All required improvements shall be installed by the subdivider at his cost. In cases where specifications have been established either by the State Department of Transportation for streets, curbs, etc., or by local ordinances and codes, such specifications shall be followed. The subdivider's bond shall not be released until construction has been inspected and approved by the appropriate engineer. All improvements shall be in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.
State law reference: Release of performance guarantee, Code of Virginia, § 15.2-2241 et seq.
All streets in the proposed subdivision shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the following minimum requirements by the subdivider at no cost to the locality. The streets shall meet the minimum requirements of the State Department of Transportation's policy, unless they are less restrictive than this chapter.
Alignment and layout. The arrangement of streets in new subdivisions shall make provision for the continuation of existing streets in adjoining areas. The street arrangement must be such as to cause no unnecessary hardship to owners of adjoining property when they plat their own land and seek to provide for convenient access to it. Where, in the opinion of the agent, it is desirable to provide for street access to adjoining property, proposed streets shall be extended by dedication to the boundary line of such property. Half streets along the boundary of land proposed for subdivision may not be permitted. Wherever possible, streets should intersect at right angles. In all hillside areas, streets running with contours shall be required to intersect at angles of not less than 60°, unless approved by the agent upon recommendation of the highway engineer.
Service drives. Whenever a proposed subdivision contains or is adjacent to a limited access highway or expressway, provision shall be made for a service drive or marginal street approximately parallel to such right-of-way at a distance suitable for an appropriate use of the land between such highway and the proposed subdivision. Such distances shall be determined with due consideration of the minimum distance required for ingress and egress to the main thoroughfare. The right-of-way of any major highway or street projected across any railroad, limited access highway or expressway shall be of adequate width to provide for the cuts or fills required for any future separation of grades.
Approach angle. Major streets shall approach major or minor streets at an angle of not less than 80°, unless the agent, upon recommendation of the highway engineer, shall approve a lesser angle of approach for reasons of contour, terrain or matching of existing patterns.
Minimum widths. The minimum width of proposed streets, measured from lot line to lot line, shall be as shown on the major street plan, or if not shown on such plan, shall be a minimum of 50 feet. Local service drives or other minor streets which cannot be extended in the future shall be not less than 50 feet in width; alleys, if permitted, shall not be less than 20 feet nor more than 28 feet in width.
Construction requirements. In cases where State Department of Transportation specifications are lacking or less restrictive than the requirements of this chapter, this chapter shall prevail. The grades of streets submitted on subdivision plats shall be approved by the agent upon recommendation of the highway engineer prior to final action by the agent. Wherever feasible, street grades shall not exceed 10%
Culs-de-sac. Generally, minor terminal streets (culs-de-sac) designed to have one end permanently closed shall be no longer than 400 feet to the beginning of the turnaround. Each cul-de-sac must be terminated by a turnaround of not less than 100 feet in diameter.
Alleys. Alleys should be avoided wherever possible. Dead-end alleys, if unavoidable, shall be provided with adequate turnaround facilities as determined by the agent.
Private streets and reserve strips. There shall be no private streets platted in any subdivision. Every subdivided property shall be served from a publicly dedicated street. There shall be no reserve strips controlling access to streets.
Names. Proposed streets which are obviously in alignment with other already existing and named streets shall bear the names of the existing streets. In no case shall the names of proposed streets duplicate existing street names, irrespective of the use of the suffix (street, avenue, boulevard, drive, way, place, lane or court). Street names shall be indicated on the preliminary and final plats and shall be approved by the agent. Names of existing streets shall not be changed except by approval of the governing body.
Identification signs. Street identification signs of a design approved by the agent shall be installed at all intersections.
State law reference: Grading streets, Code of Virginia, Title 15.2, Ch. 20.
Where public water is available, the service shall be extended to all lots within a subdivision, including fire hydrants, by the subdivider in accordance with the design standards and specifications for water, construction and improvements in the Town and meeting the approval of the agent. Every subdivision containing 25 or more lots to which public water cannot or will not be provided shall be supplied by the subdivider with a complete central water supply and distribution system to serve each and every lot containing less than 20,000 square feet per lot.
Where public sewerage facilities are available, the service shall be extended to all lots within a subdivision and septic tanks will not be permitted. Every subdivision shall be provided by the subdivider with a satisfactory and sanitary means of sewage collection and disposal in accordance with the design standards and specifications for sewerage construction and improvements, in accordance with State Health Department specifications and meeting the approval of the agent, provided the average prevailing lot size is less than 20,000 square feet. In the case of a subdivision in which the size of lots are 20,000 square feet or more in area, an individual sewage disposal system for each lot may be provided by the subdivider, subject to the approval by the health officer.
Nothing in this chapter shall prevent the installation of privately owned water and/or sewerage facilities in areas where public water and/or sewerage facilities are not available; provided, however, that such installations must meet all the requirements of the State Water Control Board, the State Health Department and any other state or local regulation having authority over such installation.
State law reference: State Water Control Board, Code of Virginia, § 62.1-44.7 et seq.
The subdivider shall provide all necessary information needed to determine what improvements are necessary to properly develop the subject property, including contour intervals, drainage plans and flood control devices. The subdivider shall also provide plans for all such improvements together with a properly qualified certified engineer's or surveyor's statement that such improvements, when properly installed, will be adequate for proper development. The highway engineer shall then approve or disapprove the plans. The subdivider shall also provide any other information required by the highway engineer.
State law reference: Local stormwater management program, Code of Virginia, §§ 10.1-603.3, 15.2-2114.
The installation of adequate fire hydrants in a subdivision at locations approved by the agent may be required, provided necessary public water is available. The agent shall consult with the proper authority before approving such location.
The agent may require that easements for drainage through adjoining property be provided by the subdivider. Easements of not less than 10 feet in width shall be provided for water, sewer, power lines and other utilities in the subdivision when required by the agent.
Two blue or black line prints of the plans and specifications for all required physical improvements to be installed shall be prepared by an engineer and shall be submitted to the agent for approval or disapproval within 45 days. If approved, one copy bearing certification of such approval shall be returned to the subdivider. If disapproved, all papers shall be returned to the subdivider with the reason for disapproval in writing. If no action is taken in 45 days, such subdivision shall be deemed approved.
As required by this chapter, all monuments must be installed by the subdivider and shall meet the minimum specifications. Upon completion of subdivision streets, sewers and other improvements, the subdivider shall make certain that all monuments required by the agent are clearly visible for inspection and use. Such monuments shall be inspected and approved by the agent before any improvements are accepted by the governing body.
Concrete monuments four inches in diameter or square and three feet long, with a flat top, shall be placed at all street corners, at all points where the street line intersects the exterior boundaries of the subdivision and at appropriate points as determined by the subdivision administrator along the rear lot lines, but in no instance shall there be less than three monuments in any given site distance. The top of the monument shall have an appropriate mark to properly identify the location and shall be set flush with finished grade.
All lot corners other than those specified in § 171-42 shall be marked with iron pipe less than three-fourths-inch in diameter and 24 inches long and driven so as to be flush with the finished grade. When rock is encountered, a hole shall be drilled four inches deep in the rock, into which shall be cemented a steel rod one-half-inch in diameter, the top of which shall be flush with the finished grade line.