[Adopted 6-21-1999 by Ord. No. 411]
This article shall be known and may be cited as the "Tobyhanna Township Sidewalk and Curb Specifications Ordinance."
All curbs and sidewalks shall be constructed or reconstructed in accordance with the terms and provisions of this article. It shall be the duty of all owners of real estate, contractors, subcontractors, mechanics and laborers to comply with this article in the construction or reconstruction of curbs and sidewalks within the township.
Concrete. All concrete used shall be true portland cement and shall meet the requirements of the latest standard specifications for portland cement as adopted by the American Society for Testing and Materials. No type of cement shall be substituted without the written approval of the Township Engineer.
Coarse aggregate. Coarse aggregate shall consist of stone and shall meet the physical requirements specified in Table A and Table B and the size and grading requirements as indicated in Table C for No. 2 or 2B coarse aggregate, as specified in the latest revision of the specifications issued by the Department of Transportation, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, also known as "Form 408," unless otherwise approved, in writing, by the Township Engineer.
Fine aggregate. Fine aggregate shall consist of natural sand or manufactured sand from the controlled mechanical breakdown of stone into sound, cubical-shaped particles or from the controlled mechanical breakdown of conglomerate sandstone to individual grain size or white, fine aggregate, consisting of calcite, white quartz or silica, free from discoloring materials. It shall be composed of hard, durable grain thoroughly cleaned by washing, free from harmful amounts of clay or silt, vegetation and other substances determined to be deleterious. When dry, all parts of fine aggregate shall pass through a three-eighths-inch sieve.
Cement concrete. Cement concrete shall comply with the following requirements:
Description. Cement concrete shall consist of portland cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and admixtures and shall conform to the materials, design and control requirements specified for Class A cement concrete as set forth in the latest revision of specifications issued by the Department of Transportation, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, known as "Form 408," unless otherwise approved, in writing, by the Township Engineer.
Proportioning. The minimum cement factor shall be 6.00 bags per cubic yard of concrete. The quantity of water used per bag of concrete shall be the minimum to obtain a satisfactory, workable concrete as determined by the Township Engineer, but shall not exceed 5.6 gallons, including the free water in the aggregates. Number 2B coarse aggregate shall be used in this concrete. The proportions of fine and coarse aggregate per bag of concrete shall comply with the requirements for Class A cement concrete specified in Section 704.1(g)-2A of the latest revision of specifications issued by the Department of Transportation, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, known as "Form 408," unless otherwise specified, in writing, by the Township Engineer.
Consistency. The mixed concrete shall be of uniform consistency. The quantity of water used shall be the minimum to obtain a satisfactory, workable concrete with the lowest allowable slump consistent with practicable workability of the concrete as determined by the Township Engineer. The allowable slump determined in accordance with PTM No. 600 shall be between one inch and three inches.
Design strength of concrete. The concrete design mix, when molded, cured and tested in accordance with the procedures employed by the Department of Transportation, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, shall meet the minimum compressive strength of 3,300 pounds per square inch in 28 days. Test cylinders and samples shall be supplied upon request of the Township Engineer.
During cold or freezing weather, calcium chloride may be added to concrete, but not in excess of two pounds per bag of cement.
If transit-mix concrete is used, the supplier shall be able to certify compliance with the above requirements at the request of the Township Engineer.
The construction or reconstruction of sidewalks shall be in accordance with these specifications and in conformity to the lines, grades and dimensions approved by the Township Engineer.
Concrete. All sidewalks shall be of one-coarse cement concrete construction of Class A cement concrete as specified in § 128-14D.
Dimensions. Concrete sidewalks shall have the dimensions as set forth on a drawing prepared by the Township Engineer showing standard dimensions. This drawing shall be available for inspection at the Tobyhanna Township Municipal Building.
Forms. Forms shall be of wood or metal, straight, free from warp and of sufficient strength when staked to resist the pressure of the concrete without springing. If of wood, they shall be nominal two-inch planks surfaced on the inside and the top; if of metal, they shall be of approved section. Forms shall have a depth equal to the depth of the concrete and shall be thoroughly cleaned and oiled before the concrete is placed against them. Forms that are worn, bent or damaged shall not be used.
Preparation of foundation.
Excavation shall be as required, and the foundation shall be formed at a depth of eight inches below and parallel with the finished surface of the sidewalk. When directed, unsuitable material shall be removed. The foundation shall be thoroughly compacted and finished to a firm, even surface and moistened if required.
Placing aggregate for bed. Aggregate shall be spread on the prepared foundation to form a thoroughly compacted bed four inches deep.
Joints. Sidewalks shall be constructed in separate slabs not exceeding 20 feet in length, except for closures. The slabs shall be separated by a vertical joint for the full width and full thickness of the slab. A one-half-inch expansion joint shall be provided between each section of sidewalk and shall be filled with approved joint filler for the full length and thickness of the section. Expansion joints shall also be placed adjacent to the existing structures when directed by the Township Engineer and shall be placed longitudinally where the sidewalk is to be constructed in contact with a curb and at such other places as may be directed by the Township Engineer.
Finish. After the concrete is poured into the forms, it shall be puddled and spaded so as to ensure a thorough mixture, eliminate air pockets and create uniform and smooth sides. After the concrete has set sufficiently, the forms shall be removed and the top side shall be finished with a wood float or brush and shall be edged at all joints with a one-fourth-inch edging tool to make a uniform finished surface. The concrete shall be cured with either an application of an approved curing compound or covered with a polyethylene sheet covering.
Backfilling. After the concrete has been cured for at least 72 hours, the spaces adjacent to the sidewalks shall be backfilled with approved materials in layers of not more than four inches in depth, which shall be thoroughly compacted mechanically to the required elevation and cross section.
The construction or reconstruction of curbs shall be in accordance with the specifications and in conformity to the lines and grades established by the Township Engineer.
Concrete. The curb shall be made of cement concrete and shall be of the proportion and mix as specified in § 128-14D of this article.
Forms. Forms for the curb shall be of metal, except that wood forms may be used on sharp curves and short tangent sections when approved, in writing, by the Township Engineer. Forms shall be straight, free from warp and of sufficient strength when staked to resist the pressure of the concrete without springing. At least three stakes shall be placed for each 10 feet of form. Metal forms shall be of approved section and shall have a flat surface on top, and wood forms, when authorized, shall be nominal two-inch surface planks. These forms shall be of a depth equal to the depth of the curb, designed to permit secure fastening of the face and back forms at the tops. These fastenings shall be constructed in a manner that will not obstruct satisfactory finishing and edging of the top of the curb but will permit removal of the inside or face forms. All forms and templates shall be thoroughly cleaned and treated with an approved material, as required, to prevent the concrete from adhering thereto. Oil, bituminous paper or other material which will adhere to or discolor the concrete shall not be used. Forms and templates which are worn, bent, warped or broken shall not be used. The forms shall be accurately set to line and grade in a manner to prevent settlement or displacement.
Excavation. Excavation shall be made to the depth as required in § 128-15D of this article, and the material upon which the curb is to be constructed shall be compacted to a firm, even surface.
Placing and finishing concrete. The concrete shall be placed in the forms, and horizontal layers are not to exceed five inches and spaded sufficiently to eliminate all voids. An approved vibrator may be used when permitted by the Township Engineer. When indicated or directed, drainage openings shall be made through the curb at the elevation of the size required. The curb shall be depressed as indicated or directed. The top surface of the curb shall be finished true to line and grade in a smooth, neat and even manner by means of wood floats, and the edges of the face and back shall be rounded to a radius of not more than 3/4 of an inch and 1/4 of an inch, respectively, while the concrete is still plastic. The finished curb shall have a surface free from voids and honeycomb. Any additional surface finishing required shall be performed immediately after extrusion.
Joints and bar dowels. The curb shall be constructed in uniform lengths or sections of 20 feet, except where shorter sections are necessary for closures or curves, but no section shall be less than four feet. Joints shall be placed between sections of the curb at intervals of not more than 20 feet. These joints shall be at least 1/4 of an inch and shall be filled with prepared strips of fiber matrix and bitumen at least 1/4 of an inch in thickness, cut to conform to the cross section of said curb. When a curved curb joins with a tangent curb, at curb returns and on sharp curbs where directed, there shall be embedded in the concrete two bar dowels No. 4 size and 24 inches in length. The bar shall be placed three inches and 12 inches, respectively, below the top of the curb and in the center of its width and shall extend 12 inches into the curb on each side of the joint. The portions of the bars extending into the tangent curb shall be rendered bondless with a coating of approved material and enclosed, in part, in an approved tube or caps which will provide a positive clearance pocket of at least 1/2 inch.
Removal of forms. When the concrete has set sufficiently, the forms shall be removed. All joints in the curb shall be opened from top to bottom immediately after the forms are removed, and the edges adjacent to the joints shall be sharp and clean-cut. After the forms are removed, minor defects shall be filled with mortar composed of one part of cement and two parts of fine aggregate.
Curing. The curb shall be cured with either an application of an approved curing compound or covered with a polyethylene sheet covering and sealed completely on both sides of the curb by weights for a period of three days.
Backfilling. After the concrete has sufficiently set, the spaces in front and back of the curb shall be backfilled with approved materials in layers of not more than six inches in depth. The material shall be thoroughly compacted in layers of not more than six inches.
Dimensions. Concrete curb and wedge curb shall have the dimensions as set forth on a drawing prepared by the Township Engineer showing standard dimensions. This drawing shall be available for inspection at the Tobyhanna Township Municipal Building.
Depressed curb. Depressed curb shall be required in all such locations and instances where the Township Engineer shall determine that its use is appropriate and warranted. Dimensions for depressed curb shall be as set forth on a drawing prepared by the Township Engineer showing standard dimensions for the same. This drawing shall be available for inspection at the Tobyhanna Township Municipal Building.
When it is necessary to replace an existing standard curb with a depressed curb at a driveway or to replace a depressed curb, the section of standard curb or depressed curb to be replaced, as the case may be, shall be removed by means of a masonry saw, resulting in a smooth, vertical cut to the entire depth of the curb. The depressed section to be installed shall be poured to the full length as required for standard curb, less the allowance for the depression, as set forth in this article. Expansion joints as specified in this article shall be placed between the new and remaining curb sections.
Any deviation from the regulations set forth in this article are subject to the written approval of the Township Engineer or the Township Supervisors.
Before constructing or reconstructing any curb or sidewalk, it shall be the duty of all owners of real estate, contractors, subcontractors, mechanics and laborers to secure the necessary permit and line and grade from the township, authorizing the requested construction or reconstruction.
It shall be the duty of every owner of real estate, previous to the construction or reconstruction of curbing or sidewalks, footways or gutters on any street or alley in the township, to make application for a permit to the township in order to fix the line and grade for the construction or reconstruction of curbing, sidewalk or gutters. Such permit, when duly issued by the township, shall be sufficient authority for such owner or his contractor, subcontractor, mechanic or laborer to commence and complete along such lot or ground as may be described in such permit and in accordance with the regulations, rules and specifications fixed and established by this article, and none other, to construct or reconstruct sidewalks or gutters for which such permit has been granted. Grade stakes and offset stakes must be approved by the Township Engineer at the time of issuance of the permit. The township will be given five days' notice prior to the date said owner wishes to commence construction so that there will be sufficient time to place the construction stakes.
The fee for such permit shall be set by resolution of the Township Supervisors, which fee schedule shall be posted for public inspection in the office of the Township Manager and shall be based on cost. When sidewalks or curbs are constructed or reconstructed simultaneously, only one permit and fee shall be required.
If any sidewalk or curb thereafter constructed or reconstructed is not constructed or reconstructed in conformity to the lines and grades established by the Township Engineer, it shall be the duty of the person laying the same, upon notice from the Township Engineer or Township Manager, so to alter and construct the same as to conform to the official lines and grades. Failure within five days after such notice to comply with said notice and the requirements of this article shall be a violation of this article, and each day's neglect and refusal to comply with the terms of said notice shall constitute a separate offense.
Any person who violates or permits a violation of this article shall, upon being found liable therefor in a civil enforcement proceeding commenced by the township before a District Justice, pay a fine of not more than $600, plus all court costs, including reasonable attorney's fees, incurred by the township in the enforcement of this article. No judgment shall be imposed until the date of the determination of the violation by the District Justice. If the defendant neither pays nor timely appeals the judgment, the township may enforce the judgment pursuant to the applicable Rules of Civil Procedure. Each day a violation exists shall constitute a separate offense. Further, the appropriate officers or agents of the township are hereby authorized to seek equitable relief, including injunction, to enforce compliance herewith.