City of Burlington, NJ
Burlington County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted by the Common Council of the City of Burlington by Ord. No. 8-1997 (Ch. 15.16 of the 1996 Municipal Code); amended in its entirety 9-19-2017 by Ord. No. 11-2017. Subsequent amendments noted where applicable.]
GENERAL REFERENCES
Dangerous buildings — See Ch. 108.
Uniform Construction Codes — See Ch. 125.
Fee Schedule — See Ch. 146.
Housing standards — See Ch. 195.
Land development — See Ch. 207.
Nuisances — See Ch. 239.
Property maintenance — See Ch. 265.
A. 
Statutory authorization. The Legislature of the State of New Jersey has in N.J.S.A. 40:48-1, et seq., delegated the responsibility to local governmental units to adopt regulations designed to promote public health, safety, and general welfare of its citizenry. Therefore, the Common Council of the City of Burlington, Burlington County, New Jersey does ordain as follows.
B. 
Findings of fact.
(1) 
The flood hazard areas of the City of Burlington are subject to periodic inundation which results in loss of life and property, health and safety hazards, disruption of commerce and governmental services, extraordinary public expenditures for flood protection and relief, and impairment of the tax base, all of which adversely affect the public health, safety, and general welfare.
(2) 
These flood losses are caused by the cumulative effect of obstructions in areas of special flood hazard which increase flood heights and velocities, and when inadequately anchored, causes damage in other areas. Uses that are inadequately floodproofed, elevated or otherwise protected from flood damage also contribute to the flood loss.
C. 
Statement of purpose. It is the purpose of this chapter to promote the public health, safety, and general welfare, and to minimize public and private losses due to flood conditions in specific areas by provisions designed to:
(1) 
Protect human life and health;
(2) 
Minimize expenditure of public money for costly flood control projects;
(3) 
Minimize the need for rescue and relief efforts associated with flooding and generally undertaken at the expense of the general public;
(4) 
Minimize prolonged business interruptions;
(5) 
Minimize damage to public facilities and utilities such as water and gas mains, electric, telephone and sewer lines, streets, bridges located in areas of special flood hazard;
(6) 
Help maintain a stable tax base by providing for the sound use and development of areas of special flood hazard so as to minimize future flood blight areas;
(7) 
Ensure that potential buyers are notified that property is in an area of special flood hazard; and
(8) 
Ensure that those who occupy the areas of special flood hazard assume responsibility for their actions.
D. 
Methods of reducing flood losses. In order to accomplish its purposes, this chapter includes methods and provisions for:
(1) 
Restricting or prohibiting uses which are dangerous to health, safety, and property due to water or erosion hazards, or which result in damaging increases in erosion or in flood heights or velocities;
(2) 
Requiring that uses vulnerable to floods, including facilities which serve such uses, be protected against flood damage at the time of initial construction;
(3) 
Controlling the alteration of natural floodplains, stream channels, and natural protective barriers, which help accommodate or channel floodwaters;
(4) 
Controlling filling, grading, dredging, and other development which may increase flood damage; and
(5) 
Preventing or regulating the construction of flood barriers which will unnaturally divert floodwaters or which may increase flood hazards in other areas.
Unless specifically defined below, words or phrases used in this chapter shall be interpreted so as to give them the meaning they have in common usage and to give this chapter its most reasonable application.
AO ZONE
Areas subject to inundation by one-percent-annual-chance shallow flooding (usually sheet flow on sloping terrain) where average depths are between one and three feet.
AH ZONE
Areas subject to inundation by one-percent-annual-chance shallow flooding (usually areas of ponding) where average depths are between one and three feet. Base flood elevations (BFEs) derived from detailed hydraulic analyses are shown in this Zone.
APPEAL
A request for a review of the local administrator's interpretation of any provision of this chapter or a request for a variance.
AREA OF SHALLOW FLOODING
A designated AO or AH Zone on a community's Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) with a one-percent annual or greater chance of flooding to an average depth of one to three feet where a clearly defined channel does not exist, where the path of flooding is unpredictable and where velocity flow may be evident. Such flooding is characterized by ponding or sheet flow.
AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD
Land in the floodplain within a community subject to a one-percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year. It is shown on the FIRM as Zones V, VE, V1-30, A, AO, A1-A30, AE, A99, or AH.
BASE FLOOD
A flood having a one-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
BASE FLOOD ELEVATION (BFE)
The flood elevation shown on a published Flood Insurance Study (FIS) including the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). For Zones AE, AH, AO, and A1-30, the elevation represents the water surface elevation resulting from a flood that has a one-percent or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
BASEMENT
Any area of the building having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides.
BREAKAWAY WALL
A wall that is not part of the structural support of the building and is intended through its design and construction to collapse under specific lateral loading forces without causing damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system.
DEVELOPMENT
Any man-made change to improved or unimproved real estate, including but not limited to buildings or other structures, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations, or storage of equipment or materials located within the area of special flood hazard.
DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (DFIRM)
The official map on which the Federal Insurance Administration has delineated both the areas of special flood hazards and the risk premium zones applicable to the community.
A. 
A nonbasement building:
(1) 
Built, in the case of a building in an area of special flood hazard, to have the top of the elevated floor elevated above the base flood elevation plus freeboard by means of piling, columns (posts and piers), or shear walls parallel to the flow of the water; and
(2) 
Adequately anchored so as not to impair the structural integrity of the building during a flood up to the magnitude of the base flood.
B. 
In an area of special flood hazard, "elevated building" also includes a building elevated by means of fill or solid foundation perimeter walls with openings sufficient to facilitate the unimpeded movement of floodwaters.
C. 
In areas of coastal high hazard, "elevated building" also includes a building otherwise meeting the definition of "elevated building" even though the lower area is enclosed by means of breakaway walls.
EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed before the effective date of the floodplain management regulations adopted by a community.
FLOOD or FLOODING
A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from:
A. 
The overflow of inland or tidal waters; and/or
B. 
The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source.
FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM)
The official map on which the Federal Insurance Administration has delineated both the areas of special flood hazards and the risk premium zones applicable to the community.
FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY (FIS)
The official report in which the Federal Insurance Administration has provided flood profiles, as well as the Flood Insurance Rate Map(s) and the water surface elevation of the base flood.
FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS
Zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations, special purpose ordinances (such as a floodplain ordinance, grading ordinance and erosion control ordinance) and other applications of police power. The term describes such state or local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction.
FLOODPROOFING
Any combination of structural and nonstructural additions, changes, or adjustments to structures which reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitary facilities, structures and their contents.
FLOODWAY
The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without accumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than 0.2 foot.
FREEBOARD
A factor of safety usually expressed in feet above a flood level for purposes of floodplain management. "Freeboard" tends to compensate for the many unknown factors that could contribute to flood heights greater than the height calculated for a selected size flood and floodway conditions, such as wave action, bridge openings, and the hydrological effect of urbanization of the watershed.
HIGHEST ADJACENT GRADE
The highest natural elevation of the ground surface prior to construction next to the proposed or existing walls of a structure.
HISTORIC STRUCTURE
Any structure that is:
A. 
Listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places (a listing maintained by the Department of Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;
B. 
Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary to qualify as a registered historic district;
C. 
Individually listed on a state inventory of historic places in states with historic preservation programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or
D. 
Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either:
(1) 
By an approved state program as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or
(2) 
Directly by the Secretary of the Interior, in states without approved programs.
LOWEST FLOOR
The lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area (including basement). An unfinished or flood-resistant enclosure, usable solely for the parking of vehicles, building access or storage in an area other than a basement is not considered a building's lowest floor, provided that such enclosure is not built so to render the structure in violation of other applicable nonelevation design requirements of 44 CFR 60.3.
MANUFACTURED HOME
A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent foundation when attached to the required utilities. The term "manufactured home" does not include a "recreational vehicle."
MANUFACTURED HOME PARK or MANUFACTURED HOME SUBDIVISION
A parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale.
NEW CONSTRUCTION
Structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of a floodplain regulation adopted by a community and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures.
NEW MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed on or after the effective date of the floodplain management regulations adopted by the municipality.
RECREATIONAL VEHICLE
A vehicle which is built on a single chassis; 400 square feet or less when measured at the longest horizontal projections; designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable by a light duty truck; and designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel, or seasonal use.
SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA
The land in the floodplain within a community subject to a one-percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year. Areas designated as special flood hazard areas are identified on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) as Zones AE, AH, AO, A1-30, and V.
START OF CONSTRUCTION
For other than new construction or substantial improvements under the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (P.L. No. 97-348), includes substantial improvements and means the date the building permit was issued, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, placement, or other improvement was within 180 days of the permit date. The "actual start" means either the first placement of permanent construction of a structure on a site such as the pouring of a slab or footings, the installation of pilings, the construction of columns, or any work beyond the stage of excavation, or the placement of a manufactured home on a foundation.
A. 
"Permanent construction" does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading and filling, nor does it include the installation of streets and/or walkways, nor does it include excavation for a basement, footings or piers, or foundations or the erection of temporary forms, nor does it include the installation on the property of accessory buildings, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure.
B. 
For a substantial improvement, the "actual start of construction" means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building. For a structure, other than a manufactured home, without a basement or poured footings, the start of construction shall include the first permanent framing or assembly of the structure or any part thereof on its piling or foundation. For manufactured homes not within a manufactured home park or manufactured home subdivision, the start of construction shall mean the affixing of the manufactured home to its permanent site. For manufactured homes within manufactured home parks or manufactured home subdivisions, the start of construction shall be the date on which the construction of facilities for servicing the site on which the manufactured home is to be affixed, including, at a minimum, the construction of streets, either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads, and the installation of utilities, shall be completed.
STRUCTURE
A walled and roofed building, a manufactured home, or a gas or liquid storage tank that is principally above ground.
SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE
Damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its condition before damage would equal or exceed 50% of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT
Any reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, or other improvement of a structure during a ten-year period, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50% of the market value of the structure before the "start of construction" of the improvement. Substantial improvement also means "cumulative substantial improvement." This term includes structures which have incurred "substantial damage," regardless of the actual repair work performed or "repetitive loss." The term does not, however, include either:
A. 
Any project for improvement of a structure to correct existing violations of state or local health, sanitary or safety code specifications which have been identified by the local code enforcement officer and which are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions; or
B. 
Any alteration of an "historic structure," provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as an "historic structure."
VARIANCE
A grant of relief from the requirements of this chapter that permits construction in a manner that would otherwise be prohibited by this chapter.
VIOLATION
The failure of a structure or other development to be fully compliant with this chapter. A new or substantially improved structure or other development without the elevation certificate, other certifications, or other evidence of compliance required in 44 CFR 60.3(b)(5), (c)(4), (c)(10), (e)(2), (e)(4), or (e)(5) is presumed to be in violation until such time as that documentation is provided.
A. 
Lands to which this chapter applies. This chapter shall apply to all areas of special flood hazards within the jurisdiction of the City of Burlington, Burlington County, New Jersey.
B. 
Basis for establishing the areas of special flood hazard.
(1) 
The areas of special flood hazard for the City of Burlington, Community No. 345287, are identified and defined on the following documents prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency:
(a) 
A scientific and engineering report, "Flood Insurance Study, Burlington County, New Jersey (All Jurisdictions)," dated December 21, 2017.
(b) 
"Flood Insurance Rate Map for Burlington County, New Jersey (All Jurisdictions)" as shown on index and panel(s) 34005C0109F, 34005C0126F, 34005C0127F, 34005C0128F, 34005C0129F, whose effective date is December 21, 2017.
(2) 
The above documents are hereby adopted and declared to be a part of this chapter. The Flood Insurance Study and maps are on file at City Hall, 525 High Street, Burlington City, New Jersey.
C. 
Penalties for noncompliance. No structure or land shall hereafter be constructed, relocated to, extended, converted, or altered without full compliance with the terms of this chapter and other applicable regulations. Violation of the provisions of this chapter by failure to comply with any of its requirements (including violations of conditions and safeguards established in connection with conditions) shall constitute a misdemeanor. Any person who violates this chapter or fails to comply with any of its requirements shall be liable to a fine as set forth in Chapter 1, Article III, General Penalty; Violations Bureau Schedule of Penalties. Nothing herein contained shall prevent the City of Burlington from taking such other lawful action as is necessary to prevent or remedy any violation.
D. 
Abrogation and greater restrictions. This chapter is not intended to repeal, abrogate, or impair any existing easements, covenants, or deed restrictions. However, where this chapter and other ordinance, easement, covenant, or deed restriction conflict or overlap, whichever imposes the more stringent restrictions shall prevail.
E. 
Interpretation.
(1) 
In the interpretation and application of this chapter, all provisions shall be:
(a) 
Considered as minimum requirements;
(b) 
Liberally construed in favor of the governing body; and
(c) 
Deemed neither to limit nor repeal any other powers granted under state statutes.
(2) 
When the federal insurance administrator has designated an area with the floodplain as having special flood hazards, the code of the City concerning land use control designed to reduce flood loss shall take precedence over any conflicting ordinances or codes of the City.
F. 
Warning and disclaimer of liability.
(1) 
The degree of flood protection required by this chapter is considered reasonable for regulatory purposes and is based on scientific and engineering considerations. Larger floods can and will occur on rare occasions. Flood heights may be increased by manmade or natural causes. This chapter does not imply that land outside the area of special flood hazards or uses permitted within such areas will be free from flooding or flood damages.
(2) 
This chpater shall not create liability on the part of the City of Burlington, any officer or employee thereof or the Federal Insurance Administration for any flood damages that result from reliance on this chapter or any administrative decision lawfully made thereunder.
A. 
Establishment of development permit.
(1) 
A development permit shall be obtained before construction or development begins, including placement of manufactured homes, within any area of special flood hazard established in § 170-3B. Application for a development permit shall be made on forms furnished by the local adminstrator and may include, but not be limited to: plans in duplicate drawn to scale showing the nature, location, dimensions, and elevations of the area in question; existing or proposed structures, fill, storage of materials, drainage facilities; and the location of the foregoing. Specifically, the following information is required:
(a) 
Elevation in relation to mean sea level, of the lowest floor (including basement) of all structures;
(b) 
Elevation in relation to mean sea level to which any structure has been floodproofed;
(c) 
Certification by a registered professional engineer or architect that the floodproofing methods for any nonresidential structure meet the floodproofing criteria in § 170-5B(2); and
(d) 
Description of the extent to which any watercourse will be altered or relocated as a result of proposed development.
(2) 
Special use permit required in certain Zones. No new development shall be permitted within the special flood hazard areas with zone designations A, A1 through A30, AO and V, as set forth on the City Flood Insurance Rate Map, except with a special use permit, granted by the Building Inspector with the approval of the City Engineer.
(3) 
Special use permit application procedure. Any person desiring to erect, construct, enlarge, add to, alter, repair, improve, move, remove, substantially repair or demolish any building, structure or major addition to any building, install any prefabricated or manufactured home, subdivisions, utility system, water supply system or sewer system shall make written application to the Building Inspector and shall furnish all data, work plans, engineering specifications or other information reasonably required to enable the Inspector to evaluate the proposal. The Building Inspector, with the assistance of the City Engineer, shall, within 15 days thereafter, make a determination whether or not the proposal conforms to this chapter and whether or not a special permit shall be issued. If (s)he approves the proposal, (s)he shall issue a written special use permit to the applicant. The permit shall contain a description in general terms of the facility to be constructed and its general location. If the Building Inspector disapproves the proposal, (s)he shall notify the applicant in writing of the rejection and shall generally state the reasons for rejection within 15 days of receipt of said proposal. In the event of such a denial, the applicant shall have the right to appeal the Building Inspector's decision to the Common Council if the applicant believes that an error has been made in the interpretation of any topographic conditions or physical features uniquely affecting the property to be developed or improved. Said appeal must be filed with the City Clerk within 15 days of receipt of the denial of applicant's application for a development permit for an appeal hearing by the Common Council. The Common Council shall conduct an appeal hearing within 30 days of receipt of the applicant's request from the City Clerk.
(4) 
Permit fee. The Building Inspector shall receive from the applicant, along with the application for a permit hereunder, a fee as set forth in Chapter 146, Fee Schedule, for the review of the application and the determination thereof.
B. 
Designation of the local administrator. The Building Inspector is hereby appointed to administer and implement this chapter by granting or denying development permit applications in accordance with its provisions.
C. 
Duties and responsibilities of the administrator. Duties of the local administrator shall include, but not be limited to:
(1) 
Permit review.
(a) 
Review all development permits to determine that the permit requirements of this chapter have been satisfied.
(b) 
Review all development permits to determine that all necessary permits have been obtained from those federal, state or local governmental agencies from which prior approval is required.
(c) 
Review all development permits to determine if the proposed development is located in the floodway. If located in the floodway, assure that the encroachment provisions of § 170-5C(1) are met.
(2) 
Building Inspector permit duties.
(a) 
The Building Inspector shall review all applications to determine:
[1] 
That all necessary permits have been obtained from those federal, state or local governmental agencies from which prior approval is required.
[2] 
If the proposed development adversely affects the flood-carrying capacity of the area of special flood hazard. For purposes of this chapter, "adversely affects" means that the cumulative effects of the proposed development when combined with all other existing and anticipated development will increase the water surface elevation of the base flood more than one foot at any point.
(b) 
When base flood elevation and floodway data have not been provided, the Building Inspector, with the assistance of the City Engineer when necessary, shall obtain, review and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation and floodway data available from any federal, state or other source, in order to administer § 170-22E and G. When such assistance is required of the City Engineer, the applicant shall deposit an escrow payment for review with the Building Inspector in an amount established by the Common Council.
(3) 
Use of other base flood and floodway data. When base flood elevation and floodway data has not been provided in accordance with § 170-3B, Basis for establishing the areas of special flood hazard, the local adminstrator shall obtain, review, and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation and floodway data available from a federal, state or other source, in order to administer § 170-5B(1), Specific standards, residential construction, and (2), Specific standards, nonresidential construction.
(4) 
Information to be obtained and maintained.
(a) 
Obtain and record the actual elevation (in relation to mean sea level) of the lowest floor (including basement) of all new or substantially improved structures, and whether or not the structure contains a basement.
(b) 
For all new or substantially improved floodproofed structures:
[1] 
Verify and record the actual elevation (in relation to mean sea level); and
[2] 
Maintain the floodproofing certifications required in § 170-4A(3).
(c) 
Maintain for public inspection all records pertaining to the provisions of this chapter.
(5) 
Alteration of watercourses.
(a) 
Notify adjacent communities and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Flood Control and the Land Use Regulation Program prior to any alteration or relocation of a watercourse, and submit evidence of such notification to the Federal Insurance Administration.
(b) 
Require that maintenance is provided within the altered or relocated portion of said watercourse so the flood-carrying capacity is not diminished.
(6) 
Substantial damage review.
(a) 
After an event resulting in building damages, assess the damage to structures due to flood and nonflood causes.
(b) 
Record and maintain the flood and nonflood damage of substantial damage structures and provide a letter of substantial damage determination to the owner and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Flood Control.
(c) 
Ensure substantial improvements meet the requirements of § 170-5B(1), Specific standards, residential construction, (2), Specific standards, nonresidential construction and (3), Specific standards, manufactured homes.
(7) 
Interpretation of FIRM boundaries. Make interpretations where needed, as to the exact location of the boundaries of the areas of special flood hazards (for example, where there appears to be a conflict between a mapped boundary and actual field conditions). The person contesting the location of the boundary shall be given a reasonable opportunity to appeal the interpretation as provided in § 170-4D.
D. 
Variance procedure.
(1) 
Appeal Board.
(a) 
The Common Council shall hear and decide appeals and requests for variances from the requirements of this chapter.
(b) 
The Common Council shall hear and decide appeals when it is alleged there is an error in any requirement, decision, or determination made by the local administrator in the enforcement or administration of this chapter.
(c) 
Those aggrieved by the decision of the Common Council, or any taxpayer, may appeal such decision to the New Jersey Superior Court as provided by law.
(d) 
In passing upon such applications, the Common Council shall consider all technical evaluations, all relevant factors, standards specified in other sections of this chapter, and:
[1] 
The danger that materials may be swept onto other lands to the injury of others;
[2] 
The danger to life and property due to flooding or erosion damage;
[3] 
The susceptibility of the proposed facility and its contents to flood damage and the effect of such damage on the individual owner;
[4] 
The importance of the services provided by the proposed facility to the community;
[5] 
The necessity to the facility of a waterfront location, where applicable;
[6] 
The availability of alternative locations for the proposed use which are not subject to flooding or erosion damage;
[7] 
The compatibility of the proposed use with existing and anticipated development;
[8] 
The relationship of the proposed use to the comprehensive plan and floodplain management program of that area;
[9] 
The safety of access to the property in times of flood for ordinary and emergency vehicles;
[10] 
The expected heights, velocity, duration, rate of rise, and sediment transport of the floodwaters and the effects of wave action, if applicable, expected at the site; and
[11] 
The costs of providing governmental services during and after flood conditions, including maintenance and repair of public utilities and facilities such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems, and streets and bridges.
(e) 
Upon consideration of the factors of § 170-4D(1)(d) and the purposes of this chapter, the Common Council may attach such conditions to the granting of variances as it deems necessary to further the purposes of this chapter.
(f) 
The Common Council shall maintain the records of all appeal actions, including technical information, and report any variances to the Federal Insurance Administration upon request.
(2) 
Conditions for variances.
(a) 
Generally, variances may be issued for new construction and substantial improvements to be erected on a lot of 1/2 acre or less in size contiguous to and surrounded by lots with existing structures constructed below the base flood level, providing items [1] through [11] in § 170-4D(1)(d) have been fully considered. As the lot size increases beyond the 1/2 acre, the technical justification required for issuing the variance increases.
(b) 
Variances may be issued for the repair or rehabilitation of historic structures upon a determination that the proposed repair or rehabilitation will not preclude the structure's continued designation as an historic structure and the variance is the minimum necessary to preserve the historic character and design of the structure.
(c) 
Variances shall not be issued within any designated floodway if any increase in flood levels during the base flood discharge would result.
(d) 
Variances shall only be issued upon a determination that the variance is the minimum necessary, considering the flood hazard, to afford relief.
(e) 
Variances shall only be issued upon:
[1] 
A showing of good and sufficient cause;
[2] 
A determination that failure to grant the variance would result in exceptional hardship to the applicant; and
[3] 
A determination that the granting of a variance will not result in increased flood heights, additional threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, create nuisances, cause fraud on or victimization of the public as identified in § 170-4D(1)(d), or conflict with existing local laws or ordinances.
(f) 
Any applicant to whom a variance is granted shall be given written notice that the structure will be permitted to be built with a lowest floor elevation below the base flood elevation and that the cost of flood insurance will be commensurate with the increased risk resulting from the reduced lowest floor elevation.
A. 
General standards. In all areas of special flood hazard, compliance with the applicable requirements of the Uniform Construction Code (N.J.A.C. 5:23) and the following standards, whichever is more restrictive, are required:
(1) 
Anchoring.
(a) 
All new construction and substantial improvements shall be anchored to prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement of the structure.
(b) 
All manufactured homes to be placed or substantially improved shall be anchored to resist flotation, collapse or lateral movement. Methods of anchoring may include, but are not to be limited to, use of over-the-top or frame ties to ground anchors. This requirement is in addition to applicable state and local anchoring requirements for resisting wind forces.
(2) 
Construction materials and methods.
(a) 
All new construction and substantial improvements shall be constructed with materials and utility equipment resistant to flood damage.
(b) 
All new construction and substantial improvements shall be constructed using methods and practices that minimize flood damage.
(3) 
Utilities.
(a) 
All new and replacement water supply systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the system;
(b) 
New and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the systems and discharge from the systems into floodwaters;
(c) 
On-site waste disposal systems shall be located to avoid impairment to them or contamination from them during flooding; and
(d) 
For all new construction and substantial improvements, the electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing and air-conditioning equipment and other service facilities shall be designed and/or located so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding.
(4) 
Subdivision proposals.
(a) 
All subdivision proposals and other proposed new development shall be consistent with the need to minimize flood damage;
(b) 
All subdivision proposals and other proposed new development shall have public utilities and facilities such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems located and constructed to minimize flood damage;
(c) 
All subdivision proposals and other proposed new development shall have adequate drainage provided to reduce exposure to flood damage; and
(d) 
Base flood elevation data shall be provided for subdivision proposals and other proposed new development which contain at least 50 lots or five acres (whichever is less).
(5) 
Enclosure openings. All new construction and substantial improvements having fully enclosed areas below the lowest floor that are usable solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage in an area other than a basement and which are subject to flooding shall be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the entry and exit of floodwaters. Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect or must meet or exceed the following minimum criteria:
(a) 
A minimum of two openings in at least two exterior walls of each enclosed area, having a total net area of not less than one square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding shall be provided.
(b) 
The bottom of all openings shall be no higher than one foot above grade.
(c) 
Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, or other covering or devices provided that they permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters.
B. 
Specific standards. In all areas of special flood hazards where base flood elevation data have been provided as set forth in § 170-3B, Basis for establishing the areas of special flood hazard or in § 170-4C(2), Use of other base flood data, the following standards are required:
(1) 
Residential construction.
(a) 
New construction and substantial improvement of any residential structure located in an A or AE Zone shall have the lowest floor, including basement together with the attendant utilities (including all electrical, heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and other service equipment) and sanitary facilities, elevated at or above the base flood elevation plus one foot or as required by ASCE/SEI 24-14, Table 2-1, whichever is more restrictive;
(b) 
Require within any AO or AH Zone on the municipality's DFIRM that all new construction and substantial improvement of any residential structure shall have the lowest floor, including basement together with the attendant utilities and sanitary facilities, elevated above the depth number specified in feet plus one foot, above the highest adjacent grade (at least three feet if no depth number is specified); and require adequate drainage paths around structures on slopes to guide floodwaters around and away from proposed structures.
(2) 
Nonresidential construction. In an area of special flood hazard, all new construction and substantial improvement of any commercial, industrial or other nonresidential structure located in an A or AE Zone shall have the lowest floor, including basement together with the attendant utilities and sanitary facilities as well as all electrical, heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and other service equipment, either:
(a) 
Elevated to or above the base flood elevation plus one foot or as required by ASCE/SEI 24-14, Table 2-1, whichever is more restrictive; and
(b) 
Require within any AO or AH Zone on the municipality's DFIRM to elevate above the depth number specified in feet plus one foot, above the highest adjacent grade (at least three feet if no depth number is specified); and require adequate drainage paths around structures on slopes to guide floodwaters around and away from proposed structures; or
(c) 
Be floodproofed so that below the base flood level plus one foot or as required by ASCE/SEI 24-14, Table 6-1, whichever is more restrictive, the structure is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water;
(d) 
Have structural components capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy; and
(e) 
Be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect that the design and methods of construction are in accordance with accepted standards of practice for meeting the applicable provisions of this subsection. Such certification shall be provided to the official as set forth in § 170-4C(4)(b)[2].
(3) 
Manufactured homes.
(a) 
Manufactured homes shall be anchored in accordance with § 170-5A(1)(b).
(b) 
All manufactured homes to be placed or substantially improved within an area of special flood hazard shall:
[1] 
Be consistent with the need to minimize flood damage;
[2] 
Be constructed to minimize flood damage;
[3] 
Have adequate drainage provided to reduce exposure to flood damage;
[4] 
Be elevated on a permanent foundation such that the top of the lowest floor is at or above the base flood elevation plus one foot or as required by ASCE/SEI 24-14, Table 2-1, whichever is more restrictive; and
[5] 
The manufactured home chassis is supported by reinforced piers or other foundation elements of at least equivalent strength that are no less than 36 inches in height above grade and be securely anchored to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement.
C. 
Floodways. Located within areas of special flood hazard established in § 170-3B are areas designated as floodways. Since the floodway is an extremely hazardous area due to the velocity of floodwaters which carry debris, potential projectiles, and erosion potential, the following provisions apply:
(1) 
Prohibit encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements, and other development unless a technical evaluation demonstrates that encroachment shall not result in any increase in flood levels during the occurrence of the base flood discharge.
(2) 
If § 170-5C(1) is satisfied, all new construction and substantial improvements must comply with § 170-5, Provisions for flood hazard reduction.
(3) 
In all areas of special flood hazard in which base flood elevation data has been provided and no floodway has been designated, the accumulative effect of any proposed development, when combined with all other existing and anticipated development, shall not increase the water surface elevation of the base flood more than 0.2 foot at any point.
If any section, subsection, paragraph, sentence, clause, or phrase of this chapter shall be declared invalid for any reason whatsoever, such a decision shall not affect the remaining portions of the chapter, which shall remain in full force and effect, and for this purpose the provisions of this chapter are hereby declared to be severable.