neighborhood
Activity
Natural
Residential
50% of lot width, maximum; may not exceed 30 feet unless designed as internal access street
20% of lot width, maximum; may not exceed 20 feet unless designed as internal access street
15% of lot width, maximum; may not exceed 20 feet unless designed as internal access street
15% of lot width, maximum; may not exceed 20 feet unless designed as internal access street
Non-residential
20% of lot width, maximum; may not exceed 36 feet unless designed as internal access street
15% of lot width, maximum; may not exceed 24 feet unless designed as internal access street
N/A; activity streets are designed for high pedestrian amenity and limited vehicle access. Non-residential access requires an alley system or shared internal block access.
15% of lot width, maximum; may not exceed 24 feet unless designed as internal access street
NOTE:
1
Where application of the width limits or these spacing standards appears to constrain access, different driveway configurations should be used, such as alleys, internal access streets, shared drives or single driveways to expanded parking areas. Industrial uses with frequent truck traffic are exempt from this driveway width limits. The standards in this table are generally applicable, except where other sections of this code adopt different standards or incorporate design guidance for a more specific area, the more specific shall apply.
3. 
Setbacks. Except for where shared or common access is permitted and executed through easements, driveways shall be set back from all lot lines based on Table 408-3: Driveway Side Setbacks.
Table 408-3: Driveway Side Setbacks
Access Type
Side Setback
(feet)
Residential access: fewer than 6 dwelling units
3 minimum
Residential access: 6 to 12 dwelling units
6 minimum
Non-residential access or residential access for 13 or more dwelling units
10 minimum
B. 
Internal Access Streets. Any single block, lot or site greater than five (5) acres shall provide a system of internal access streets that establishes access and circulation within the site. Internal access streets:
1. 
Shall be laid out to organize the site into smaller internal blocks between one (1) and four (4) acres.
2. 
Shall be designed to mimic public street cross sections in Chapter 404, including sidewalks, landscape amenities, on-street parking and travel lanes.
3. 
May be treated as public streets for determining the proper location, orientation and design of sites and buildings within the project.
C. 
Sidewalks.
1. 
Generally. Development sites shall include direct sidewalk connections and circulation at the same or greater frequency as provided for vehicles. Sidewalks connect public entrances and sites, in the most direct manner possible, with the following:
a. 
Sidewalks in the public streetscape or along internal access streets.
b. 
Parking areas, and any walkways or crosswalks within the parking areas.
c. 
Any civic open space designed for active use.
d. 
Adjacent sites, where pedestrian connections through public streetscapes or internal access streets are not practical or are too remote.
2. 
Sidewalk Width. Internal sidewalks shall meet the requirements of Table 408-4: Internal Sidewalk Widths:
Table 408-4: Internal Sidewalk Widths
Location
Minimum Width
(feet)
Generally
5
Along any building facade abutting a parking area;
8
Along any parking with vehicle overhangs; or
8
A primary route between the street or parking area and the building entrance
8
Along any building facade with a primary entrance
10
Along any internal access street
Width based on the specifications for the most applicable street cross section in Chapter 404
3. 
Pedestrian Amenities. Sidewalks and internal pedestrian circulation shall be separated from moving vehicles to the extent feasible with curbs, landscape buffers, curbside parking, except for crosswalks in limited locations.
4. 
Crossings. All driveways and alleys shall generally intersect with sidewalks on the perimeter of the block at the sidewalk grade, and the material and construction of the sidewalk shall continue across the drive. For drive aisles and internal access streets, the vehicle grade may interrupt the sidewalk. Where the pedestrian crossing exceeds twenty-four (24) feet, crosswalks or other features to identify pedestrian crossings may be required. Design features such as bump outs, raised crossings, medians or other landscape and urban design amenities that emphasize the pedestrian crossing and shorten the distance pedestrians cross dedicated vehicle ways may be considered.
D. 
Traffic Impacts. Wherever the Director of Public Works determines that the above requirements will adversely impact the function of the transportation network in the vicinity of the site, alternative access standards may be required to better meet the intent of this Section. In addition, any specific access management study or plan for a portion of the City may alter the application of these standards and guidelines.
A. 
Vehicle Parking Rates. Table 408-5: Required Parking provides general minimum requirements and applies to all similar uses not specifically listed. Where the classification of the use is not determinable from the table, the Community Development Director shall determine the appropriate classification based on industry guides and the most similar use in terms of scale, function and operation. The following criteria shall be used in interpreting the table:
1. 
A rate based on employees shall consider the maximum number of employees likely to be on site at one (1) time.
2. 
A rate based on square footage shall consider the service area open to the public or patrons, or leasable floor area. Where this number is not easily or readily determined, eighty-five percent (85%) of gross floor area may be used.
3. 
A rate based on seating shall consider total number of seats based on industry standards for typical layouts of buildings.
4. 
A rate based on capacity shall be the maximum permitted under public safety and building codes.
5. 
Where uses or sites have components of different uses (i.e., hotel with a restaurant), each component shall be calculated under the most applicable rate.
Table 408-5: Required Parking
Use
Number of Spaces
Residential Dwellings
Detached house
2 per dwelling unit, both fully enclosed
Duplex, row house
2 per unit, at least one fully enclosed
Apartments, etc.
1.5 per dwelling unit generally;
2 per unit if 3 or more bedrooms;
1 per unit for efficiency or studio units
Accessory dwelling unit
1 per dwelling unit
Group living
0.5 per bed/room; and 1 per employee
Civic/Institutional
Generally
2.5 per 1,000 square feet
Schools
College
10 per classroom
Technical college/trade school
20 per classroom
High school
8 per classroom
Elementary and junior high school
4 per classroom
Assembly
1 per 4 seats; plus
1 per 100 square feet of the largest meeting room
Hospital/institutional living
1.8 per bed
Outdoor recreation
1 per 10,000 square feet passive;
1 per 1,000 square feet active/programmed;
1 per 5 seats for any venues
Commercial and Service
General retail
1 to 2,000 square feet
2.5 per 1,000 square feet
2,001 to 25,000 square feet
5 per 1,000 square feet
25,001 or more square feet
4 per 1,000 square feet
Convenience store/gas station
5 per 1,000 square feet
Outdoor sales
1 per 1,000 square feet
Service/office
3 per 1,000 square feet generally;
5 per 1,000 square feet for medical or dental offices
Barber/beauty
2 per seat/service stall
Day care
1 per 400 square feet
Service station
3 per pump, plus 1 per 200 square feet for any retail area
Live work
3 per unit
Lodging
1 per room
Entertainment venue/theater
1 per 4 seats
Mortuary/funeral home
1 per 3 seats
Fitness/exercise studio
4.5 per 1,000 square feet
Medical/dental office/clinic
5 per 1,000 square feet
Recreation, indoor
6 per 1,000 square feet
Bowling alley
4.5 per lane; and 2 per 1,000 square feet for ancillary entertainment areas
Restaurant, general
10 per 1,000 square feet generally;
12 per 1,000 square feet for fast food; plus
1 per employee; plus
5 per drive-through service area (stacking)
Bar/tavern
1 per 4 seats or 4 person building capacity; plus
1 per employee
Industrial
Generally
2.5 per 1,000 square feet
Outdoor storage, warehousing or similar large-scale uses
1 per 2,500 square feet of outdoor sales and service area; plus
2 per 1,000 square feet of indoor sales area; plus
1 per 1,000 square feet of indoor storage areas
B. 
Maximum Parking. No use shall provide more than fifteen percent (15%) more than the minimum required parking without documented evidence of actual parking demand based on studies of similar uses in similar contexts. In addition, any parking permitted over fifteen percent (15%) shall require mitigating potential impacts of more parking through one (1) or more of the following strategies:
1. 
Provide shared parking for other uses on the block or adjacent blocks according to Section 408.030(C)(5).
2. 
Design all parking areas over the minimum as dual purpose space, such as plazas, playgrounds, event areas for regular use of the space during non-peak times. (See civic space design standards.)
3. 
Use alternative surface areas designed to infiltrate stormwater.
4. 
Provide additional buffers and site open spaces to screen parking and provide more active usable outdoor spaces of at least a ten-percent increase in the open space or buffers and at least a twenty-percent increase in the amount of landscape material required for the parking.
C. 
Parking Reductions. The parking required by Table 408-5 may be reduced depending on context, and according to the following strategies:
1. 
Downtown. For the purposes of this Section, "downtown" means the area bounded on the north by 3rd Street, on the east by the White Aloe Creek, on the south by the railroad tracks, and on the west by West Street.
a. 
Residential Uses. No residential parking shall be required for two (2) or fewer dwelling units on a lot. For more than two (2) dwelling units, one and five-tenths (1.5) spaces per dwelling unit is required.
b. 
Non-residential Uses. No parking is required for existing buildings and uses or for new buildings and uses under one thousand five hundred (1,500) square feet. Parking shall only be required for any increase caused by any new construction or change of use. Any construction that removes an existing parking space shall be replaced, unless the space(s) are in excess of the requirements for that use and are in the same ownership.
2. 
On-Street Parking Credit. All on-street parking within six hundred (600) feet of any lot frontage shall count towards the parking requirement at a rate of one (1) space for every two (2) on-street spaces.
3. 
Bicycle Parking Credit. All on-site bicycle parking designed and located according to Section 408.030(D) may reduce the required vehicle parking at a rate of one (1) space for every four (4) bicycle parking spaces up to a maximum of fifteen percent (15%) of the required vehicle parking.
4. 
Public Parking Credit. Any site within six hundred (600) feet of a public parking area may reduce the required vehicle parking at a rate of one (1) space for every two (2) public parking spaces.
5. 
Shared Parking. Required parking may be reduced for any site containing multiple uses, or for adjacent sites with different uses according to Table 408-6: Shared Parking. Any shared parking arrangement shall require an agreement among all landowners participating in the agreement to ensure access, joint use, maintenance, and other operational issues. A reduction program that differs from Table 409-6 may also be approved in association with the agreement upon preparation of the joint parking study for the sites and uses demonstrating adequate parking during peak hours for all parties to the agreement.
Table 408-6: Shared Parking
 
Percentage of Required Parking by Time Period
Weekday
Weekend
All
Use
6:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
5:00 P.M. to 1:00 A.M.
6:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
5:00 P.M. to 1:00 A.M.
1:00 A.M. to 6:00 A.M.
Employment
100%
10%
5%
5%
5%
Retail or service
75%
75%
100%
90%
5%
Restaurant
50%
100%
75%
100%
25%
Entertainment and recreation
30%
100%
75%
100%
5%
Place of worship
5%
25%
100%
50%
5%
School
100%
10%
10%
10%
5%
Dwellings
25%
90%
50%
90%
100%
Lodging
50%
90%
75%
100%
100%
6. 
Alternative Parking Plans. All other parking reductions or credits require Planning Commission and Board approval as provided in Section 408.060.
D. 
Bicycle Parking. All non-residential or multifamily uses within one thousand (1,000) feet of a designated bicycle route or trail shall provide bicycle parking spaces according to Table 408-7: Bicycle Parking.
Table 408-7: Bicycle Parking
Activity
Required Spaces
Primary or secondary school
25% of the number of students
Retail or office uses
10% of the required vehicle spaces
Other institutional or entertainment uses
5% of the required vehicle spaces
Industrial uses
3% of the number of employees
Residential
1 per dwelling unit
A. 
Loading Requirements. Off-street loading spaces shall be provide according to Table 408-8: Off-Street Loading.
Table 408-8: Off-Street Loading
Use or Use Category
Floor Area
(square feet)
Required Loading Spaces
Retail, restaurant, wholesale, warehouse, general service, manufacturing or industrial uses
2,000 to 10,000
1
10,000 to 20,000
2
20,000 to 40,000
3
40,000 to 60,000
4
Each 50,000 over 60,000
1 additional
Apartment, hotel, office, institution and public assembly
5,000 to 10,000
1
10,000 to 100,000
2
100,000 to 200,000
3
Each 100,000 over 200,000
1 additional
Funeral home or mortuary
2,500 to 4,000
1
4,000 to 6,000
2
Each 10,000 over 6,000
1 additional
B. 
Design Standards. Loading areas shall be at least twelve (12) feet by thirty-five (35) feet with vertical clearance of at least fourteen (14) feet, except that loading spaces for funeral homes may be reduced to ten (10) feet by twenty-five (25) feet with eight (8) feet vertical clearance.
C. 
Mixed Use Buildings Or Districts. In any area, project or zoning district designed to promote pedestrian activity, or for buildings and sites where more compact building and site design is required, alternate loading standards shall be permitted, which may include sharing of loading spaces among multiple smaller tenants, using side streets or alleys, particularly during off hours for loading or deliveries, or other similar strategies that avoid designing sites simply for large-vehicle access.
A. 
Location, Size And Landscape Area. On-site parking shall be designed and located in a manner that mitigates negative impacts on streetscapes and adjacent property. The design standards in Table 408-9: Parking Design are based on the number of parking spaces per area and the location on the lot relative to the principal building (front, side or rear).
Table 408-9: Parking Design
Spaces Per Block
Front
Side
Rear
250 or more
Must be broken into smaller parking blocks1
Must be broken into smaller parking blocks1
10% internal landscape islands; and
10-foot perimeter buffer
150-249
Must be broken into smaller parking blocks1
10% internal landscape islands; and
10-foot perimeter buffer
8% internal landscape islands; and
10-foot perimeter buffer
100-149
8% internal landscape island
10-foot perimeter buffer; and
15-foot front setback buffer
8% internal landscape islands; and
10-foot perimeter buffer
5% internal landscape islands;
and
6-foot perimeter buffer
50-99
8% internal landscape islands;
10-foot perimeter buffer; and
15-foot front setback buffer
5% internal landscape islands; and
6-foot perimeter buffer
6-foot perimeter buffer
20-49
5% internal landscape islands; and
6-foot perimeter buffer;
5% internal landscape islands; or
6-foot perimeter buffer
No requirement other than 6-foot setback
Under 20
5% internal landscape islands; or
6-foot perimeter buffer
No requirement other than 6-foot setback
No requirement other than 6-foot setback
NOTE:
1
Where individual sites require or provide parking areas larger than the maximum size in this table, parking lots shall be broken into parking blocks meeting the size, location, and landscape requirements of this table. These parking blocks shall be arranged around internal access streets that mimic public streetscape design standard per Chapter 404.020.
B. 
Landscape Design. Landscape areas required by Table 408-9 shall be arranged to achieve the following results:
1. 
Parking pods of no more than forty (40) spaces without landscape islands either through end caps or center strips.
2. 
No landscape island shall be less than eight (8) feet in any dimension and no smaller than one hundred fifty (150) square feet.
3. 
The maximum distance in any direction between landscape areas and surrounding parking block edges or buffers shall be one hundred eighty (180) feet.
4. 
All buffers and islands shall have the proper allocation of landscape materials required by Section 408.020(A), and be arranged to provide shade, infiltrate runoff, soften large expanses of pavement and screen parking from adjacent streets and property.
5. 
Any parking otherwise permitted within twenty-five (25) feet of any right-of-way or internal access street shall be screened with a continuous hedge, or decorative wall or fence compatible with the design of buildings, or a combination of both. The hedge, wall, or fence shall provide a continuous screen between two and one-half (2 1/2) and four (4) feet high, except at access points or pedestrian entrances.
6. 
Any non-residential parking permitted within thirty (30) feet of a lot zoned R-2 or a lesser district, or any parking area greater than ten (10) spaces adjacent to property zoned or used for residential purposes, shall be screened with a combination of a landscape buffer and a six-foot high solid fence or wall.
C. 
Specifications. Parking areas shall be designed to meet the dimension specifications in Table 408-10: Parking Dimensions.
Table 408-10: Parking Dimensions
Parking Angle/ Width
(feet)
Width Parallel to Aisle
(feet)
Depth to Wall
(feet)
Depth to Interlock
(feet)
Aisle Width1
(feet)
Module2
Bumper Overhang
(feet)
Wall to Wall
(feet)
Interlock to Interlock
(feet)
45°/9.0
12.7
19.5
16.5
12
51
45
2.3
45°/9.5
13.4
19.5
16.5
11
50
44
2.3
60°/9.0
10.4
20.5
18.5
16
57
53
2.3
60°/9.5
11.0
20.5
18.5
15
56
52
2.3
75°/9.0
9.3
20.0
19.0
23
63
61
2.5
75°/9.5
9.8
20.0
19.0
22
62
60
2.5
90°/9.03
9.0
18.5
18.5
26
63
63
2.5
90°/9.53
9.5
18.5
18.5
25
62
62
2.5
NOTES
1
Measured between ends of stall lines.
2
Rounded to the nearest foot.
3
For back-in parking, aisle width may be reduced 4.0 feet.
D. 
General Design Standards.
1. 
All required parking shall be on-site except as specifically provided in credits or shared parking sections. Additionally, the Planning Commission may allow for a portion of required parking to be located off site through a site plan review, provided that it is within three hundred (300) feet of the subject site, it is in the same or comparable zoning district, there are no pedestrian barriers, such as highways or other access constraints, and an agreement demonstrating rights and control of the off-site property is provided.
2. 
All on-site parking lots shall provide a sufficient amount of barrier-free accessible spaces, meeting the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) guidelines for quantity, design and location.
3. 
No parking space shall be located where it backs into a drive aisle within twenty (20) feet of the entrance to a street, except that parking areas for five (5) or fewer cars may back directly onto the street.
4. 
All parking and access areas shall be designed to adequately address drainage and runoff, including curb, gutters and inlets, or any other drainage strategy approved by the Director of Public Works to support best management practices to minimize runoff and encourage infiltration of stormwater.
5. 
All parking and access lighting shall meet the standards in Section 407.040.
6. 
All parking areas and driveways shall be surfaced with a permanent asphalt or concrete surface, except that residential lots more than five (5) acres may use gravel for any portion of the driveway beyond one hundred (100) feet from the edge of street pavement.
7. 
Designated lanes for delivering and freight truck access and fire lanes shall be designed and constructed to support the weight of anticipated loads, acceptable to the Director of Public Works and the fire district.
8. 
All parking areas and drives in non-residential zoning districts shall have an edge constructed of straight-back concrete curbing (Type CG-1) or an integral concreted sidewalk and curb with a vertical face. Temporary asphalt curbs may be used in areas to be expanded only as shown and approved on a development plan or deferred parking plan.
9. 
Parking areas shall be designed so that sanitation, emergency and other public service vehicles can serve the development without backing unreasonable distances or making other dangerous turning movements.
10. 
The Director of Public Works may approve alternatives to any of these design standards or construction specifications, if they demonstrate superior stormwater management performance and sufficient durability and long-term maintenance.
E. 
Operational Limits.
1. 
All minimum required parking shall be reserved and used for that purpose except for what may be permitted through a conditional use permit or other specific exception or approval provided in this code.
2. 
In residential zones, no motor vehicle designed or regularly used for carrying freight, merchandise or other property or more than eight (8) passengers and that is licensed in excess of one (1) ton gross vehicle weight, excluding vehicles licensed as a recreational vehicle, shall be parked on a lot.
3. 
Parking in residential districts shall be limited to enclosed garages, the driveway, adjoining asphalt or concrete pads, or public streets where permitted. Parking on other areas of the lot is prohibited, except for lots over five (5) acres may park on a gravel surface.
4. 
Inoperative vehicles may not be stored or repaired on the premises, other than in enclosed garages, or except in industrial zoning districts.
5. 
Construction equipment and construction vehicles may not be stored or repaired on the premises, except:
a. 
When stored in an enclosed garage;
b. 
When utilized for construction activities pursuant to a valid permit from the City for the premises, or permitted work in the right-of-way; or
c. 
When associated with a conditional use permit or as accessory to an allowable primary use.
d. 
In industrial zoning districts.
A. 
In recognition that inflexible application of the access and parking standards in this Chapter may result in inadequate or excessive parking and circulation, an alternative may be established through an alternate access and parking plan. The Board of Aldermen, following a recommendation by the Planning Commission, may approve the alternate access and parking plan through the site plan process in Section 403.060 or 403.070.
B. 
An increase or decrease in the number of spaces required by this Chapter in excess of five percent (5%) of what is otherwise authorized through the standards, credits and exceptions in this Chapter, can only be allowed through approval of an alternate access and parking plan.
C. 
A request for approval of an alternate parking plan shall be accompanied by a site plan and the following information:
1. 
A parking demand study or other data that establishes the number of spaces required for the specific use. The study or data may reflect parking for the same use existing at a similar location or for similar uses at other locations. Published studies may be utilized to back up alternative parking requests.
2. 
If shared parking is proposed for a mixed-use development, the sum of peak parking demands by use category shall be accommodated for day and night hours on weekdays and weekends. The guidelines for shared parking contained in this Chapter may be used in lieu of a separate study.
3. 
If a remote or off-site parking lot is proposed to meet any portion of the parking required, the site and its current zoning classification must be identified, along with the method to transport parking patrons to the use.
4. 
A portion of the required parking may be deferred and remain unimproved until it necessary to adequately serve parking demand. Any approved deferral shall show where and how the parking will be constructed, and specifically indicate what event will trigger the construction of the deferred parking. The area reserved for future parking shall be brought to finished grade and shall be landscaped, and it shall not be used for any permanent purpose or structure unless a revised site plan and parking plan is approved. This area shall not count in the open space or landscape calculations.