Township of West Windsor, NJ
Mercer County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
The purpose of the design details set forth in this article is to implement the general performance standards established in Article V of this Part 1.
A. 
Off-street parking. In all zones in connection with every industrial business, institutional, recreational, residential or any other use, there shall be provided, at the time any building or structure is erected or is enlarged or increased in capacity, off-street parking for automotive, bicycle and other vehicles in accordance with the requirements set forth herein. Such facilities shall be completed prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy. The applicant shall also meet the requirements of L. 1975, c. 221,[1] and applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, requiring parking spaces for the handicapped.
[Amended 2-16-1993 by Ord. No. 93-01]
[1]
Editor's Note: See N.J.S.A. 52:32-12.
B. 
Schedule of off-street parking requirements.
[Amended 12-22-1980 by Ord. No. 80-41; 12-27-1988 by Ord. No. 88-51; 12-16-1991 by Ord. No. 91-34; 5-1-2000 by Ord. No. 2000-08; 9-15-2008 by Ord. No. 2008-22]
(1) 
Motor vehicle parking requirements. The minimum number of off-street parking spaces with proper access from a street, alley or driveway for each use in all districts shall be as follows:
Land or Building Use
Minimum Standards
Academic and administrative buildings for educational facilities of higher learning
1 space for each 1.25 persons employed therein, plus 1 space as applicable for each 5 students
Assembly hall, auditorium, stadium, theater, church or similar places of public of assemblage
1 space for four fixed seats; where capacity is not determined by the number fixed seats, 1 space for each 40 square feet of floor area available for patron use
Automobile and gasoline service station
1 space for each gasoline pump, grease rack or similar service area, with a minimum of five spaces plus 1 space for each employee during the period of greatest employment
Boarding, lodging or rooming room house
1 space for each rental room in addition to the requirement for the dwelling unit for any family or household permanently residing therein
Professional offices, except medical and dental offices
1 space for 250 square feet of building floor area or 1 space for each 200 square feet of floor area, with each space in excess of 1/250 square feet constructed with a pervious surface
Child-care center, preschool, kindergarten, day camp or institutional home
1 space for each 300 square feet of building floor area
Dormitories
1 space for each 4 persons of rated occupancy
Drive-in or fast food establishment
1 space for each 25 square feet of building floor area plus 1 space for each two persons employed therein
Dwelling: single-family, detached unit
1 space for each two bedrooms or fraction thereof
Dwelling: all other dwelling units, except units for the elderly, in designated districts
1.25 spaces for 1-bedroom unit, 1.75 spaces for 2-bedroom unit, 2.00 spaces for 3-bedroom unit or fraction thereof
Dwelling: units designed and intended for the elderly
1 space for each dwelling unit, except where it can be demonstrated that other than automobile transit will be available, in which case these requirements may be reduced accordingly
Dwelling: additional spaces for guest parking
0.5 space for each dwelling unit for additional visitor parking
Financial institutions
1 space for each 250 square feet of building floor area
General office, corporate office, research offices
1 space for each 250 square feet of floor area, with each space in excess of 1/300 square feet constructed with a pervious surface. Such spaces may be constructed and used only upon the approval of a certificate of need by the board of jurisdiction at either the hearing on the site plan application or at a subsequent noticed hearing at which the applicant demonstrates by clear and convincing evidence that there is a need for such spaces. Prior to such approval, such spaces shall be banked. (Such standards shall not apply to approved preliminary or final site plans that are within their protection period.)
Hotel, motel or inn
1 space for each rental room, plus 1 space for each two persons employed therein
Manufacturing, wholesaling and warehousing
1 space for each 600 square feet of building floor area or 1 space per employee on the maximum shift, whichever is greater
Medical or dental clinic or office
1 space for each 142 square feet of building floor area
Mixed uses
If two or more uses are conducted on one lot, the minimum required number of parking spaces shall be aggregate of the required minimum number of parking spaces for each use, computed separately, except as may be modified by § 200-28D of this article.
Nursing homes
1 space for each bed
Personal service business
1 space for every 200 square feet of building floor area
Public or private schools
1 space for each employee, plus 1 space for each 5 seats in the auditorium or other places of assembly available to the public
Research laboratories
1 space for each 500 square feet of building floor area or 1 space for each employee, whichever is greater
Restaurant, tavern or similar establishment
1 space for each 3 seating accommodations or 1 space for each 40 square feet of floor area devoted to patron drinking and dining use, whichever yields the greatest number of spaces, plus 1 space for each two employees employed therein
Retail business, shopping center
1 space for each 200 square feet of building floor area
Retail business, individual
Minimum of 1 space for each 350 square feet of building floor area; maximum of 1 space for each 200 square feet of building floor area
Retail business, Princeton Junction Overlay Zone
Minimum of 1 space for each 500 square feet of building floor area; maximum of 1 space for each 350 square feet of building floor area
Supermarkets, food stores
1 space for each 175 square feet of building floor area
Undertakers, mortuary or funeral home
1 space for each 60 square feet of floor area for seating accommodations, plus 1 space for each person employed therein
Uses not specified
As determined by the Planning Board in accordance with the standards established in § 200-28C(1) of this article
Veterinary clinic
1 space for each 300 square feet of building floor area, excluding areas devoted to utility and overnight stays by animals for medical purposes
(2) 
Bicycle parking requirements. In addition to the required facilities for passenger automobiles, facilities for the secure and convenient parking of bicycles shall be provided. The number of such bicycle spaces shall be one space for each 20 parking spaces or fraction thereof; provided, however, that should it be demonstrated that the proposed use of the development application will generate a greater need for bicycle parking than that provided for herein, the Planning Board may require a reasonable increase in bicycle parking spaces. Bicycle parking facilities shall be of such type and quantity as to encourage and facilitate the use of the bicycle as a means of transportation by the employees and customers of the land or building.
C. 
Off-street loading requirements.
(1) 
Off-street loading area or berths, open or enclosed with proper access from a street, highway, common service driveway or alley, shall be provided for any use specified herein. In addition, such spaces shall comply with the design standards for such spaces as contained herein.
(2) 
Any land which is developed as a unit under single ownership and control shall be considered a single lot for the purpose of these loading requirements.
D. 
Schedule of off-street loading requirements. In no case shall the required space be less than one loading area, and additional space shall be provided as follows:
[Amended 12-22-1980 by Ord. No. 80-41]
(1) 
For retail stores, financial institutions, educational facilities, restaurants, wholesale, warehouse, general service, manufacturing or industrial establishments, the number of berths on the building floor area shall be as follows:
Building Floor Area
(square feet)
Number of Berths
Up to 4,000
1 loading area
4,001 to 10,000
1
10,001 to 20,000
2
Each additional 20,000 or major fraction thereof up to a maximum of 60,000
1
Each 50,000 over 60,000
1 additional berth
(2) 
For apartment buildings, motels, hotels, offices, dormitories, schools, places of public assembly or similar uses, the number of berths based on the building floor area devoted to such uses shall be as follows:
Building Floor Area
(square feet)
Number of Berths
Up to 10,000
1 loading area
10,001 to 100,000
1
Each 100,001 or fraction thereof over 100,001
1 additional berth
(3) 
For undertakers and funeral homes: one loading area for each chapel.
A. 
Fractional space. When the application of a unit of measurement for a parking space or loading space to a particular use or structure results in a fractional space, a space shall be required for each such fraction.
B. 
Computing number of employees. The number of employees, where not clearly stipulated, shall be computed on the basis of persons to be employed, taking into consideration day, night and seasonal variations.
C. 
Space requirements.
[Amended 4-20-1990 by Ord. No. 90-12]
(1) 
Minimum requirements for uses not specifically covered. In determining minimum parking space requirements for uses not covered in this article, the Planning Board shall be guided by the number of persons to be employed in said building or by the use; the numbers of persons expected to reside in, visit or patronize the building or use; the anticipated percentage of residents, visitors or patrons using various transportation modes; and the need for safe and convenient loading space for visitors or patrons and goods. In all cases, minimum parking space requirements shall be in accordance with applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
[Amended 2-16-1993 by Ord. No. 93-01]
(2) 
Additional parking requirements for multifamily development. For any multifamily development, 1/2 parking space per unit is required for additional visitor parking demands.
D. 
Supplementary space requirements applying to motor vehicle parking and off-street loading.
[Amended 12-22-1980 by Ord. No. 80-41]
(1) 
Collective or mixed uses off-street parking loading requirements. Collective provision of off-street parking and loading facilities by two or more buildings or uses located on adjacent lots is permitted to allow for the sharing of such facilities for commercial and multiple use centers according to the following schedule:
(a) 
For buildings or groups of uses of less than 10,000 square feet, the total parking and loading facilities shall not be less than the sum of requirements for the various individual uses computed separately.
(b) 
Where the total area of nonresidential use is greater than 10,000 square feet but less than 30,000 square feet, the total number of parking spaces provided shall equal one car for every 200 square feet of building floor area. Additional parking shall be provided for residential uses built in conjunction with a center of this size and shall equal at least 1.5 spaces for each dwelling unit. Off-street loading facilities may be based on documented, actual use of facilities similar to the combined uses or the total as required if calculated as separate uses.
(c) 
Where the total nonresidential use is greater than 30,000 square feet, the number of off-street parking spaces provided shall equal 5.5 cars for every 1,000 square feet of building floor area. Off-street loading facilities may be based on documented, actual usage of facilities similar to the combined uses or the total as required if calculated as separate uses. In centers of this size, which, in addition to retail shops and services, contain residential and/or office spaces, additional parking shall be provided according to the following:
[1] 
Residential: one parking space for each dwelling unit.
[2] 
Office: one parking space for each 300 square feet of building floor area which exceeds 20% of the total gross floor area of the nonresidential uses.
(2) 
Waiver of parking and off-street loading and unloading requirements.
(a) 
Excess spaces. Where it can be demonstrated, at the time of Planning Board review that the parking and/or loading and unloading requirements of this article will result in more parking spaces than actual needs require, the Planning Board may permit a portion of the proposed parking and/or loading areas to remain unpaved, but landscaped and improved only with a six-inch base course of one-and-one-half-inch crushed stone stabilized with topsoil and seeded to lessen stormwater runoff. Such unpaved area shall remain reserved for such future facilities needs and, if conditions in use or actual operation of proposed use vary, the Planning Board may require such unpaved space to be paved.
(b) 
Exceeding minimum off-street parking and loading requirements. Minimum off-street parking and loading requirements as required by this article may only be exceeded as permitted in this article or where it can be demonstrated at the time of Planning Board review that such additional parking facilities are necessary for the actual operation of a proposed use. In such instances, the Planning Board may grant an increase in minimum space on a lot, provided that all other bulk and area requirements are met for the use in the district in which it is located.
[Amended 9-15-2008 by Ord. No. 2008-22]
(3) 
Educational facilities parking modifications.
(a) 
Where a building is for an educational institution which prohibits the ownership or operation of automobiles by students or that restricts the parking of student automobiles to designated institutional parking areas or to parking areas in another Township, such students need not be included in the calculation of automobile parking requirements.
(b) 
Institutional parking spaces of educational institutions that are provided for normal daytime activity for other purposes shall be considered to be available for such public uses as are normally conducted in the evening or on weekends in places of public assembly of such institutions.
A. 
Access. Unobstructed access to and from a street shall be provided. Paved access drives or driveways shall be provided in accordance with the criteria provided in Subsection I of this section.
B. 
Location of parking spaces.
[Amended 12-22-1980 by Ord. No. 80-41]
(1) 
Such parking spaces, open or enclosed, shall be on the same lot or tract of land as the building or use to be served unless the Planning Board, in connection with site plan review, shall approve collective off-street parking facilities for two or more buildings or uses on adjacent or contiguous lots. The total of such collective off-street parking facilities shall be not less than the sum of facilities required for the individual uses computed separately.
(2) 
Parking and loading in front of building. Parking lots, loading and unloading areas shall be prohibited in the area between the front building line and the street line, except for parking as permitted below:
(a) 
In industrial or educational districts, up to 10% of the required spaces for executive (including deans or department chairs in educational facilities) or visitor parking may be immediately in front of a principal building, provided that such parking areas are shielded from view at the public street right-of-way by a landscaped strip or screen.
(b) 
In residential districts, a driveway within a required front yard may be used and counted as one motor vehicle parking space. In addition, all motor vehicles shall be parked in approved designated parking areas.
C. 
Location in different zones. No access drive, driveway or other means of ingress and egress shall be located in any residential zone to provide access to uses other than those permitted in such residential zone.
D. 
Sidewalks and curbing.
(1) 
Sidewalks between parking areas and principal structures, along aisles and driveways and wherever pedestrian traffic shall occur shall be provided with a minimum width of four feet of passable area and be raised six inches or more above the parking area, except when crossing streets or driveways. At points of intersection between pedestrian and motorized lines of travel and at other points where necessary to avoid abrupt changes in grade, a sidewalk shall slope gradually so as to provide an uninterrupted line of travel. Guide rails and wheel stops permanently anchored to the ground shall be provided in appropriate locations. Parked vehicles shall not overhang or extend over sidewalk areas unless an additional sidewalk width of 2 1/2 feet is provided to accommodate such overhang.
[Amended 4-20-1990 by Ord. No. 90-12]
(2) 
All sidewalks and curbing shall be in compliance with the applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
[Added 2-16-1993 by Ord. No. 93-01]
E. 
Enclosed facilities. Required parking areas may be constructed within or under any portion of a main building, provided that the access driveway does not at any point leave a grade in excess of 10%. All parking structures shall provide a minimum of 98 inches vertical clearance through entrances and within the structure to disabled parking spaces, in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
[Amended 2-16-1993 by Ord. No. 93-01]
F. 
Landscaping and drainage.
(1) 
Parking areas shall be suitably landscaped to minimize noise, glare and other nuisance characteristics as well as to enhance the environment and ecology of the site and surrounding area. General landscaping design shall conform to criteria set forth in § 200-20 of this article. All open parking areas and accessways thereto shall be properly drained, and all such areas shall be a paved surface, except for parking spaces accessory to one-family or two-family residences.
(2) 
Parking viewed from the public right-of-way or from any property used for residential purposes shall be suitably shielded.
G. 
Lighting.
[Amended 12-22-1980 by Ord. No. 80-41]
(1) 
All parking areas shall be lighted to provided a minimum of three footcandles at driveway intersections with main roads and a total average illumination of 0.5 footcandle throughout the parking area.
(2) 
Such lighting shall be shielded in such a manner as not to create a hazard or nuisance to the adjoining properties or the traveling public.
H. 
General circulation design principles.
(1) 
Parking space allocations should be oriented to specific buildings.
(2) 
Parking areas may be designed to focus on major walkways which should be marked.
(3) 
Where pedestrians must cross service roads or access roads to reach parking areas, crosswalks should be clearly designated by pavement markings and signs and be in accordance with applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
[Amended 2-16-1993 by Ord. No. 93-01]
(4) 
Roads and driveways from main roads should be located at grade and not below the crest of vertical curves.
(5) 
All parking and loading spaces and driveways shall be so arranged that cars and trucks may be turned on the lot so that it is not necessary to back into any street.
(6) 
In business districts, provision for pedestrian access between adjoining commercial lots should be encouraged.
I. 
Location of driveways.
[Amended 12-22-1980 by Ord. No. 80-41]
(1) 
Design.
(a) 
All entrance and exit driveways shall be located to afford maximum safety to traffic, provide for safe and convenient ingress and egress to and from the site and to minimize conflict with the flow of traffic.
(b) 
Any exit driveway or driveway lane shall be so designed in profile and grading and located to provide the following minimum sight distance measured in each direction. The measurements shall be from the driver's seat of a vehicle standing on that portion of the exit driveway that is immediately outside the edge of the road right-of-way.
Allowable Speed
(miles per hour)
Required Sight Distance
(feet)
25
150
30
200
35
250
40
300
45
350
50
400
(c) 
Where a site occupies a corner of two intersecting roads, no driveway entrance or exit shall be located within 50 feet of the point of tangency of the existing or proposed curb radius of that site.
(d) 
No part of any driveway shall be located within a minimum of 10 feet of a side property line. However, the Planning Board may permit a driveway serving two or more adjacent sites to be located on or within 10 feet of a side property line between the adjacent sites.
(e) 
No entrance or exit driveway shall be located on a rotary ramp of an interchange or within 20 feet of the beginning of any ramp or other portion of an interchange.
(f) 
Where two or more driveways connect a single site to any one road, a minimum clear distance of 200 feet measured along the right-of-way line shall separate the closest edges of any two such driveways. Where such development fronts on an arterial street, access to parking and service areas, where practicable, shall be provided by a single access to the arterial street.
(g) 
Where a development fronts on a principal, major or minor arterial or a major collector, a combined one point of access and egress to parking and service areas shall be provided, except where large frontages (1,000 feet or larger) are involved. In those instances where two or more driveways connect a single site to any one road, a minimum clear distance of 300 feet measured along the right-of-way line shall separate the closest edges of any two such driveways.
(2) 
Driveway angle.
(a) 
Two-way operation. Driveways used for two-way operation shall intersect the road at an angle to as near 90º as site conditions will permit and in no case will be less than 60º.
(b) 
One-way operation. Driveways used by vehicles in one direction of travel (right turn only) shall not form an angle smaller than 45º with a road, unless acceleration and deceleration lanes are provided.
(3) 
Driveway dimensions. The dimensions of driveways shall be designed to adequately accommodate the volume and character of vehicles anticipated to be attracted daily onto the land development for which a site plan is prepared. The required maximum and minimum dimensions for driveways are indicated below. Driveways serving large volumes of daily traffic or traffic of over 15% truck traffic shall be required to utilize high to maximum dimensions.
[Amended 4-19-1999 by Ord. No. 99-07]
Type of Use
One-Way Operation Driveway*
(width in feet)
Two-Way Operation Driveway*
(width in feet)
3- to 10-family residence
10-15
24
Over 10-family
15-25
24
Commercial and industrial
15-30
24
*All driveways shall be five feet wider at the curbline, and this additional width shall be maintained for a distance of 20 feet into the site.
J. 
Acceleration/deceleration lanes. Where access to a parking area of 100 or more spaces is proposed, acceleration and/or deceleration lanes shall be provided in accordance with design criteria established by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Standards Manuals.
K. 
New or altered parking lots. No public or private parking area or access roads shall be constructed, altered or added to in the Township until there shall have been filed with the Construction Official an application for a building permit, which shall include a plan, in duplicate, drawn to scale, showing the actual dimensions of the lot or lots of the building or structure and accessory buildings already existing or to be erected, and containing such other information as shall be deemed necessary by the Construction Official to determine conformity with the provisions of this Part 1, the Building Code[1] and with applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
[Amended 2-16-1993 by Ord. No. 93-01]
[1]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 63, Construction Codes, Uniform.
L. 
Maintenance of off-street parking and loading areas.
(1) 
Every parcel of land hereafter used as a public or private off-street parking or loading area shall be maintained in good condition, free of hazards and deterioration. All pavement areas, sidewalks, curbs, drainage facilities, lighting, bumpers, guardrails, markings, signs, bicycle parking devices, landscaping and other improvements shall be maintained in workable, safe and good condition.
(2) 
The Township Engineer may authorize repairs for such improvements if, after proper notice, the owner fails to maintain such improvements and such conditions constitute a hazard to health and safety or where such improvements are governed by a development or other similar agreement.
[Amended 4-19-1999 by Ord. No. 99-07]
M. 
Automobile parking design principles.
[Amended 12-22-1980 by Ord. No. 80-41]
(1) 
Access. The width of all aisles providing direct access to individual parking stalls shall be in accordance with the requirements set forth below. The minimum width of access aisles shall conform with the following requirements:
Parking Angle
(degrees)
Aisle Width One-Way Traffic
(feet)
Aisle Width Two-Way Traffic
(feet)
0 (parallel)
12
24
30
12
24
45
14
24
60
18
24
90 (perpendicular)
24
24
(2) 
General. A one-way car movement (to the left or counterclockwise) should be encouraged. A major loop road should be developed around the parking areas. All parking shall be located in bays generally perpendicular to driveways or roads.
(3) 
Parking lot layout. Parking areas or lots providing for more than 60 motor vehicle spaces shall, where possible, be subdivided into modular parking bays or lots of not greater than 60 spaces each. Single row or line of spaces within a bay should be no more than 20 spaces in length. Parking bay should be separated from access or circulation drives by ten-foot-wide islands for the full width of a bay at the ends of rows. Designated handicapped parking spaces shall be located on the shortest route of travel from adjacent parking to an accessible entrance. Every effort shall be made to plan an accessible path of travel from parking spaces to primary access which does not cross vehicular traffic lanes. When it is necessary to cross vehicular traffic lanes, the route of traffic shall be designated and marked as a crosswalk.
[Amended 2-16-1993 by Ord. No. 93-01]
(4) 
Markings. In outdoor parking or service areas for uses open to the public, parking spaces shall be double-striped between spaces with lines 18 inches on center. Lines shall be four inches wide. Such areas shall be curbed with permanent and durable curbing to confine cars to striped parking, without overhang or projection onto sidewalks, driveways, bicycle parking areas, planted areas or adjacent landscaped areas. Markings for designated handicapped parking spaces shall be in accordance with applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
[Amended 2-16-1993 by Ord. No. 93-01]
(5) 
Areas computed as parking spaces. Areas which may be computed as open or enclosed off-street parking spaces include any private nonresidential garage, carport or other area available for parking, other than a street, access lane or a driveway. However, a driveway within a required front yard for a one-family residence may count as one parking space. A private residential garage may also count as one parking space, provided that the dwelling unit contains a basement or similar area for occupant household storage needs.
[Amended 4-20-1990 by Ord. No. 90-12]
(6) 
Size of parking spaces. Parking space sizes shall be measured as follows, exclusive of interior driveway or maneuvering areas:
[Amended 7-25-1983 by Ord. No. 83-18]
(a) 
Standard spaces: nine feet in width by 18 feet in length.
(b) 
Compact car spaces: eight feet in width by 14 feet in length.
(c) 
Parking spaces for people with disabilities shall be in accordance with the New Jersey Uniform Construction Code (N.J.A.C. 5:23-7) or the Americans with Disabilities Act, as applicable.
[Amended 2-16-1993 by Ord. No. 93-01; 3-5-2007 by Ord. No. 2007-02]
(d) 
Spaces within a parking garage or structure;
[1] 
Standard spaces: 8 1/2 feet in width by 15 feet in length.
[2] 
Compact spaces: 7 1/2 feet in width by 15 feet in length.
[3] 
Aisle widths: Requirements of Subsection M(6)(d)[1] above may be reduced by two feet for aisles serving standard spaces or combination standard/compact bay arrangements. Aisles exclusively serving compact bays may be 20 feet in width.
(7) 
Parking for the handicapped. The number, location, size and marking of spaces shall conform to the design requirements required for such spaces by the State of New Jersey [barrier-free design (N.J.S.A. 52:32-12)] and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Minimum spaces in general shall be as follows:
[Amended 2-16-1993 by Ord. No. 93-01]
Total Parking in Lot
Handicapped Spaces Required
1 to 25
1
26 to 50
2
52 to 75
3
76 to 100
4
101 to 150
5
151 to 200
6
201 to 300
7
301 to 400
8
401 to 500
9
501 to 1,000
2% of total
1,001 and over
20, plus 1 for each 100 over 1,000
(8) 
Commuter Parking. One commuter (car pool/van pool) space shall be provided for every 40 parking spaces. Such commuter spaces shall be located close the entrance in the preferred parking spaces and designated as commuter (car pool/van pool) spaces.
[Added 9-15-2008 by Ord. No. 2008-22[2]]
[2]
Editor's Note: This ordinance also redesignated former Subsection M(8) and (9) as Subsection M(9) and (10), respectively.
(9) 
Compact car parking. Where parking for compact cars is provided as part of an off-street parking facility, such spaces shall not exceed 1/3 of the total number of required parking spaces. Compact car spaces shall be located within a parking facility and contain proper signage and markings so that use by standard size automobiles is discouraged.
[Added 11-14-1983 by Ord. No. 83-31]
(10) 
Tandem parking. Where tandem parking is provided, the following shall apply:
[Added 6-8-2004 by Ord. No. 2004-18]
(a) 
It shall be accessible only to employees and valet parking.
(b) 
Valet parking is permitted in the aisle.
(c) 
Only employee vehicles shall be permitted in restricted-access tandem spaces.
(d) 
Tandem spaces shall not be more than two vehicles deep.
N. 
Bicycle parking design principles.
[Amended 12-22-1980 by Ord. No. 80-41]
(1) 
General. Bicycle parking facilities shall be of such a type and quantity so as to encourage and facilitate the use of the bicycle as a means of transportation by the employees and customers of the proposed use requiring site plan approval.
(2) 
Location. Outdoor bicycle parking facilities shall be located in convenient locations close to building entrances or pedestrian walkways leading to building entrances. Such facilities shall be clearly marked and separated from automobile access by either landscaping, raised curbs or similar devices. Indoor bicycle parking facilities shall be provided in a secure and safe area.
(3) 
Access. Bicycle access should be combined with motor vehicle access where possible. In those cases where bicycle access is combined with motor vehicle access driveways to the site under review, the driveway shall be not less than 15 feet wide if one-way in direction, and 30 feet if two-way in direction. In those cases where bicycle access is independent from motor vehicle access driveways to the site under review, the bicycle access drive shall be not less than four feet wide if one-way in direction and eight feet wide if two-way in direction, Subsection I(3) of this section notwithstanding. Bicycle access to a lot shall not be combined with pedestrian access, nor shall it be via a separate path parallel and adjacent to motor vehicle access. Access, egress and internal circulation shall be planned so as to minimize conflicts between automobiles, trucks, bicycles and pedestrians, both within the lot and on the adjacent street. Bicycle access driveways and aisles shall not contain hazards to the cyclists (e.g., parallel bar drainage grates, insufficient sight clearance at points of intersection or insufficient lateral or vertical clearance or radii of curvature).
(4) 
Parking facilities. Bicycle parking facilities shall be located close to major entrances to buildings or other areas they serve, in view of working personnel on-site or close to high activity areas to minimize chances of theft or vandalism. Parking facilities shall provide for padlock, chain or cable attachment and shall allow for both wheels and the frame of a bicycle to be secured to it with a standard six-foot cable or chain. Devices such as lockers or those that support the bicycle by its frame or handlebars shall be used rather than slotted concrete slab or vertical bar type racks or other devices that support the bicycle by a wheel and could cause damage to wheel rims. (In PRN developments, higher density residential developments, for industrial uses and for other uses involving regular daily access by defined groups of people or the parking of bicycles for period of time generally in excess of three hours, consideration should be given to sheltered parking facilities that provide protection for bicycles from direct sunlight and precipitation.) For any use for which 12 or more employee bicycle parking spaces are required or provided, not less than 25% of the bicycle parking spaces shall be provided within wholly enclosed individually secured compartments or lockers, providing protection against theft, vandalism and the weather for all or any part of any bicycle parked therein. Other provisions of this Part 1 to the contrary notwithstanding, the lockers shall be close to an entrance to the building they serve, but need neither be located at a major entrance to the building nor be in view of working personnel on-site or close to high activity areas. In lieu of the lockers, the same number of bicycle parking spaces providing equivalent security and convenience may be provided within the building they serve.
[Amended 9-13-1982 by Ord. No. 82-41]
O. 
Off-street loading area; berth sizes.
(1) 
Loading area. A loading area need not be necessarily a full berth, but shall have a minimum plan dimension of at least 10 feet overload clearance. The Construction Official shall determine the sufficiency of the off-street loading area(s) based upon the land and amount of loading and unloading operation required by the proposed use, but in no case shall the use of such space hinder the free movement of vehicles and pedestrians over a street, sidewalk or alley.
(2) 
Loading berth. Each required loading berth shall be at least 12 feet wide, 33 feet long and 14 feet high.
P. 
Location and access of loading areas, berths.
(1) 
Unobstructed access, at least 10 feet wide, to and from a street shall be provided. Such access may be combined with access to a parking lot. All permitted or required loading areas or berths shall be on the same lot as the use to which they are accessory. No entrance or exit for any loading area or berth shall be located within 50 feet of any street intersection. No off-street loading berth or area shall be located in any front yard.
(2) 
All areas for the loading and unloading of vehicles and for the servicing of establishments or shops shall have adequate and unobstructed access from a street, service driveway or alley and shall be so arranged that they may be used without blocking or otherwise interfering with the use of automobile accessways, parking facilities, fire lanes or sidewalks.
[Amended 2-25-1985 by Ord. No. 85-1]
In reviewing site plans, the following site design and building layout principles, where applicable, shall be followed. For minimum spacing between buildings, between similar structures, the following shall apply:
A. 
In development groups (more than one building or structure on a tract), the following distances shall be maintained between structures:
(1) 
End wall (no openings) to end wall: 12 feet minimum.
(2) 
Any building face to street curb: 20 feet minimum.
(3) 
Any building face to parking area: 12 feet minimum.
(4) 
End wall to window wall: 30 feet minimum.
(5) 
Window wall to window wall: 75 feet minimum.
B. 
The Planning Board shall reduce the above distances by not more than 1/3 if there is an angle of 20º or more between buildings and if extensive landscaping or buffers are placed between buildings.
In connection with every site plan, the applicant shall submit plans for all proposed exterior lighting. These plans shall include the location, type of light, radius of light, manufacturer's specification sheet and intensity in footcandles. The following design standards shall be followed:
A. 
The style of the light and light standard shall be consistent with the architectural style of the principal building.
B. 
The maximum height of freestanding lights shall be the same as the principal building, but not exceeding 25 feet.
C. 
All lights shall be shielded to restrict the maximum apex angle of the cone of illumination to 150º.
D. 
Where lights along property lines would be visible to adjacent residents, the lights shall be appropriately shielded. Such shieldings may include berming, landscape material, decorative fencing and, in the case of buildings in excess of two stories, interior window shades or other appropriate treatment that restricts exterior light passage. Site lighting, other than that needed for security purposes, shall be set on a timer system that shuts off all but security lighting of the site by 11:00 p.m.
[Amended 12-27-1988 by Ord. No. 88-51]
E. 
Spotlight-type fixtures attached to buildings and visible to the public shall be avoided.
F. 
Freestanding lights shall be so located and protected to avoid being easily damaged by vehicles.
G. 
Lighting shall be located along streets, parking areas, at intersections and where various types of circulation systems merge, intersect or split.
H. 
Pathways, sidewalks and trails shall be lighted with low or mushroom-type standards.
I. 
Stairways and sloping or rising paths, building entrances and exits require illumination.
J. 
Lighting shall be provided where buildings are set back or offset, if access is provided at such points.
K. 
The following intensity in footcandles shall be provided:
(1) 
Parking lots: an average of 0.5 footcandles throughout.
(2) 
Intersections: 3.0 footcandles.
(3) 
Maximum at property lines: 1.0 footcandles.
(4) 
In residential areas: average of 0.6 footcandles.
[Amended 12-14-1992 by Ord. No. 92-37; 12-22-1980 by Ord. No. 80-41; 12-14-1992 by Ord. No. 92-37; 10-15-1996 by Ord. No. 96-25; 12-23-1996 by Ord. No. 96-33; 12-15-1997 by Ord. No. 97-27; 2-9-1998 by Ord. No. 98-02; 4-19-1999 by Ord. No. 99-07; 5-1-2000 by Ord. No. 2000-07; 10-6-2008 by Ord. No. 2008-28]
Each site plan application shall include a sign plan showing the specific design, location, size, height, construction and illumination of proposed signs in accordance with the regulations contained herein. Sign functions and sign types are defined in § 200-4 of this chapter.
A. 
Schedule of sign use regulations. Signs shall be permitted in each zoning district according to the following use regulations and other applicable requirements of this section.
(1) 
Permitted signs in residential districts. The following standards shall apply to all signs in residential districts.
(a) 
Permitted sign functions, type of sign, size of sign and maximum number of signs shall be as follows:
Sign Function
Type of Sign
Size of Sign
(square feet)
Maximum Number of Signs per Lot
Business
Ground, hanging, wall
12, 6 for hanging
1
Directory
Ground, wall
12
1
Identification
Ground, wall, integral
4
1
Instructional
Ground, wall
2
Determined by safety considerations
Nameplate
Ground, hanging, wall, integral
1
1
No solicitation
Wall
1
1
Permanent noncommercial
Ground
Hanging
Wall
Integral
16
12
12
4
1*
NOTES:
*Additional signs require approval of the Zoning Officer, which shall not be unreasonably withheld.
(b) 
Sign illumination. Only wall signs and integral signs are permitted to be illuminated.
(c) 
Miscellaneous standards.
[1] 
Provisions for home occupation signage as set forth in Part 4, Zoning, of this chapter shall supersede requirements contained in this Subsection A.
[2] 
"No solicitation" signs shall be located on or within two feet of the primary public entrance.
(2) 
Permitted signs in nonresidential districts. The following standards shall apply to all signs in nonresidential districts, except signage for nonresidential planned developments where Subsection B of this section applies and for the Princeton Junction Overlay District where § 200-207.1D applies. No sign type other than those identified below shall be permitted.
(a) 
Wall signage.
[1] 
One wall sign shall be permitted per business.
[2] 
The following types of wall signs shall be permitted:
[a] 
Internally lit raised letters with concealed ballast.
[b] 
Back-lit raised letters with concealed ballast.
[c] 
Signage board with gooseneck lighting.
[d] 
Individual cut letters with gooseneck lighting.
[3] 
The maximum sign area shall be 90% of the linear business frontage, with a maximum area of 50 square feet. For example, if the linear business frontage is 25 feet, the maximum sign area shall be 22 1/2 square feet (0.9 by 25).
[4] 
The letter height shall be a maximum of 18 inches.
[5] 
Letters shall project a maximum of six inches.
[6] 
Wall signs shall not be permitted above the roofline.
(b) 
Street address signage.
[1] 
Street address signage shall be provided on each building or for each individual tenant.
[2] 
Street address numbers shall have a maximum height of eight inches.
(c) 
Ground-mounted project/tenant identification signage.
[1] 
One ground-mounted project/tenant identification sign shall be permitted for each site, provided that a monument sign is not installed.
[2] 
The maximum sign area shall be 48 square feet.
[3] 
The maximum sign height, including structure and sign area, shall be nine feet above existing grade.
[4] 
The base of the sign shall be constructed of materials that are consistent with the building architecture and shall be landscaped with plantings.
[5] 
If lighted, the sign shall be lit by direct, external light sources, internally illuminated letters/logos or back-lit raised letters/logos.
[6] 
Mounting hardware shall be hidden from view.
(d) 
Monument signage.
[1] 
One monument sign shall be permitted for each, provided that a ground-mounted project/tenant identification sign is not installed.
[2] 
The maximum monument sign area, including the structure, shall be 48 square feet.
[3] 
The maximum monument sign height, including structure and sign area, shall be four feet above existing grade.
[4] 
The base of the monument sign shall be constructed of materials that are consistent with the building architecture and shall be landscaped with plantings.
(e) 
Awnings and canopies.
[1] 
One sign with lettering per business shall be permitted on an awning or canopy, and logos shall be permitted on all awnings and canopies, provided that:
[a] 
The letter and logo height does not exceed 50% of the diagonal portion of the awning or canopy.
[b] 
The letter and logo height is located on the vertical flap and does not exceed eight inches.
[c] 
The letter and logo area does not exceed 15% of the area of the diagonal portion of the awning or canopy.
[d] 
The signage shall only be on first-floor awnings and canopies.
[2] 
Awnings and canopies shall be aesthetically compatible with the building and consistent with each other.
[3] 
Awnings and canopies shall be kept in good order and repair.
[4] 
All awnings and canopies shall be made of canvas or cloth.
(f) 
Window lettering and signs. Window lettering and signs shall be permitted, provided that they:
[1] 
Are inside the window;
[2] 
Do not exceed 15% of the window area;
[3] 
Pertain only to the establishment occupying the premises where the window is located; and
[4] 
Shall have a professional appearance.
(g) 
Directory signage.
[1] 
One directory sign per separate street frontage shall be permitted for professional offices and medical and dental offices.
[2] 
The maximum directory sign area shall be two square feet per occupant and shall not exceed 12 square feet.
[3] 
The directory sign shall be a wall sign.
[4] 
The letter height shall not exceed four inches.
(h) 
Instructional signage.
[1] 
Instructional wall and ground signs are permitted.
[2] 
The maximum number shall be determined by safety considerations.
[3] 
The maximum instructional sign area shall be two square feet.
(i) 
Nameplate signage.
[1] 
One nameplate shall be permitted per building.
[2] 
The nameplate sign may be a ground, hanging, wall, or integral sign.
[3] 
The maximum nameplate sign area shall be 1/2 square foot.
(j) 
Flag signage.
[1] 
One freestanding flag sign shall be permitted for corporate and professional offices.
[2] 
The flagpole shall be no taller than 18 feet measured from existing grade.
[3] 
The maximum flag area shall be 15 square feet.
[4] 
Flag signs shall be kept in good order and repair.
B. 
Signage in nonresidential planned development. The following standards shall apply to all signs in nonresidential planned developments:
(1) 
Signage plan. All nonresidential planned developments shall submit a comprehensive signage plan indicating specific criteria for signage within the planned development. The comprehensive signage plan shall, at a minimum, indicate the type, size, style of lettering, colors, construction material, type of pole or standard and illumination and shall include a site plan and elevations of the entire property and locations and details of all proposed signage. Included in the comprehensive signage plan shall be all illuminated interior signs, which shall be consistent throughout the development and which shall not detract from the aesthetic impression created by the remainder of the signage plan.
(2) 
Wall signage.
(a) 
One wall sign shall be permitted per business for each front business facade and each rear or side business facade.
(b) 
The following types of wall signs shall be permitted:
[1] 
Internally lit raised letters with concealed ballast.
[2] 
Back-lit raised letters with concealed ballast.
[3] 
Signage board with gooseneck lighting.
[4] 
Individual cut letters with gooseneck lighting.
(c) 
For buildings within planned developments, the closest portion of which is less than 130 feet from the right-of-way, the maximum sign area shall be 90% of the linear business frontage, with a maximum area of 50 square feet, and the letter height shall be a maximum of 18 inches.
(d) 
For buildings the closest portion of which is between 130 feet and 400 feet from the right-of-way, the maximum sign area shall be 120% of the linear business frontage, with a maximum area of 100 square feet, and the letter height shall be a maximum of two feet.
(e) 
For buildings more than 400 feet from the right-of-way, the maximum sign area shall be 225% of the linear business frontage, with a maximum area of 150 square feet, and the maximum letter height shall be three feet.
(f) 
Wall signs shall not be permitted above the roofline.
(3) 
Monument signage.
(a) 
One monument sign for each nonretail building shall be permitted.
(b) 
The maximum monument sign area, including the structure, shall be 48 square feet.
(c) 
The maximum monument sign height, including the structure and sign area, shall be four feet above existing grade.
(d) 
The base of the monument sign shall be constructed of materials that are consistent with the building architecture and shall be landscaped with plantings.
(4) 
Ground-mounted project/tenant identification signage.
(a) 
One ground-mounted project/tenant identification sign for each street frontage shall be permitted for each planned development.
(b) 
The maximum ground-mounted project/tenant identification sign area shall be 165 square feet.
(c) 
The maximum ground-mounted project/tenant identification sign height (including structure and sign area) shall be 20 feet above existing grade.
(d) 
The height of the base of the ground-mounted project/tenant identification sign shall be at least 17% of the total height.
(e) 
The base of the ground-mounted project/tenant identification sign shall be constructed of materials that are consistent with the building architecture and shall be landscaped with plantings.
(f) 
The maximum letter height shall be 18 inches.
(g) 
A maximum of six tenants shall be permitted on the ground-mounted project/tenant identification sign.
(h) 
Color and materials of ground-mounted project/tenant identification signage shall be consistent with other structures on site, including buildings and other signs.
(i) 
If lighted, the sign shall be lit by direct, external light sources, internally illuminated letters/logos or back-lit raised letters/logos.
(j) 
Mounting hardware shall be hidden from view.
(5) 
Awnings and canopies.
(a) 
One sign with lettering per business shall be permitted on an awning or canopy, and logos shall be permitted on all awnings and canopies, provided that:
[1] 
The letter and logo height does not exceed 50% of the diagonal portion of the awning or canopy.
[2] 
The letter and logo height is located on the vertical flap and does not exceed eight inches.
[3] 
The letter and logo area does not exceed 15% of the area of the diagonal portion of the awning or canopy.
[4] 
The signage shall only be on first-floor awnings and canopies.
(b) 
Awnings and canopies shall be aesthetically compatible with the building and consistent with each other.
(c) 
Awnings and canopies shall be kept in good order and repair.
(d) 
All awnings and canopies shall be made of canvas or cloth.
(6) 
Window lettering and signs. Window letter and signs shall be permitted, provided that they:
(a) 
Are inside the window;
(b) 
Do not exceed 15% of the window area;
(c) 
Pertain only to the establishment occupying the premises where the window is located; and
(d) 
Shall have a professional appearance.
(7) 
Directory signage.
(a) 
One directory sign per separate street frontage shall be permitted for each planned development.
(b) 
The maximum directory sign area shall be two square feet per occupant and shall not exceed 12 square feet.
(c) 
The directory sign shall be a wall sign.
(d) 
The letter height shall not exceed four inches.
(8) 
Instructional signage.
(a) 
Instructional wall and ground signs are permitted.
(b) 
The number shall be determined by safety considerations.
(c) 
The maximum instructional sign area shall be two square feet.
(9) 
Nameplate signage.
(a) 
One nameplate shall be permitted per building.
(b) 
The nameplate sign may be a ground, hanging, wall or integral sign.
(c) 
The maximum nameplate sign area shall be 1/2 square foot.
(10) 
Flag signage.
(a) 
One freestanding flag sign shall be permitted for corporate and professional offices.
(b) 
The flagpole shall be no taller than 18 feet measured from existing grade.
(c) 
The maximum flag area shall be 15 square feet.
(d) 
Flags shall be kept in good order and repair.
(11) 
Street address signage.
(a) 
Street address signage shall be provided on each building or for each individual tenant.
(b) 
Street address numbers shall have a maximum height of eight inches.
C. 
Prohibited signs. Any other provisions of this section or any other section of this chapter notwithstanding, the following signs shall be prohibited in all zoning districts:
(1) 
Signs which contain or are an imitation of an official traffic signal or hide from view any traffic street signal or sign.
(2) 
Signs which are designed to move, either by mechanical or other means. Signs which are portable, self-supporting without being firmly embedded in the ground, supported by another object or mounted on wheels. Signs placed on vehicles or trailers which are parked or located for the primary purpose of displaying said sign. This does not apply to signs or lettering on buses, taxis or vehicles operating during the normal course of business.
(3) 
Any abstract mosaic, mural or painting or graphic art techniques applied, implanted or placed directly onto a wall, fence or exterior of a building.
(4) 
Mounted or portable search lighting used to project moving or stationary overhead light beams.
(5) 
Signs which flash, or are accented by flashing lights, except for time and temperature indicators and emergency highway lights.
(6) 
Signs which emit odors or smoke or produce noise or sounds capable of being heard, even though the sounds produced are not understandable.
(7) 
Silhouetted or three-dimensional signs; e.g., signs lacking a background and having letters, figures or devices silhouetted against the sky or other open space not a part of the sign and/or signs in which objects or representational devices are present in the round or other than in a vertical plane.
(8) 
Any freestanding sign or any sign projecting from a building within a triangular area bounded by the intersection of two right-of-way lines and a line connecting points 30 feet from such intersection along the right-of-way lines, whether existing or shown on the Master Plan or in sight clearance triangles specified in other regulations.
(9) 
Any sign erected upon, against or above a roof or on top of a parapet of a building.
(10) 
Advertising signs, including billboards and temporary off-site advertising signs usually attached to the ground or appended to posts, unless specifically permitted as a conditional use and developed in accordance with the requirements of § 200-243.1.
(11) 
Signs which contain or consist of banners, posters, pennant ribbons, balloons or blimps, streamers, strings of light bulbs, spinners or other similar moving devices.
(12) 
Signs painted or attached to utility poles, trees, fences, booths, street furniture or boulders.
(13) 
Circulars and throwaway flyers attached to vehicles.
(14) 
Portable signs or signs not permanently anchored to a building or to the ground.
(15) 
Obsolete or abandoned signs.
D. 
Supplemental sign provisions.
(1) 
General sign standards. Any sign for which the purpose, location, type or definition is not clearly permitted or prohibited by this article shall be considered as being a sign of the most closely resembling purpose, function, type or definition as established by this article. The following general sign standards shall apply to all permitted signs in all zoning districts:
(a) 
Nonconforming signs. Nonconforming signs which are structurally altered, relocated or replaced shall comply with all provisions of this article.
(b) 
Structural requirements. All signs shall comply with structural requirements as established by the Township's Building Code.[1] This article, however, shall, where applicable, take precedence over that code in all matters pertaining to the regulation of design and location.
[1]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 63, Construction Codes, Uniform.
(c) 
Maximum height of signs. Signs shall be no higher than four feet in residential districts.
(d) 
Sign location. Signs shall not be in or within the public right-of-way nor interfere with sight distances at street intersections or ingress and egress points to a lot. To the extent possible, adjacent signs on the same or adjoining buildings should be placed within the same horizontal band and be of reasonably harmonious materials and colors.
(e) 
Signage graphics considerations. For any residential or nonresidential development, all signage shall be consistent in style of lettering, signage colors, construction material, type of pole or standard, size and lighting.
(f) 
Sign area calculation. The total area of all signs on a lot shall not exceed the limitations of this article. Signs visible on or through windows shall be included within the total area of signage on a lot. Signs may be two-sided, with the perimeter not to exceed the individual sign area limitation.
(2) 
Special design standards for wall signs.
(a) 
Wall signs shall be attached parallel to the facade of the building and project not more than 12 inches therefrom and shall not exceed higher than the top of the parapet in the case of one story buildings; and in the case of taller buildings, shall not extend above the sill of the windows of the second story, nor extend more than 15 feet above the outside grade.
(b) 
Wall signs shall not cover wholly or in part any wall opening, including doors, fire escapes and windows, nor project beyond the ends of the wall to which it is attached. All such signs must be safely and adequately attached to said building wall by means satisfactory to the Construction Official.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: Original Subsection 23-6.6.5, Supplementary Sign Regulations and Design Considerations, which immediately followed this subsection, and containing portions of Ord. Nos. 78-20 and 78-25, was repealed by Ord. No. 92-37. Former Subsection E, Billboards, as amended, which immediately followed this subsection, was repealed 5-1-2000 by Ord. No. 2000-09. See now § 200-243.1.
E. 
Enforcement.
(1) 
When a single-occupancy business ceases operation for more than 60 days, any sign face identifying or advertising such business and all supporting structures shall be immediately removed.
(2) 
When an owner entity such as a shopping center or a multitenant building changes and the owner's name is on the sign, then within 90 days the sign shall be removed and replaced if it is nonconforming.
F. 
Sign illumination standards for all districts.
(1) 
Fixtures used to illuminate signs shall comply with the following:
(a) 
Top-mounted external light fixtures shall have illumination levels plotted such that 100% of the beam angle used is not greater than the size of the externally illuminated signs.
(b) 
Illumination from other positioned light fixtures shall continue to be restricted to the sign area. Visors or other directional control devices shall be used to eliminate any spill light.
(2) 
Detailed plans are to be provided to illustrate floodlight distribution patterns. Once properly installed, the fixtures are to be aimed, permanently affixed, and maintained in the approved position according to the terms of approval outlined in the approving resolution.
(3) 
Foundations supporting lighting poles installed less than two feet behind the curb shall not be less than four inches above grade.
(4) 
Outdoor light fixtures for purposes of private, commercial, or industrial usage shall not be attached or mounted to public property (i.e., buildings, utility poles, telephone poles, street lights, and road/street signs). Furthermore, these fixtures shall not tap or extend power from sources servicing public lighting and power devices.
(5) 
Light distributions generated by light fixtures shall be confined to the property on which they are installed.
(a) 
Outdoor light fixtures properly installed and maintained shall be directed so that there will not be any direct glare source visible from any adjacent residential property.
(b) 
Light fixtures installed within any setback area, including front, rear or side yard setbacks, shall contain shielded devices to prevent light spill and glare upward and onto adjacent properties.
(6) 
Light trespass (nuisance light). All light fixtures, except street lighting maintained by a governmental authority, shall be designed, installed and maintained to prevent light trespass, as specified below.
(a) 
Outdoor light fixtures shall be installed and maintained so that there will not be any direct glare source visible from any property other than the property in which the fixture is located.
(b) 
Special shielding devices shall be affixed to light fixtures near adjacent properties to the extent necessary to prevent light trespass.
(7) 
Internally illuminated signs shall not exceed 70 lumens as measured one foot away from signs.
(8) 
When building surfaces are used as signs, the luminance values and surface reflectances shall be the same as those indicated for externally illuminated signs.
(9) 
Outdoor lighting energy conservation. All sign-related lighting shall be designed to prevent misdirected or excessive artificial light and to maximize energy efficiency, including use of solar lighting to the extent practicable.
(10) 
Submission of plans. Plans and evidence of compliance shall include the following:
(a) 
Description of outdoor lamp/luminaire combinations, including component specifications such as lamps, reflectors, optics, angle of cutoff, supports, and poles, and provision of manufacturers' catalog cuts.
(b) 
Locations and descriptions of every outdoor enclosed light fixture and hours of operation, their aiming angles and mounting heights.
(c) 
The initial horizontal and vertical illuminance shall be illustrated in footcandles (before depreciation). Illustrate relamping and cleaning cycles to arrive at maintained values of illumination. Separately state proposed maintained footcandles (horizontal and vertical).
(d) 
Computer-generated photometric grid showing footcandle readings every 10 feet and the average footcandles. Depending upon the design application, this can be for either or both facade (vertical) or horizontal illumination levels.
The design and location of all utilities shall be based on Township standards and the public utility having primary jurisdiction. The location of all utilities shall be coordinated by the Township Engineer. Necessary approvals from the Township health office, where applicable, shall also be required.
In addition to conforming to the EIS standards, as set forth herein, the site plan shall be designed in accordance with applicable Township ordinances designed to protect the environment. These include, but are not limited to, Chapter 143, Soil Removal; Part 6, Flood Damage and Prevention, of this chapter; and Chapter 170, Trees.
Street furniture are the man-made elements of the environment. These include but are not limited to phone booths, benches, planting boxes, mail and meter boxes, lighting standards, directional signs, bollards (posts), fences and walls, water fountains and pools, drinking fountains, trash receptacles and bike racks. In reviewing a site plan, details of street furniture shall include location, size, lighting and design relationship to the principal building(s). Such furniture shall be subordinate to the site plan and arranged in a design-coordinated fashion to the principal use on the lot (e.g., color, scale and bulk shall be reasonably harmonious with the principal building and coordinated with the overall site landscaping plan).
[Amended 12-22-1980 by Ord. No. 80-41]
Supplemental design criteria for planned residential developments (open space clusters, planned developments and planned residential neighborhoods) and higher density housing developments (housing types permitted in R-3 through R-5A Districts) shall be as follows.
A. 
General design principles. In the review of site plans for planned residential developments or higher density residential developments, in addition to the site plan criteria established in preceding sections of this article, the following principles shall also apply:
(1) 
Utilities to be constructed within and to serve such developments shall be underground.
(2) 
Consideration shall be given to the preservation and conservation of natural features, including large trees, groves, waterways, aquifer recharge areas, scenic and historic points or other community assets within such developments.
(3) 
All portions of such developments not to be covered with buildings or other impermeable surfaces and not to be retained in a natural state shall be landscaped.
(4) 
The protection of wooded areas, specimen trees of five-inch caliper or over and vegetation suitable for buffer strips within the development shall be a factor in determining the location of open space, buildings, underground services, walks, paved areas, playgrounds, parking areas and finished grade levels.
(5) 
In residential areas, reverse frontage lots shall be avoided, except in cases where proximity to major highways necessitates such location. In such cases, the lot should normally front on the minor road and be screened from the major road by suitable planting.
(6) 
The street system may utilize, where proper, culs-de-sac, loop streets and P-loops and other suitable forms of street layout. Varying street size according to its intended traffic carrying purpose is encouraged.
(a) 
When a cul-de-sac is used in a residential designated use area, it shall be provided with a paved turning circle of sufficient width to facilitate snow removal and to permit easy access for fire-fighting equipment and general truck delivery. A right-of-way radius for a cul-de-sac should be equal to 58 feet, with landscaped center islands encouraged.
(b) 
The maximum length of a cul-de-sac shall be 600 feet to the turning circle. This distance may be increased to 800 feet if an emergency vehicular access and pedestrian walkway of at least 10 feet in width is provided from the head of a cul-de-sac providing direct access to the adjacent street. The length of a cul-de-sac may be in excess of 600 feet if it serves no more than 20 dwelling units or uses generating equivalent traffic. Cul-de-sac turnarounds may be in the form of parking courts if a turning radius of at least 35 feet is maintained.
(c) 
Any cul-de-sac shall be readily identifiable as such by traffic moving on the collector streets to which it is connected. Culs-de-sac shall not be located so as to appear to terminate collector streets.
(d) 
P-loops shall have an entrance leg not exceeding 900 feet. The loop of a P-loop shall have a street length not exceeding 3,000 feet.
(7) 
The street system shall be integrated with the existing network of streets so that there are at least two points of access. When a project is to be developed in sections, each section shall provide two points of access, one of which may be temporary.
(8) 
Pedestrian circulation separated from vehicular circulation is encouraged, either in a separate right-of-way or by curbing, grass strips, planting or other protective barriers.
B. 
Building site design principles. In the site planning and layout of varied housing types contained within planned developments or developed as single use projects, the following principles, as appropriate, should be followed:
(1) 
Overall principles.
(a) 
The site plan should be broken into visually small groupings such as quadrangles, clusters and courts. Devices to slow speed and reduce the size of each visual grouping, such as garden walls and gates, reduction in setbacks of facing buildings and variable landscape layout are encouraged.
(b) 
No more than five freestanding houses should be placed in a row with the same setback from a straight street line.
(c) 
Boredom of visually repeated elements should be avoided. The use of curved streets or variety of architectural design or landscaping to avoid a view of more than three identical structures from any single point on a street should be encouraged.
(d) 
Site planning should respect climate and wind orientation to ensure proper building siting enabling energy conservation (e.g., maximize southern building exposure for use of solar energy, consider proper wind orientation to reduce negative effects of cold winter winds and to take advantage of cooling summer breezes).
(e) 
Townhouses or other similar attached dwelling units should be grouped in clusters. Private parking areas should be located near dwelling unit entrances. Any outdoor living areas or patios should adjoin open space or paths leading to open space. Dwelling units should not front on a through street. Screening of such outdoor living areas may be accomplished with plant materials, masonry structures or wood fencing. Architectural elements such as masonry walls and fences shall be compatible in both style and materials with the dwelling unit of which it is part.
(f) 
Architectural style and major design elements of each dwelling unit, such as materials, color tones, windows and roof design, should be compatible with all proposed dwelling units in the immediate neighborhood or residential cluster.
(g) 
Where private garages are provided, constructed either as part of a dwelling unit or on individual lots, the following guidelines shall be followed:
[1] 
All garages shall conform architecturally to, and be of similar materials as, the principal building in the development.
[2] 
A garage need not set back from one side line of an individual lot and may be attached to a garage on an adjacent individual lot.
[3] 
No garage which is not attached to or part of a dwelling unit on the same individual lot should be closer than 20 feet to said dwelling unit.
[4] 
Where common garage structures are considered, they shall be provided in clusters housing no more than four cars. They should be located so as to provide as short a walk as practicable to the principal residence.
(h) 
As either part of common open space or open space areas, recreational facilities such as swimming pools, tennis courts and play lots are encouraged but should be carefully located to avoid problems of noise, lights and similar nuisance elements, affecting residential units. They shall be located not less than 50 feet from any boundary line exclusive of buffers.
(2) 
Townhouses.
(a) 
For townhouses, a maximum of eight dwelling units in a single row with a minimum offset of two to four feet between every two dwelling units are encouraged. No more than six dwelling units should be permitted in a straight line. The planes of other straight facades should be no more than 80 feet in length without at least a two foot offset.
(b) 
The rooflines of at least 30% of the number of units which are attached in a structure having a single linear plan should be staggered in height by not less than 5% of the height of the rooflines of the remaining units in such structures.
(c) 
An outdoor private living space for each dwelling unit is encouraged. Adequate visual screening of such living space from all other neighboring dwelling units, outdoor living spaces, parking areas and roadways shall be provided.
(d) 
Each dwelling unit shall have not less than two exposures and not less than two means of egress.
(3) 
Patio homes.
(a) 
No more than four dwelling units shall be connected to form one structure. Major rooms of a dwelling should open onto a private central court or atrium.
(b) 
Dwelling units shall be attached so that private outdoor living areas are formed, providing maximum safety and privacy from adjoining units. No windows of an adjoining unit shall face the private outdoor living space of any unit.
(c) 
An outdoor private living area, patio or atrium shall be provided for each dwelling unit. Such patio area shall be not less than 400 square feet in size, having no single dimension of less than 15 feet. Further, such patio area should be completely clear of structures and shall be designed for the outdoor use of the occupants of the dwelling unit. Adequate visual screening from neighboring dwelling units, patios, adjacent parking areas and roadways shall be provided.
(4) 
Zero lot line homes.
(a) 
No more than five individual units should be placed in a row with the same setback from a straight street line. Variation of principal building placement on individual lots is encouraged.
(b) 
An outdoor private living space for each dwelling unit shall be provided. Adequate visual screening of such living space from all other neighboring dwelling units, outdoor living spaces, parking areas and roadways shall be provided.
(c) 
Walls placed on lot lines shall not contain window openings of living areas. Cross lot easements may be provided such that the adjacent lot homeowner may gain access to his or her dwelling for purposes of maintenance and repair; alternatively, buildings may be placed three feet from one side lot line.
(5) 
Semidetached dwellings (e.g., duplex, triplex and quadraplex).
(a) 
A duplex structure shall contain no more than two attached units, a triplex structure shall contain no more than three attached units and a quadraplex structure shall contain no more than four attached units. Each unit shall have its own separate entrance and exit.
(b) 
At least 30% of each dwelling type which is attached in a structure having a single linear plane shall be set back not less than 10 feet behind the facades of the remaining units in such structure.
(c) 
A variety of building heights between one- and two-story structures for each dwelling type is encouraged within a single project.
(d) 
An outdoor private living space for each dwelling unit is encouraged. Adequate visual screening of such living space from all other neighboring dwelling units, outdoor living spaces, parking areas and roadways shall be provided.
(6) 
Garden apartments; maisonettes.
(a) 
Each garden apartment, maisonette or similar multifamily structure should be limited to a maximum of 20 dwelling units and a length of 180 feet. Such structures should be grouped in clusters of consistent architectural design. A minimum of two-foot building offset for every two ground floor dwelling units or a minimum of four-foot offset for every five ground floor dwelling units shall be provided.
(b) 
In maisonette style structures, an outdoor private living space for each ground floor unit shall be provided. Adequate visual screening of such living space from all other neighboring dwelling units, outdoor living spaces, parking areas and roadways shall be provided.
(c) 
A variety of building heights between two-, three- and four-story structures is encouraged within a single project.
(d) 
Open balconies for individual dwelling units are encouraged.
(7) 
Mid-rise apartments.
(a) 
Each mid-rise structure shall be sited according to proper considerations to maximize views, sun and wind factors. Each unit shall have sunlight for at least part of the day. Sun shadow diagrams shall be provided for each structure such that no adjacent lower-storied building shall be contained within any such shadows for more than one hour of a day.
(b) 
Mid-rise apartments of similar multifamily structures should be located on a site directly adjacent to the major portions of common space or open space in the development. Where a mid-rise structure is proposed adjacent to the State D & R Canal Park, a minimum setback of 300 feet from the edge of the park shall be provided, with appropriate tree plantings between the structure's closest wall facing the Canal and the park's edge to soften the visual appearance of the building. Their placement within planned developments shall be harmonious in architectural style with the other housing types that may be located within such developments.
(c) 
Open balconies, decks or patios at the ground floor units are encouraged.
(d) 
Jogs of a minimum of four feet to create visual breaks on the exterior of a building are encouraged.
(e) 
Angled walls, varied widths or enlarged foyer or atrium areas at points where building jobs or where laundries, elevator or stair towers occur are encouraged.
C. 
Common open space and recreation.
(1) 
General requirements.
(a) 
In the designation of common open space areas, consideration shall be given to providing for continuity of open space between sections of a development and between open space with a development and open space on adjacent lands. Open space shall be distributed throughout the development so that there is a hierarchy of activities from preservation areas to passive open space adjacent and between each residential cluster. Designating all open space in one portion of a development is to be discouraged.
(b) 
Usable recreation space should be provided for active recreation within 1/4 mile of all units. Part of this may be a lake or pond having a substantially constant water level, but excluding therefrom detention and retention basins. Any larger preservation spaces shall still be contiguous to and directly related to dwelling structures. Usable recreation space may be improved with facilities for swimming pools, tot lots, playgrounds and quiet outdoor sports such as, but not limited to, tennis, paddle tennis, golf, baseball, basketball, soccer, lacrosse and the like, and accessory buildings such as clubhouses and pavilions.
(c) 
Carefully orient passive recreational facilities.
(d) 
Recreational facilities should be operated for the residents of the development. They should not be commercial enterprises open to anyone who pays a fee.
(e) 
Open space and recreational areas shall be accessible to individuals with disabilities in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
[Added 2-16-1993 by Ord. No. 93-01]
(2) 
Distribution requirements applicable to planned residential or higher density residential developments. The common open space or open space requirements as required for certain planned residential developments permitted by Part 4, Zoning, of this chapter shall be distributed generally as outlined below:
Minimum Distribution Percentages of Open Space
(expressed as percent of gross tract area)
When at least 40% open space required
When less than 40% open space required
1.
In usable recreation facilities as set forth in Subsection C(3)(c) below
15%
10%
2.
In natural features, significant wooded areas, vegetation and in other usable open space which shall be defined as lands other than in channels, floodways or water bodies, whether used for recreation, retention or detention purposes
15%
N/A
3.
In lands excluded in Number 2 above
10%
N/A
(3) 
Open space/recreation design guidelines.
(a) 
An effective open space system should tie together a number of diverse recreational activity areas with adequate pedestrian pathways and auto/bicycle access for residents it is intended to serve. As many homes as possible should have direct access to the open space of a development. Developed open space generally should not be isolated in one corner of a project.
(b) 
Active recreation should be visibly close but shall not interfere with the privacy of adjacent residents. It should be designed to accommodate the recreation needs of the project's intended age groups.
(c) 
Recreational facilities.
[1] 
Pathways and bikeways. Use to connect open space between recreational facilities and between residential buildings and other uses. Vehicular conflicts with open space pathways are discouraged.
[2] 
Internal bicycle paths. In planned developments where internal bicycle paths are proposed primarily intended to provide access for occupants of such developments, the following pathway width design guidelines shall be observed:
Type of Bikeway
Pathway Width
(feet)
One-way bikeway shared with pedestrians
8
Two-way bikeway shared with pedestrians
12
One-way independent bikeway path
4
Two-way independent bikeway path
8
[3] 
Play lots. Minimum of 2,000 square feet for toddlers and up to 5,000 square feet for older children. Primarily used by preschool age children. Facilities include swings, slides, play sculptures and benches for parents. Effective service radius of one lot of 1/8 of a mile. Approximately one play lot for each 400 persons or 100 children.
[4] 
Playgrounds.
[a] 
Designed for a variety of uses and equipment should reflect the patronage. Sandboxes and play sculpture for young children, basketball courts or backboards for older youths, paved areas for various activities and shuffleboard and sunny and quiet areas for the elderly.
[b] 
The size of playgrounds should generally be based on population as follows:
Population
Size
(acres)
2,000
3.50
3,000
4.75
4,000
7.00
[5] 
Tennis. One court for each 100 dwelling units. Automobile parking should be provided on the basis of four spaces per court, together with appropriate bicycle parking facilities.
[6] 
Swimming pools.
[a] 
The size of pools should generally be based on the number of dwelling units as follows:
Number of Dwelling Units
Pool Size
(square feet)
Under 50
800 to 1,000
50 to 100
1,000 to 1,300
101 to 150
1,200 to 1,500
151 to 200
1,400 to 1,800
Over 200
1,800 up
[b] 
In larger developments, a series of smaller pools relating to individual housing groups should be considered instead of a centrally located, large pool. Wading pools should be provided where the anticipated child population indicates that they will be used.
[7] 
Community buildings. In planned developments of over 150 dwelling units, consideration shall be given toward a recreation center/community multipurpose building. Such facilities should be within walking or easy biking distance of the majority of residents it is intended to serve.
[8] 
Other amenities. Consider jogging trails and exercise areas in an adult-oriented project. Provide benches and sitting areas along pathways where appropriate and particularly where they can incorporate or provide views of a significant landscape feature, recreational facility or interesting site design of the project. Consider an area reserved for small garden plots in larger developments.
D. 
Fire lanes/fire apparatus access.
[Added 8-2-1983 by Ord. No. 83-24]
(1) 
General requirement. At a minimum, a building shall have 25% of its perimeter fronting on a public or private street or on a fire apparatus space unobstructed for at least 30 feet in width. Depending on a building's design configuration and use, location of its egress points with respect to a public street or fire apparatus space and location of a fire hydrant, this general requirement may be increased by the Planning Board upon receipt of a report by the Township's Fire Subcode Official as to why such increases are needed.
(a) 
Such fire apparatus space shall be accessible from a street by a posted fire lane not less than 18 feet in width.
(b) 
Both fire lane and fire apparatus space shall be posted by appropriate signage or pavement markings. They shall not be obstructed so as to impede fire apparatus access.
(c) 
Fire lanes need not be separate accessways, but may be incorporated as part of an individual site's access driveway system or off-street parking access aisles, so long as they are properly posted. Fire lanes may also be separate facilities incorporated on a site as a grassed over supportable sub-base, a paved block grass system or similar cross section which can effectively support fire apparatus and serve as a fire lane. Construction standards for such fire lanes shall be as stipulated in § 200-91A(6) of Part 3, Subdivision and Site Plan Procedures, of this chapter.
(2) 
The requirements of this subsection shall not be applicable to existing structures or ones for which a building permit has been issued as of June 30,1983, including any application to increase the size of an existing structure, except that such alterations shall continue to be subject to and must conform to the provisions of N.J.A.C. 5:23-2.4 and 5:23-2.5, and any amendments thereto.
[Added 9-15-2008 by Ord. No. 2008-22]
Impervious surfaces shall be used for all drives and parking areas except as otherwise required by § 200-27B(1), and pervious surfaces shall be used for all other paved areas, including sidewalks, trails, courtyards, and other site amenities. The board of jurisdiction may exclude site amenities from the MIC requirement when necessary to secure site amenities that will not otherwise be provided.