Township of Whitehall, PA
Lehigh County
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A. 
General. The design standards and requirements outlined in this section will be utilized in determining the adequacy of all plans for proposed subdivisions and land developments.
B. 
Compliance with Laws, Ordinances and Statutes. Development shall be planned, reviewed and carried out in conformance with all Township, county, state, federal and other applicable regulations.
C. 
Conflicting Provisions. Whenever other ordinances and regulations impose more restrictive standards and requirements than those contained herein, the more restrictive standards and regulations shall apply. Whenever the standards and requirements contained herein are more restrictive than those imposed in other ordinances and regulations, the more restrictive standards and regulations herein shall apply.
A. 
Block layout.
(1) 
The length, width and shape of blocks shall be determined with due regard to:
(a) 
Provision of adequate locations for buildings of the type proposed.
(b) 
Township zoning requirements.
(c) 
Topography.
(d) 
Requirements for safe and convenient vehicular and pedestrian circulation, including the reduction of intersections with arterial streets.
(e) 
Consideration for connection of streets and emergency service access.
B. 
Block length.
(1) 
Residential blocks shall ordinarily be no less than 500 feet in length or more than 1,600 feet in length.
(2) 
In the design of blocks longer than 1,000 feet, special consideration shall be given to the requirements of satisfactory fire protection.
(3) 
Where practicable, blocks along arterial and collector streets shall not be less than 1,000 feet long.
C. 
Block depth.
(1) 
Residential blocks shall be of sufficient depth to accommodate two tiers of lots, except:
(a) 
Where reverse frontage lots are required.
(b) 
Where prevented by the size or topographical conditions of the property.
D. 
Block design exceptions. If a waiver is requested and approved by the Board of Commissioners, blocks may vary from the elements of design detailed above if required by the nature of the use. In all cases, however, adequate provisions shall be made for traffic circulation, off-street parking and loading areas and rear yard access by alleys or easements.
A. 
General standards.
(1) 
Within the requirements of Chapter 27, Zoning, the size, shape and orientation of lots shall be appropriate for the type of development and use contemplated.
(2) 
Insofar as practical, side lot lines shall be at right angles to street lines or radial to curved street lines. Any lot line along a curve which is not radial, shall be labeled "nonradial."
(3) 
Where feasible, lot lines shall follow municipal and zoning district boundary lines rather than cross them, in order to avoid jurisdictional issues.
(4) 
The depth of residential lots shall be not less than one nor more than three times their width.
(5) 
Depth and width of parcels intended for nonresidential uses shall be adequate for the use proposed and sufficient to provide satisfactory space for onsite parking, loading and unloading, setbacks, landscaping, etc.
(6) 
Remnants of land shall not be permitted and shall either be:
(a) 
Incorporated into existing or proposed lots by subdivision; or
(b) 
If acceptable to the Township, dedicated to public use.
B. 
Lot frontage.
(1) 
All lots have direct access to a continuous public street or to a private street which is built to the street standards of this chapter.
(2) 
Reverse frontage lots shall be required to provide separation of residential development from collector or arterial streets or to overcome specific disadvantages of topography or other natural features of the proposed land development. Access to lots of this nature shall be designated on the plan.
C. 
Lot access.
(1) 
Where direct access to an arterial or collector street cannot be avoided, adequate turnaround space shall be provided behind the right-of-way line.
(2) 
Driveways to a single-family residence shall intersect streets at angles of no less than 60°. All other driveways or access roads shall intersect streets at right angles, where practicable, and in no case less than 75°.
(3) 
Widths of access roads or driveways shall be in accordance to Chapter 27, Zoning.
(4) 
To provide safe and convenient ingress and egress access roads and driveway entrances:
(a) 
Interior access road intersections for multifamily residential developments, mobile home parks, and all nonresidential subdivisions shall be rounded at a minimum radius of 20 feet at edge of pavement.
(b) 
If curbed, driveway entrances for single-family residential subdivisions shall be a depressed curb.
(5) 
Interior access road grades and driveway grades shall not exceed 15% between the future street right-of-way line and any other point within the confines of the lot area being served.
(6) 
The center line of an access road or driveway, at the point of access to a street, shall not be located closer to the center line of a street intersection than the following distances (as also required in § 27-110 of Chapter 27, Zoning), unless an existing lot is entirely within the prescribed distances (in which case the driveway shall be separated from the intersection by the greatest distance possible):
(a) 
Two hundred feet if either intersecting street is an arterial street.
(b) 
One hundred feet if both streets are collector streets.
(c) 
Fifty feet if one street is a collector street.
(d) 
Thirty-five feet if both streets are local streets.
(7) 
An access road or driveway intersecting a PennDOT roadway shall only do so in accordance with PennDOT Standards.
A. 
General requirements.
(1) 
Proposed streets shall be properly related to the road and highway plans of PennDOT and the official map, as amended from time to time. Streets shall be designed to provide adequate vehicular access to all lots or parcels and with due regard for topographic conditions, projected volumes of traffic and further subdivision possibilities in the area.
(2) 
The street system of a proposed land development shall be designed to create a hierarchy of street functions with include collector and local streets.
(3) 
The street system of a proposed land development shall be designed so as to minimize street intersections and pedestrian vehicular conflict points.
(4) 
In designing local streets, the developer shall give adequate consideration to the extension and continuation of arterial, collector and local streets into and from adjoining properties.
(5) 
When providing for street access to an adjoining property, streets shall be extended by dedication to the boundary of such property. The streets shall meet the requirements of § 22-25J hereof.
(6) 
Where a land development abuts an existing road with a right-of-way and/or cartway width not meeting the requirements of § 22-25J hereof, sufficient right-of-way shall be dedicated so that the distance between the edge of the right-of-way and the road center line equals 1/2 of the ultimate required width, and/or the cartway will be widened as per the specifications of this chapter so that the distance between the edge of the cartway and road center line equals 1/2 of the required width. Where a land development abuts an existing road not meeting the requirements of § 22-25J, sufficient right-of-way to correct the alignment deficiency shall be dedicated.
(7) 
Where a land development abuts or contains an arterial road, the use of marginal access streets, reverse frontage lots, or other such treatment as will provide protection for abutting properties, reduction in the number of intersections with the arterial street, and separation of local and through traffic shall be required.
(8) 
Private streets (streets not to be offered for dedication) shall meet the street design and improvement standards set forth in this chapter. In addition, when a private street is proposed, the developer shall provide the Township with proposed deed covenants (which shall be noted on the plan and included in all deeds related thereto), in a form satisfactory to the Township, obliging the owners of all lots to be served by the street to provide, at their expense, perpetual street maintenance including, but not limited to, timely snow removal.
(9) 
If the lots in the development are large enough for resubdivision or if a portion of the tract is not subdivided, suitable access and street openings for such an eventuality shall be provided. The openings shall be at intervals consistent with the block length standards of § 22-20B.
A. 
Street right-of-way and cartway widths. Street right-of-way and cartway widths in proposed land developments shall conform to the standards set forth in Table 1.
Table 1
Type of Road: Local*
Type of Road: Collector
Type of Road: Arterial Streets and Expressways
Land Uses
All Uses
All Uses
All Uses
Right-of-Way Width
55 feet
60 feet
80 feet**
Cartway Width
36 feet+
42 feet
50 feet**
*Except for culs-de-sac which are addressed in § 22-23F.
**Greater width as per AASHTO and PennDOT design standards may be required.
+If approved by the Township Engineer, cartway width may be decreased to 32 feet.
B. 
Horizontal curves.
(1) 
Whenever street center lines are deflected more than 5°, connection shall be made by horizontal curves.
(2) 
Horizontal curves shall have the following minimum center line radii:
(a) 
Local streets: 150 feet.
(b) 
Collector streets: 300 feet.
(c) 
Arterial streets and expressways: as per then current AASHTO standards.
(3) 
A minimum tangent of 100 feet shall be required between reverse curves on all streets. A minimum tangent of 100 feet shall separate horizontal curves from intersections, as measured from the point of intersecting center lines.
C. 
Parking lot and street grades.
(1) 
There shall be a minimum center line grade on all streets of 0.75%.
(2) 
Center line grades shall not exceed the following:
(a) 
Local Streets: 10%.
(b) 
Collector Streets: 7%.
(c) 
Arterial streets and expressways: as per then current AASHTO standards.
(3) 
Slopes in parking areas shall not exceed 5%, inclusive of vehicular parking spaces, aisles and pedestrian access areas.
(4) 
Intersections shall be approached on all sides by leveling areas which shall have a minimum length of 75 feet (measured from the intersection of the center lines), within which no grade shall exceed a minimum of 3%.
(5) 
Cross-slopes for roadways shall be 2% and cross slopes for shoulders shall be 4%.
D. 
Vertical curves.
(1) 
Vertical curves shall be used in changes of grade exceeding 1%.
(2) 
Vertical curves shall be designed to produce the following minimum sight distances; as per current AASHTO Standards:
(a) 
Local streets: 200 feet.
(b) 
Collector streets: 400 feet.
(c) 
Arterial streets and expressways: as per then current AASHTO standards.
E. 
Street intersections.
(1) 
All streets shall intersect at 90°.
(2) 
Multiple intersections involving the junction of more than two streets are prohibited.
(3) 
Two streets intersecting a third street from opposite sides shall either intersect with a common center line or their center lines shall be offset according to the following standards:
(a) 
The two streets shall be separated by a distance of 150 feet between center lines measured along the center line of the street being intersected when all three streets involved are local streets.
(b) 
The two streets shall be separated by a distance of 400 feet between center lines measured along the center line of the street being intersected when one or more of the streets involved is a collector street.
(c) 
The two streets shall be separated by a distance of 800 feet between center lines measured along the center line of the street being intersected when one or more of the streets involved is an arterial street.
(4) 
Street curb intersections shall be rounded by a tangential arch with a minimum radius of:
(a) 
Local streets: 20 feet.
(b) 
Collector streets: 40 feet.
(c) 
Arterial streets and expressways: 50 feet.
(5) 
Street right-of-way lines, whenever possible, shall be parallel to (concentric with) curb arcs at intersections and shall, at intersections, be rounded by a tangential arch.
(6) 
Clear sight triangles shall be provided at all street intersections. Within such triangles, no object greater than two feet in height and no other object that would obscure the vision of the motorist shall be permitted. Such triangles shall be established as measured from road center lines a distance of:
(a) 
Seventy-five feet from the point of intersection of the center line of two streets where both are local streets.
(b) 
One hundred feet from the point of intersection of the center line of two streets where one or both is a collector street.
(c) 
One hundred fifty feet from the point of intersection of the center lines of two streets where one is an arterial street.
(7) 
Whenever a portion of the line of a clear site triangle coincides with a proposed building setback line, such portion shall be shown on the final plan of the land development and shall be considered a building setback line. Signs and landscaping which would obscure vision shall not be placed within the clear sight triangle.
F. 
Culs-de-sac, dead end streets, stub streets.
(1) 
Culs-de-sac, loop roads, and other street networks which have a single point of access to the surrounding road network shall not serve more than 25 dwelling units and shall not exceed a total length of more than 1,000 feet as measured from the center line of the intersection at the single point of access to the farthest point served.
(2) 
All cul-de-sac streets, whether permanently or temporarily designed as such, shall be provided at the closed end with a fully paved turnaround. The turnaround may be offset to the left or centered. Turnarounds offset to the right shall be prohibited.
(a) 
The minimum radius to the pavement edge or curbline shall be 50 feet and the minimum radius of the right-of-way line shall be 60 feet.
(b) 
Minimum curbline radius of a return in a cul-de-sac shall be a minimum of 50 feet. The curbline or pavement edge radius shall be a minimum of 160 feet.
(c) 
Building setback lines for lots abutting a temporary cul-de-sac shall be measured from the temporary cul-de-sac right-of-way line.
(3) 
Dead-end streets are prohibited except those meeting the standards of § 22-25J.
(4) 
Stub streets may be constructed for future access to an adjoining property or a subsequent section of the development at a suitable location as approved by Township Engineer. Stub streets shall be built to the standards of § 22-25J. The length of stub streets shall not exceed the depth of one lot. No more than one lot shall front on each side of the stub street, and such lots shall also have full frontage along another public street. Stub streets shall be designed to include a temporary turnaround which shall be constructed and maintained by the developer until the through street is constructed, at which time the temporary turnaround shall be eliminated.
G. 
General street design standards. See Detail Plates WT-R-01 and WT-R-02.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: The Detail Plates are included in Appendix C at the end of this chapter.
H. 
The Board of Commissioners desires to reduce stormwater runoff and increase infiltration where appropriate. This goal can be furthered by reducing the cartway width of proposed roads and exchanging the use of curbing and sidewalks for improved roadway shoulders and roadside swales. Areas of Whitehall Township are zoned for low-impact residential development (one-plus-acre lots) and have soil types and geology that are compatible with favorable infiltration rates. When an applicant can demonstrate the benefits of this alternate design while providing for safe roadways and effective stormwater management, the Board of Commissioners may, with the concurrence of the Township Engineer, permit the applicant to incorporate the low-impact roadway standard, per Standard Detail WT-R-01C.[2]
[Added 1-12-2015 by Ord. No. 2995]
[2]
Editor's Note: Standard Detail WT-R-01C is included as an attachment to this chapter.
A. 
Lighting and glare limitations.
(1) 
No direct glare shall be permitted beyond the property lines of a lot, with the exception that parking areas and walkways may be illuminated by luminary so hooded or shielded so that the maximum angle of the cone of direct illumination shall be 60° drawn perpendicular to the ground. Such luminary shall be placed not more than 35 feet above the ground level. The maximum illumination at ground level shall not be in excess of three footcandles.
(2) 
A luminary of less than four feet above the ground may have a cone angle of 90°.
(3) 
Indirect glare, as defined in this chapter, produced by illuminating or reflecting surface shall not exceed 0.3 footcandle instantaneous maximum measurement or 0.1 footcandle, average measurement.
(4) 
The provisions of this section shall apply to commercially used or zoned property and multi-family vertically attached structures, but shall not apply to other residential uses.
B. 
Footcandles.
(1) 
Unless stated herein or otherwise required by the Board of Commissioners, all lighting systems shall utilize high-intensity discharge sources. Average minimum maintained footcandle levels shall be no less than 1.00 footcandle and no more than 3.00 footcandles.
(2) 
Outdoor sales areas shall not be permitted to exceed 50 footcandles at any specific point on the front line display area. General parking and storage areas shall not exceed 20 footcandles at any specific point. In no case shall floodlights be utilized to illuminate front sales line or general area.
(3) 
Maximum candlepower. No lighting source, including signs, shall spill over a lot line in such a way as to cause an illumination of greater than the following amounts, measured at night on the surface of the receiving residential lot line:
(a) 
Three-tenths footcandle spillover at 10 feet inside a residential lot line between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m.
C. 
Shielding diffusing.
(1) 
All light sources, including signs, shall be properly diffused as needed with a translucent or similar cover to prevent exposed bulbs from being directly visible from streets, public sidewalks, dwellings or adjacent lots.
(2) 
All light sources, including signs, shall be shielded around the light source and to prevent the lighting from shining into the eyes of passing motorists.
D. 
Height.
(1) 
Maximum height of freestanding fixtures shall not exceed 35 feet. Fixture heights shall be measured from the bottom of the fixture to ground level.
(2) 
No luminary, spotlight or other light source that is within 200 feet of a dwelling or residential district shall be placed at a height exceeding 35 feet above the average surrounding ground level. This limitation shall not apply to lights needed for air safety nor lights intended solely to illuminate an architectural feature of a building.
E. 
General.
(1) 
Lighting shall be provided along public streets, within parking facilities and recreational facilities as required by Whitehall Township Board of Commissioners.
(2) 
All parking areas, walkways, and passageways serving commercial or residential land developments shall be illuminated to the satisfaction of the Whitehall Township Board of Commissioners and the Township Lighting Consultant.
(3) 
A lighting plan for all facilities other than streetlighting shall be prepared and provided to the Township Lighting Consultant and the Township Engineer and must include:
(a) 
Fixture cut sheets.
(b) 
Overall point by point isocandle layout.
(c) 
Individual isocandle curve.
(d) 
Individual isocandella curves.
(4) 
All streets and driveways except driveways for single-family detached dwellings, semidetached dwellings (twins) and single-family attached dwellings (townhouses) shall be illuminated adequately during the hours between sunset and sunrise when the use is in operation.
(5) 
Measurement. The maximum illumination levels of this section shall be measured with a photoelectric photometer having spectral response similar to that of the human eye. A "footcandle" is defined as a unit of measurement equaling the illumination on a surface one square foot in area where there is a distribution of light having a candlepower of one candela.
F. 
Streetlighting.
(1) 
Where required by the Board of Commissioners, streetlights and all accessory equipment shall be provided at the expense of the developer, at all intersections, ends of culs-de-sac, and between all intersections at spacing approved by the Township Lighting Consultant. As a minimum, all residential developments (or other, as required by the Board of Commissioners) shall be constructed with a minimal number of connections (to the power source), underground streetlight wiring system (wire protected by conduit) including all accessory equipment required for future installation of streetlights (and foundations) by others. Plan for residential lighting and underground wiring system (energizing plan) shall be prepared by the Township Lighting Consultant and presented to the developer upon receipt of the development's underground wiring layout when supplied by the electric service provider (i.e., PP L). Supply of this underground wiring plan to the Township Lighting Consultant is the responsibility of the developer.
(2) 
All streetlights, where required by the Board of Commissioners, shall have a high-pressure sodium vapor lighting source (pole mounted) which supplies a minimum maintained average footcandle (fc) level of 0.30 footcandle. All lighting and accessory equipment shall be standard equipment as approved by the Township Lighting Consultant or variations as approved by the Board of Commissioners.
(3) 
Streetlights shall be energized at time of fifty-percent occupancy of the development. All fees for connection and operation of such light shall be the responsibility of the developer until Whitehall Township formally accepts dedication of public improvements. Whitehall Township shall coordinate energizing of the lights in accordance with the approved energizing plan. Request for electrical connection shall only be made by Whitehall Township. Whitehall Township shall pay all associated connection and operation fees for which the developer shall reimburse the Township under rate SLS, on a monthly basis, including appropriate administration fees. This payment arrangement shall continue until such time as formal acceptance of dedication of public improvements, at which time, Whitehall Township shall assume these responsibilities. The developer shall warranty all parts and associated labor for the streetlighting system for the period of time from the date of installation until 18 months from the date of formal acceptance of public improvements by the Township.
(4) 
Upon completion of streetlight installation, the developer or his designated representative shall notify the Township Lighting Consultant and the Township Engineer, in writing, of completion of lighting facilities. Copy of the Electrical Underwriter's certificate shall also be included with this notification.
(5) 
All other proposed lighting, such as building lights, general parking areas, sidewalk/walkway/pathway illumination, driveway illumination, signs or other ornamental lighting, shall be shown in sufficient detail on the lighting plan, to allow determination of the effects on adjacent properties, traffic safety, and overhead sky glow.
A. 
General provisions.
(1) 
Cement concrete structures. All poured in place concrete structures shall be cured and protected as specified in PennDOT Pub. 408, § 1001.3.
(2) 
Construction season. General construction season: The installation of all improvements shall begin on March 15th and shall end on December 31st, of any year, except with written permission of the Township Engineer.
(3) 
Construction standards. The improvements shall be provided, constructed and installed by the developer as shown on the final plan pursuant to the construction standards as set forth herein below.
(4) 
Placement of paving mixtures. Bituminous paving mixtures shall not be placed between October 31st and April 1st, of any year, except with the written permission of the Township Engineer. Also, bituminous paving mixtures shall not be placed when prohibited by weather as specified in PennDOT Pub. 408, § 401.3.
(5) 
Quality of improvements. All improvements offered to the Township or required to be made shall be of the best quality and undamaged condition at the time of acceptance by the Township.
(6) 
Limit of open trench. Not more than 100 feet of trench shall be excavated in advance of pipe or utility installation and backfilling. All trenches shall be closed at the end of each working day or appropriate safety precautions shall be taken to guard against accidents or collapse of trench walls.
(7) 
Safety. Compliance with all state and federal and/or local regulations and rules regarding the safety of all the people and the construction site is the developer's and/or contractor's responsibility.
(8) 
Observation of work and approvals. The Township Engineer or the Township Engineer's inspectors shall have a right to make observation of the work in progress and perform or observe performance of tests as necessary to record compliance or noncompliance of construction of improvements for use in making decisions as to whether the developer is in compliance with approved land development plans, specifications and/or local ordinances.
(9) 
Observation of the construction and/or performance or observation of tests can be conducted by the Township and/or its inspectors or, (as appropriate) by the public utility authority or public utility company responsible for a particular required service utility. The Township Engineer may order tests to aid in determination of compliance of applicable construction improvement specifications. All testing shall be performed by an independent laboratory of the developers choosing; however, the appointment of said laboratory is subject to Township approval. The Township remedies for noncompliance or ordinance violations include but are not limited to:
(a) 
Nonapproval of occupancy certificates.
(b) 
Nonrelease of improvements security.
(c) 
Requesting additional improvements security.
(d) 
Nonacceptance of improvements.
(e) 
Those remedies specified in the improvements and maintenance agreements.
(10) 
Reference to other specifications. Throughout this chapter references will be made to various industry standard specifications. When such standards are referenced, such standards are to be considered as being fully incorporated and repeated into and as a part of this chapter, as amended from time to time.
(11) 
PennDOT Pub. 408. Shall mean the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Standard Specification Publication 408, as amended from time to time. This document shall be known and cited herein as "PennDOT Pub. 408."
B. 
Construction standards.
(1) 
Curbs shall be constructed pursuant to the provision of Subsection C hereof.
(2) 
Erosion and sedimentation controls shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with those Township standards set forth in Article VIII hereof.
(3) 
Fencing shall be constructed pursuant to the provisions of Subsection D hereof.
(4) 
Improvements shall be maintained pursuant to the provisions of Subsection E hereof.
(5) 
Monuments must be constructed and markers shall be placed pursuant to the provisions of Subsection F.
(6) 
Sidewalks shall be constructed pursuant to the provisions of Subsection G hereof.
(7) 
Sinkholes shall be repaired pursuant to the provisions of Subsection H.
(8) 
Sanitary sewers and all related appurtenances shall be constructed in accord with the specifications as may be adopted from time to time by the Coplay-Whitehall Sewer Authority or its successors, which are expressly incorporated herein by reference, as the same may be amended from time to time.
(9) 
Stormwater sewers shall be constructed pursuant to the provisions of Subsection I hereof.
(10) 
Streets shall be constructed pursuant to the provisions of Subsection J hereof.
(11) 
Streetlights shall be installed pursuant to the provisions of Subsection K hereof.
(12) 
Street signs shall be installed pursuant to the provisions of Subsection L hereof.
(13) 
Street trees shall be planed at such locations and in such manner consistent with the provisions of Subsection M hereof.
(14) 
Surface restoration shall be accomplished pursuant to the provisions of Subsection N.
(15) 
Water supply and distribution related improvements including fire hydrants, shall be constructed in accord with the specifications as may be adopted from time to time by the Northampton Borough Municipal Authority, the Whitehall Township Authority or their successors, which standards are expressly incorporated herein by reference, as the same may be amended from time to time.
C. 
Curbs. All upright curb and underdrains shall be constructed pursuant to Detail Plates WT-R-03 and WT-R-04[1] and the following standards:
(1) 
Curb cut sheets shall be submitted to the Township Engineer for his review a minimum of three working days prior to forming the curb. The stakeout for the curb shall have stakes at a maximum of 10 feet on all curve and 20 feet on all straight or tangent sections. Stakes shall be set at all points on curve and points on tangent of all curves and their station numbers shall be provided.
(2) 
Taper of curbs shall be as set forth on Detail Plates WT-R-03 and WT-R-04.
(3) 
Radii of corners and driveways shall be as directed by the Township Engineer.
(4) 
Depressed curb shall be provided for the full sidewalk width where sidewalks abut curbs at intersections for handicapped access (See Detail Plate WT-R-08), shall have a maximum curb reveal at the pavement of 1 1/2 inch and curb depression must be fully formed on both the front and backsides.
(5) 
Radius curb forms shall be used on all returns, culs-de-sac, and street curves with a center line radius of 500 feet or less, unless a power curb machine is used to install the curbing.
(6) 
Construction joints shall be spaced (by saw cut or tooled) at equal intervals between expansion joints, not to exceed 10 feet and shall be formed by division plates.
(7) 
Expansion joints shall be 1/2 of one inch premolded, shall be made of bituminous, expansion joint material, and shall be spaced at 30 foot intervals or less for flatwork and formed curb and at 100 foot intervals or less for machined curb.
(8) 
Underdrain, where required by the Township Engineer, shall be made of six inch perforated plastic pipe, shall have filter fabric wrapped around the aggregate backfilled on the pipe, with outlet to daylight or storm sewer structure, as directed by the Township Engineer.
(9) 
Concrete shall be provided, placed, cured and finished to PennDOT Pub. 408, §§ 704 and § 1001. Type A concrete (300 p.s.i., 28-day strength) shall be used.
(10) 
All exposed surfaces of curbs shall be finished.
[1]
Editor's Note: The Detail Plates are included at the end of this chapter.
D. 
Fencing. All fencing provided shall be installed in accordance with the following specifications, unless the approved land development plan depicts alternate method of fencing.
(1) 
Fencing. Fencing shall be four feet in height and shall be chain link.
(2) 
Chain link fabric. The fabric shall be aluminum coated chain link No. 9 gauge wire woven in a 1 1/4 inch mesh. The top and bottom selvages of the fabric shall be knuckled; the basic steel to be of medium high carbon quality. The aluminum coating shall be a minimum of 0.40 ounces per square foot of wire surface and have proper adherence to withstand wrapping coating wire on its own diameter without cracking or flaking of the coating. The fabric shall conform to A.S.T.M. designation A 491-80 in its entirety.
(3) 
Framing and hardware. All steel pipe, posts and appurtenances used in the construction of all fences and gates shall be hot dipped galvanized, with a minimum zinc coating of 2.0 ounces per square foot of surface area. Comer, line and gate posts — 2 1/2 inches outside diameter ("O.D."), 3.65 lbs/linear foot ("LNFT").
(a) 
Fence top rail: 1 5/8 inches O.D., 2.27 lbs. LNFT.
(b) 
Tension wire: (bottom selvage offence) #7 gauge aluminum coated coil spring.
(c) 
Tension bars: 3/16 inch x 3/4 inch bar.
(d) 
Gate frames: 1 5/8 inches O.D., 2.27 lbs./LNFT.
(4) 
Miscellaneous accessories. The chain link fabric shall be securely fastened to all corner and end posts with tension bars and heavy 11 gauge tension bands. There shall be one band for each foot in height of fabric. The fabric shall be fastened to all line posts with nine gauge aluminum wire ties, spacing not to exceed 14 inches apart. Fabric shall be tied to all rails with nine gauge aluminum wire ties, spacing not to exceed 24 inches. Fabric shall be attached to tension wire and aluminum hog rigs at intervals not to exceed 24 inches. Gate latches shall be steel and shall be of lockable design. Double gate latches shall be equipped with a center drop bar and positive locking device with a suitable attachment to retain both gates in parallel position while closed. Drop bar center stops shall be installed in concrete.
(5) 
Installation. The posts shall be erected online and plumb in every direction. All posts shall be capped and spaced at 10 feet centers, and shall be set in concrete. The footings are to be of Class W concrete (PennDOT Standard), with minimum 28 day strength of 3,300 p.s.i. poured in place. Footers shall be a minimum 12 inches in diameter and 30 inches deep. Chain link fabric shall be installed on the outside of the posts and shall be hung so that the bottom of the fabric is no more than two inches or no less than one inch from finished grade.
(6) 
The tension wire shall be stretched taut from end post to end post and securely fastened to each line post six inches above finished grade.
E. 
Improvements maintenance. After construction and approval of the improvements, the developer be responsible for maintenance of improvements for a period of time that is specified in the developer's agreement(s). After the expiration of the developer's responsibilities, the maintenance responsibilities for improvements shall be as follows:
(1) 
For any public utility such as water service, sanitary service, electric or gas, the maintenance by the public utility authority or public utility company shall extend to the limit of a public right-of-way line or public easement line or a shutoff valve or terminal connecting manhole or other similar private line connection point, unless otherwise regulated in the public utility owners rates, rules, and regulations, or other specific ordinances or agreements which are currently in effect or which may be approved in the future.
(2) 
For public street rights-of-way, the Township or state maintenance responsibility shall extend to the limit of the traveled cartway and shoulders. In the case of a curbed road, the Township or state maintenance responsibility shall extend to the curb face. The Township, along Township roads and the state, along state roads have a right to take on additional maintenance beyond the curb or shoulder limits as they might determine necessary to desirable, on a case by case basis.
(3) 
The curb, sidewalk, and street trees and planting screens and grass located in or along the edge of the roadway is the maintenance responsibility of the abutting private property owner, unless otherwise specifically defined by existing or future ordinances or amendments.
(4) 
Public parks or dedicated and accepted open space, recreation areas, or stormwater management areas accepted by fee simple deed of special warranty and by Township ordinance as public lands, shall be maintained by the Township.
(5) 
Storm drainage easements or rights-of-way, emergency access easements or rights-of-way, and/or pedestrian easements or rights-of-way located on a private property shall be maintained by the owner of the private property. The owner of the private property shall maintain the easement or right-of-way in grassed or improved condition in accordance with the elevations, grades and designs shown on the approved development plans. The Township shall have the right to maintain, alter or improve these easements or rights-of-way or amend the approved development plans for these areas.
F. 
Monuments. Monuments shall be constructed pursuant to Detail Plate WT-M-02.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: The Detail Plates are included at the end of this chapter.
G. 
Sidewalks. Sidewalks shall be constructed in accordance with Detail Plates WT-R-03, WT-R-04 and the following standards:
(1) 
Concrete is to be provided, placed, cured and finished to PennDOT Pub. 408 § 704 and § 1001. Type A concrete (3,300 p.s.i., 28 day strength) shall be used.
(2) 
Sidewalk thickness: five inches. At all driveways: six inches. Finish with float, broom finish for all surfaces. The concrete sidewalk shall be placed upon a four inch thick compacted stone base, six inches at all driveways, consisting of Type 2B stone.
(3) 
Drainage slope to be maintained at 1/4 of one inch per foot towards curb.
(4) 
Expansion joints shall be 1/2 of one inch premolded, shall consist of bituminous expansion material at 30 foot intervals and shall be installed next to buildings, poles, structures and curbs, around intersections of two walks, driveway aprons, curbs, and sidewalks, including radii of curbs and all cold joints.
(5) 
Construction joints shall be spaced at equal intervals between expansion joints and shall not exceed 1/4 entire depth of slab for sidewalks formed by division plates, cutting groves or tooling.
(6) 
Minimum No. 6, six-inch by six-inch mesh to be used in all nonresidential driveway apron construction.
(7) 
Sidewalks along local streets or sidewalks required outside of street right-of-way in pedestrian easements or open space and recreation areas can be constructed of ID-2 wearing course bituminous paving substituted for cement concrete, upon special approval by the Board of Commissioners. Such sidewalk shall conform to the requirements of Subsection G(3) outlined above. This sidewalk shall consist of a six-inch 2B stone base compacted and the thickness of paving shall be 2 1/2 inches. Such stone and paving shall be provided according to PennDOT specifications.
(8) 
Handicap access ramps shall be provided at all intersections and shall be constructed consistent with Detail Plate WT-R-08.[3]
[3]
Editor's Note: The Detail Plates are included at the end of this chapter.
H. 
Sinkholes. All sinkholes which exist within a site or any easement or any area being dedicated to the Township shall be repaired in accordance with the provisions of Detail Plate WT-M-01. Sinkholes may not be filled with construction waste materials or any other type of debris. Sinkholes must be repaired immediately upon discovery.
I. 
Stormwater Sewers. All storm sewer facilities, including piping, inlets, structures and other facilities shall be constructed in accordance with the following standards:
(1) 
Pipe. All storm sewer pipe shall be new reinforced concrete pipe with mortared joints meeting or exceeding ASTM C76 Class III Requirements, or "O" ring joints.
(2) 
Bedding. All storm sewer pipe shall be laid in Type 2A modified stone. See Detail Plate WT-R-05, WT-R-06 and WT-R-07.[4]
[4]
Editor's Note: The Detail Plates are included at the end of this chapter.
(3) 
Endwalls, end sections, inlets and manholes. All storm sewer structures and appurtenances shall be precast or build in place in accordance with § 605 of PennDOT Pub. 408 and PennDOT's Standards for Roadway Construction."
(a) 
Endwalls: see Detail Plates WT-D-10 and WT-D-11.
(b) 
End sections: see Detail Plates WT-D-09.
(c) 
Inlets: see Detail Plates WT-D-01 to WT-D-05, inclusive.
(d) 
Manholes: see Detail Plates WT-D-06 to WT-D-08, inclusive.
(4) 
All flow channels must be installed in all concrete structures during construction of the storm sewer system.
(5) 
Special structures such as culverts, inlet boxes, junction boxes, or detention basin outlet structures shall be detailed completely on approved land development plans and shall be constructed in accordance with those plans.
(6) 
All pipe endwalls, wingwalls, and end sections, and all detention basin outlet structures shall be protected from frost related movement and scour activity by the construction of a concrete footer where appropriate.
(7) 
All grade adjustments or structures shall be done with precast adjustment rings and mortar, no brick shall be used.
J. 
Streets. All streets and roads shall be constructed and built in accordance with the following standards:
(1) 
Subgrade. Developers shall comply with those specifications set forth in PennDOT Pub. 408, § 210. Subgrade density will be checked for conformance to § 210(3) prior to the installation of the required subbase. Cross-slope shall be 2%.
(2) 
Subbase. Developers shall comply with those specifications set forth in PennDOT Pub. 408, § 350.
(a) 
A six inch subbase shall be installed on a properly graded and prepared subgrade The subbase shall consist of a four inch course of 3A stone, rolled and compacted, followed by a two inch layer of 2B modified stone, rolled and compacted, to achieve final shape of subbase.
(b) 
Where subgrade conditions dictate, the use of underdrain may be required when specified by the Township Engineer. Where required, the underdrain shall be constructed in accordance with of PennDOT Pub. 408, § 610.
(3) 
Base course. Developers shall comply with those specifications set forth in PennDOT Pub. 408, § 305. Base course shall consist of three inches compacted depth bituminous concrete base course (B.C.B.C.) constructed in accordance with § 305.
(4) 
Surface course. Developers shall comply with those specifications set forth in PennDOT Pub. 408, § 305. The surface or wearing course shall consist of 1 1/2 inches compacted depth ID-2 wearing course constructed in accordance with § 305.
(a) 
The surface course shall not be placed until the base course has weathered at least one year. This practice will allow for imperfections to appear, and be repaired, prior to the placement of the surface course.
(b) 
Any distressed or failing areas of the base course must be repaired prior to the placement of the surface course. The Township Engineer shall field mark such areas and witness the repairs. In certain areas, a leveling course may be required.
(c) 
Prior to the placement of the surface course, the base course must be cleaned and swept, free of all loose particles, and coated with a bituminous tack coat as per PennDOT Pub. 408, § 460.
(d) 
If the surface course is not placed within 18 months of the completed base course, the Township Engineer may, from time to time, require an application of bituminous tack coat to recondition the base course until the placement of the surface course occurs.
(e) 
The area around inlets, manholes and valve boxes shall be milled to a minimum depth of 1 1/2 inches extending two feet from inlets and manholes, and one foot from valve boxes, prior to the placement of the wearing course.
(f) 
All structures within the cartway must be ramped-up with bituminous material immediately following the placement of the base course. Cold Patch may be used for ramps. Ramps shall extend two feet from manholes and inlets, and one foot from valve boxes.
(5) 
Inlet top placement. All inlet tops used in the Township right-of-way shall be PennDOT Type 'C', Type 'M' or Type 'S.' The inlet shall be set at an interim elevation as per § 706.71 prior to placement of base course. Inlets shall be set at final elevation prior to placement of surface course. (See Detail Plate WT-D-02[5]). All adjustments to inlet tops shall be made with concrete adjustment rings and mortar. Brick shall not be used. Adjustment rings and mortar shall not exceed eight inches in height, or a precast riser section must be used. Weep holes in inlets shall be formed at appropriate elevations to drain the subgrade.
[5]
Editor's Note: The Detail Plates are included at the end of this chapter.
(6) 
Repairs. Repairs to the streets shall be accomplished with the same material as listed above. The area to be repaired shall be cut along neat perimeter lines outside of the damaged area. Pneumatic chisels and spades may be used to cut base course prior to placement of surface course. Only saw cuts are permitted in surface course. Joints in the surface course shall be sealed with hot bituminous material known as "AC-20." The seal is to be 12 inches wide and coated with sand to absorb excess material.
(7) 
Performance specifications. Developers shall comply with those specifications set forth in PennDOT Pub. 408.
(8) 
Right-of-way section. Shoulders to drain towards curb. Edge of right-of-way to be not less than four inches nor more than six inches above the top of curb. Top of curb elevation difference to be not more than one inch in any section. Reveal of curb to be seven inches with tolerance of minus 1/2 of one inch to plus one inch permitted with uniform transitions.
(9) 
Cartway crown. Typical crown elevation to be 4 1/2 inches above edge of pavement from local streets and 5 1/4 inches above edge of pavement for collector streets.
(10) 
As-built surveys records. As-built surveys signed by a registered engineer or surveyor shall be furnished to the Township Engineer certifying that all construction conforms to Township standards. Such data shall include profile grades for right-of-way lines, top of curbs or shoulder edges, gutter lines and center line of cartway with control stations at 50 foot intervals or less, storm sewer inlets, manholes, etc. Once approved, the developer shall furnish a set of reproducible mylar drawings to the Township Engineer.
(11) 
Street construction on fill. Any embankment material shall be placed in accordance with the requirements of PennDOT Pub. 408, § 206.
(12) 
Utility trench backfill. Within all streets rights-of-way, backfilling shall be done in accordance with the requirements of PennDOT Pub. 408, § 601.3(e).
(13) 
Fully paved shoulders. Shoulder paving thickness should be designed to meet load and soil characteristics and/or PennDOT requirements for fully paved shoulders with a full depth bituminous concrete base course.
(14) 
Street and stop signs. Street signs and stop signs shall be provided and installed in accordance with Township specifications and shall be installed at the locations shown of the approved final plans within five days of the installation of street base paving.
(15) 
Sealer. The wearing course adjacent to curbs shall be sealed with hot bituminous material of the class and type designated for the wearing curse, extending to six inches form the curb and apply evenly. Class E-1, E-6, or E-8 emulsified asphalt will be permitted in place of the hot bituminous material. Material shall be applied as specified in PennDOT Pub. 408 § 401.3(e).
(16) 
Cross section. See Detail Plates WT-R-01 and WT-R-02.[6]
[6]
Editor's Note: The Detail Plates are included at the end of this chapter.
K. 
Streetlights. Streetlight style and locations shall be subject to Township approval.
L. 
Street signs. Street signs shall be as per Detail Plate WT-R-09.
M. 
Street trees. Street trees and shrubs proposed to be situated in any public right-of-way shall be selected, located and planted pursuant to the following standards:
(1) 
Only those trees and shrubs listed in Appendix B[7] shall be selected by the developer to be used as street trees. The Board of Commissioners may, upon recommendation from the Township Shade Tree Commission, approve species of trees other than those listed herein if the developer proves to the satisfaction of the Board of Commissioners that the trees would be sturdy, suitable and resistant to blight and disease.
[7]
Editor's Note: Appendix B is included at the end of this chapter.
(2) 
All street trees shall be long stemmed, headed with limbs at least seven feet above the ground and with clearance provided on both the street and sidewalk sides.
(3) 
Street tree locations are depicted on the sidewalk standard typical cross-section Detail Plates WT-R-01 and WT-R-02.
(4) 
No tree shall be planted within 50 feet of the intersection of any street or road cartway.
(5) 
Street trees shall be planted and staked pursuant to the provisions of Detail Plate WT-L-01.
(6) 
Shrubs located in any public right-of-way shall be planted pursuant to the provision of Detail Plate WT-L-02.
(7) 
Street trees or shrubs shall only be bagged and balled nursery quality stock, shall be properly watered upon placement, nutrients and mulch shall be added as necessary or as directed by the Township Engineer and all stems shall be wrapped.
N. 
Surface restoration.
(1) 
All surface areas being dedicated to the Township shall be restored with topsoil and grass.
(2) 
PennDOT Pub. 408 specifications shall be followed for topsoil installation; seed bed or sod bed preparation, fertilization, seeding or sodding and mulching.
(3) 
Subsoil grading shall be done to a smooth and uniform condition, without sharp breaks and with five to one slopes or flatter, unless otherwise approved on the development plans.
(4) 
Topsoil shall be at least six inches thick.
(5) 
Type "D" seed shall be used in drainage ways and Type "B" seed shall be used in other areas.
(6) 
Sod may be used as desired or as needed to stabilize erosion prone areas.
(7) 
The Township shall not accept dedication of any surface area referenced herein unless the grass or approved ground cover has satisfactorily grown and stabilized the soils.
[Amended 6-8-2009 by Ord. No. 2774]
A. 
This section describes the general requirements pertaining to the work of furnishing and installation of an operational traffic signal or signal system. The work will include the controller assembly, traffic signal supports, traffic signal heads, electrical distribution, detectors, communications, systems, testing, and start-up of the system. All work shall be in accordance with the requirements of this specification and PennDOT in accordance with the signal permit.
B. 
Materials. Traffic signal shop drawings for materials, wiring diagrams, and shop tests results, shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval. Also to be submitted to the Engineer are all material certifications and warranties for equipment utilized on the traffic signal system. These submissions shall comply with PennDOT Publication 408 and Traffic Standards - Signals TC-7800 (current issue).
(1) 
Traffic signal, general, shall comply with the requirements of PennDOT Publication 408.
(2) 
Traffic signal supports shall comply with PennDOT Publication 408. The traffic signal pole bases shall have wire mesh with stainless steel banding for rodent protection The minimum clearance from the face of vertical curb to the face of pole shall be two feet to five feet.
(3) 
The controller assembly shall comply with the requirements of PennDOT Publication 408. The controller assembly shall provide for the signal phases and timing as indicated on the contract drawings and PennDOT permit.
(a) 
The traffic signal controller shall be a Multi Sonics 820A traffic responsive secondary controller unless a different controller manufacturer is required to be a part of the signal system.
(b) 
The controller and back panel shall be capable of volume density operation, traffic signal preemption, two- to eight-phase signal operation, plus pedestrian operation.
(c) 
The traffic signal controller cabinet shall also contain an emergency generator hookup (see detail) and battery backup.
(d) 
The traffic signal controller cabinet shall be equipped with a hand-held police control device.
(e) 
The traffic signal controller cabinet shall comply with PennDOT publication 408.
(f) 
The traffic signal controller cabinet shall meet TS-1 specifications with a Type 1 pad mounting as shown on Detail Plate WT-M-03.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: The Standard Detail Plates are included in Appendix C at the end of this chapter.
(4) 
Traffic signal systems and equipment shall comply with PennDOT Publication 408.
(5) 
Electrical distribution system and components shall comply with the requirements of PennDOT Publication 408. 7/C wiring shall be provided for future left turn signalization.
(6) 
Signal heads shall comply with PennDOT Publication 408.
(a) 
The signal heads shall be equipped with red, yellow and green LEDs. Pedestrian signal heads shall be equipped with Portland orange and Lunar white LED man-hand indications.
(b) 
The signal heads shall be equipped with backplates in accordance with the signal permit. Signal indications shall be in accordance wit the traffic signal permit.
(7) 
Traffic detectors shall comply with the requirements of PennDOT Publication 408.
(8) 
Traffic signal communications shall comply with the requirements of PennDOT Publication 408.
(9) 
Traffic signal preemption.
(a) 
The traffic signal shall be equipped with preemption equipment in order to function in accordance with the traffic signal permit as directed by the Township Board of Commissioners.
(b) 
The traffic signal preemption equipment shall conform to the 3M Opticon Preemption system specifications, current edition, or PennDOT approved equivalent.
(c) 
The phase selector shall be 3M Opticon Model 754 and be capable of recording the date, time and vehicle code for the activating vehicle or PennDOT approved equivalent.
(d) 
The detector shall be 3M Opticon Model 711, one direction, single channel model or PennDOT approved equivalent.
(e) 
The detector cable shall be 3M Opticon Model 138 Cable or PennDOT approved equivalent.
(f) 
The card rack shall be 3M Opticon Model 760 or PennDOT approved equivalent.
(g) 
Confirmation lights shall be installed on each mast arm for each direction of preemption.
(10) 
Fiber optic line. If the signals are being interconnected with a fiber optic line, the interconnection shall be made using a six-strand multimode fiber optic cable meeting the requirements of PennDOT Publication 408. The system shall also include a phone drop.
(11) 
Construction.
(a) 
The traffic signal shall comply with the requirements of PennDOT Publication 408.
(b) 
Traffic signal supports shall be constructed in accordance with PennDOT Publication 408 and at the locations indicated on the contract drawings. Current and future handicap ramps shall be shown on the plan. The location of supports shall be outside of the handicap ramp area.
(c) 
Controller assembly shall be constructed in accordance with PennDOT Publication 408 and in accordance with the conditions of the contract drawings and traffic signal permit.
(d) 
Traffic signal systems and equipment shall comply with the requirements of PennDOT Publication 408.
(e) 
Electrical distribution system and components shall be constructed in accordance with PennDOT Publication 408 and in accordance with the conditions of the contract drawings. A spare three-inch conduit may be required to be installed in the trench across the major street for future wiring modifications or additions.
(f) 
Signal heads shall be constructed in accordance with PennDOT Publication 408 and at the locations indicated on the contract drawings.
(g) 
Traffic detectors shall be constructed in accordance with PennDOT Publication 408 and the locations as indicated on the contract drawings.
(h) 
Traffic signal communications shall comply with the requirements of PennDOT Publication 408.
(12) 
Programming, testing coordination and start-up. After the traffic signal is completed and ready for operation, the developer shall coordinate, schedule and attend a system test, start-up and thirty-day test period. The traffic signal shall operate in strict accordance with the approved signal permit. The system test, advance flashing period, and date of operation shall be monitored and approved by the Township, the Township Engineer and PennDOT and shall be in accordance with PennDOT Publication 408. The maintenance period for the traffic signal installation, associated equipment, signing and pavement markings shall be in accordance with the developer's subdivision improvements agreements.
(13) 
Miscellaneous.
(a) 
Signposts for all street signs, regulatory signs and warning signs shall be galvanized square posts (breakaway design) in accordance with the latest PennDOT standards.
(b) 
Pavement markings and legends including the following: twenty-four-inch stop bars (white), twenty-four-inch transverse median and/or gore markings (white or yellow), six-inch crosswalks (white), arrow legends (white) and ONLY legends (white) shall be installed using hot thermoplastic material and/or heat tape material in accordance with the latest PennDOT standards. Existing material shall be eradicated prior to placement of new markings, if required.
(c) 
Removal of traffic signal poles, mast arms, junction boxes, conduits and traffic signal foundations to a depth of two feet below subgrade. Existing traffic signal poles, mast arms, and controller cabinets must be returned to the Township.
(d) 
Other traffic control devices shall be per the current PennDOT MUTCD publication.
[Added 6-8-2009 by Ord. No. 2774]
A. 
Only local streets may be considered for private streets.
B. 
Private street cartway widths. Private street cartway widths in proposed land developments shall conform to the standards set forth in Table 2.
Table 2
Cartway Widths
Single-Family Residential
(feet)
Multifamily Residential
(feet)
Commercial/Industrial
(feet)
30
36
361
NOTES:
1No on-street parking
C. 
Horizontal curves.
(1) 
Whenever street center lines are deflected more than 5º, connection shall be made by horizontal curves.
(2) 
Horizontal curves shall have the following minimum center-line radii:
(a) 
Local streets: 150 feet.
(3) 
A minimum tangent of 100 feet shall be required between reverse curves on all streets. A minimum tangent of 100 feet shall separate horizontal curves from intersections, as measured from the point of intersecting center lines.
D. 
Street grades.
(1) 
There shall be a minimum center-line grade on all streets of 0.75 of 1%.
(2) 
Center-line grades shall not exceed 10%.
(3) 
Intersections shall be approached on all sides by leveling areas which shall have a minimum length of 75 feet, measured from the intersection of the center lines, within which no grade shall exceed a maximum of 6%.
E. 
Vertical curves.
(1) 
Vertical curves shall be designed in changes of grade exceeding 1%.
(2) 
Vertical curves shall be designed to produce a minimum sight distance of 200 feet for a local street, as per AASHTO standards.
F. 
Street intersections.
(1) 
All streets shall intersect at 90°.
(2) 
Multiple intersections involving the junction of more than two streets are prohibited.
(3) 
Two streets, either public or private, intersecting a third street from opposite sides shall either intersect with a common center line, or their center lines shall be offset according to the following standards:
(a) 
The two private streets shall be separated by a distance of 100 feet between centerlines measured along the center line of the street being intersected when all three streets are local streets.
(b) 
The two private streets shall be separated by a distance of 400 feet between center lines measured along the center line of the street being intersected when one or more of the streets involved is a public collector street.
(4) 
Sheet curb intersections shall be rounded by a tangential arch with a minimum radius of:
(a) 
Private local streets: 20 feet.
(b) 
Private/public collector streets: 40 feet.
(5) 
Sight distance at any intersection shall be calculated using PennDOT Formula Sight Distance Measurements, from M-950S, as last revised.
G. 
Culs-de-sacs, dead-end streets, stub streets.
(1) 
Culs-de-sacs, loop roads, and other street networks, public or private, which have a single point of access to the surrounding road network shall not serve more than 25 dwelling units, and shall not otherwise exceed a total length of 1,000 feet, as measured from the center line of the intersection at the single point of access to the farthest point served.
(2) 
All cul-de-sac streets, whether permanently or temporarily designed as such, shall be provided at the closed end with a fully paved turnaround. The turnaround may be offset to the left or centered. Turnarounds offset to the right shall be prohibited.
(a) 
The minimum radius at the curbline shall be 40 feet.
(b) 
The minimum curbline radius of a return in a cul-de-sac shall be 40 feet.
(3) 
All streets must be constructed to the standards of § 22-25, Construction standards.
(4) 
Stub streets may be constructed for future access to an adjoining property or a subsequent section of the development at a suitable location as approved by the Township Engineer. Stub streets shall be built to the standards of § 22-25. The length of the stub street shall not exceed the depth of one building lot, or serve more than one building lot on either side of the stub street. Stub streets shall provide a temporary turnaround which shall be constructed and maintained by the developer until the through street is constructed, at which time the temporary turnaround shall be eliminated.
H. 
General private street design standards. See Detail Plate WT-R-01P.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Detail Plates are included in Appendix C at the end of this chapter.