City of Española, NM
Rio Arriba County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted by the Mayor and Council of the City of Española 12-10-2012 by Ord. No. 2012-10. Amendments noted where applicable.]
GENERAL REFERENCES
Building codes — See Ch. 150.
Development permits and fees — See Ch. 171.
Excavations — See Ch. 180.
Subdivision of land — See Ch. 294.
Water and sewers — See Ch. 311.
Zoning and development — See Ch. 350.
A. 
The flood hazard areas of the City of Española are subject to periodic inundation which results in loss of life and property, health and safety hazards, disruption of commerce and governmental services, and extraordinary public expenditures for flood protection and relief, all of which adversely affect the public health, safety, and general welfare.
B. 
These flood losses are created by the cumulative effect of obstructions in floodplains which cause an increase in flood heights and velocities, and by the occupancy of flood hazard areas by uses vulnerable to floods and hazardous to other lands because they are inadequately elevated, floodproofed, or otherwise protected from flood damage.
C. 
There are areas of special flood hazard within the City at this time, and there exists the potential for localized flooding due to rainfall, irrigation waters, ditch breaks, and future annexations of lands within areas of special flood hazard.
It is the purpose of this chapter to promote the public health, safety and general welfare and to minimize public and private losses due to flood conditions in specific areas by provisions designed to:
A. 
Protect human life and health;
B. 
Minimize expenditure of public money for costly flood control projects;
C. 
Minimize the need for rescue and relief efforts associated with flooding and generally undertaken at the expense of the general public;
D. 
Minimize prolonged business interruptions;
E. 
Minimize damage to public facilities and utilities such as water and gas mains, electric, television cable, telephone, and sewer lines, streets and bridges located in the floodplain;
F. 
Help maintain a stable tax base by providing for the sound use and development of flood-prone areas in such a manner as to minimize future flood blight areas; and
G. 
Ensure that potential buyers are notified that property is in a flood area.
In order to accomplish its purposes, this chapter uses the following methods:
A. 
Restrict or prohibit uses that are dangerous to health, safety or property, in times of flood, or cause excessive increases in flood heights or velocities;
B. 
Require that uses vulnerable to floods, including facilities which serve such uses, be protected against flood damage at the time of initial construction;
C. 
Control the alteration of natural floodplains, stream channels, and natural protective barriers, which are involved in the accommodation of floodwaters;
D. 
Control filling, grading, dredging and other development which may increase flood damage; and
E. 
Prevent or regulate the construction of flood barriers which will unnaturally divert floodwaters or which may increase flood hazards to other lands.
Unless specifically defined below, words or phrases used in this chapter shall be interpreted to give them the meaning they have in common usage and to give this chapter its most reasonable application.
ALLUVIAL FAN FLOODING
Flooding occurring on the surface of an alluvial fan or similar landform which originates at the apex and is characterized by high-velocity flows; active processes of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition; and unpredictable flow paths.
APEX
A point on an alluvial fan or similar landform below which the flow path of the major stream that formed the fan becomes unpredictable and alluvial fan flooding can occur.
APPEAL
A request for a review of the Floodplain Manager's interpretation of any provision of this chapter or a request for a variance.
AREA OF SHALLOW FLOODING
A designated AO, AH, or VO Zone on a community's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) with a one-percent chance or greater annual chance of flooding to an average depth of one foot to three feet where a clearly defined channel does not exist, where the path of flooding is unpredictable and where velocity flow may be evident. Such flooding is characterized by ponding or sheet flow.
AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD
The land in the floodplain within a community subject to a one-percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year. The area may be designated as Zone A on the Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM). After detailed rate-making has been completed in preparation for publication of the FIRM, Zone A usually is refined into Zone A, AE, AH, AO, A1-A99, VO, V1-V30, VE or V.
BASE FLOOD
The flood having a one-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
BASEMENT
Any area of the building having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides.
CRITICAL FEATURE
An integral and readily identifiable part of a flood protection system, without which the flood protection provided by the entire system would be compromised.
DEVELOPMENT
Any man-made change in improved and unimproved real estate, including but not limited to buildings or other structures, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations, or storage of equipment or materials.
ELEVATED BUILDING
A nonbasement building:
A. 
Built, in the case of a building in Zones A1-A30, AE, A, A99, AO, AH, B, C, X, and D, to have the top of the elevated floor, or in the case of building in Zone V1-V30, VE, or V, to have the bottom of the lowest horizontal structure member of the elevated floor elevated above the ground level by means of pilings, columns (posts and piers), or shear walls parallel to the flow of the water; and
B. 
Adequately anchored so as not to impair the structural integrity of the building during a flood of up to the magnitude of the base flood. In the case of Zones A1-A30, AE, A, A99, AO, AH, B, C, X, and D, "elevated building" also includes a building elevated by means of fill or solid foundation perimeter walls with openings sufficient to facilitate the unimpeded movement of floodwaters. In the case of Zone V1-V30, VE, or V, "elevated building" also includes a building otherwise meeting the definition of "elevated building," even though the lower area is enclosed by means of breakaway walls if the breakaway walls meet the standards of Section 60.3(e)(5) of the National Flood Insurance Program Regulations.
EXISTING CONSTRUCTION
For the purpose of determining rates, structures for which the start of construction commenced before the effective date of the FIRM or before January 1, 1975, for FIRMs effective before that date. "Existing construction" may also be referred to as "existing structures."
EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed before the effective date of the floodplain management regulations adopted by a community.
EXPANSION TO AN EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
The preparation of additional sites by the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads).
FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP (FHBM)
An official map of a community on which the Federal Emergency Management Agency has delineated the boundaries of the flood, mud slide (i.e., mud flow) related erosion areas having special hazards have been designated as Zones A, M, and/or E.
FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM)
An official map of a community, on which the Federal Emergency Management Agency has delineated both the areas of special flood hazards and the risk-premium zones applicable to the community.
FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY
The official report provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The report contains flood profiles, water surface elevation of the base flood, as well as the Flood Boundary-Floodway Map.
FLOOD or FLOODING
A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from:
A. 
The overflow of inland or tidal waters; or
B. 
The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source.
FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT
The operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood damage, including but not limited to emergency preparedness plans, flood control works and floodplain management regulations.
FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS
Zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations, special purpose ordinances (such as a floodplain ordinance, grading ordinance and erosion control ordinance) and other applications of police power. The term describes such state or local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction.
FLOODPLAIN MANAGER
That person so designated by the governing body of the City of Española. If this person is an elected official, he may designate to another person some or all of the duties of the office of Floodplain Manager. The Floodplain Manager shall be a Certified Floodplain Manager (CFM) by the New Mexico Floodplain Managers Association (NMFMA), or shall obtain such certification within 12 months of employment by the City of Española.
FLOODPLAIN or FLOOD-PRONE AREA
Any land area susceptible to being inundated by water from any source (see definition of "flooding").
FLOODPROOFING
Any combination of structural and nonstructural additions, changes, or adjustments to structures which reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitary facilities, structures and their contents.
FLOOD PROTECTION SYSTEM
Those physical structural works for which funds have been authorized, appropriated, and expended and which have been constructed specifically to modify flooding in order to reduce the extent of the area with a community subject to a special flood hazard and the extent of the depths of associated flooding. Such a system typically includes hurricane tidal barriers, dams, reservoirs, levees or dikes. These specialized flood-modifying works are those constructed in conformance with sound engineering standards.
FLOODWAY (REGULATORY FLOODWAY)
The channel of a river or other watercourses and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than a designated height.
FUNCTIONALLY DEPENDENT USE
A use which cannot perform its intended purpose unless it is located or carried out in close proximity to water. The term includes only docking facilities, port facilities that are necessary for the loading and unloading of cargo or passengers, and ship building and ship repair facilities, but does not include long-term storage or related manufacturing facilities.
HIGHEST ADJACENT GRADE
The highest natural elevation of the ground surface prior to construction next to the proposed walls of a structure.
HISTORIC STRUCTURE
Any structure that is:
A. 
Listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places (a listing maintained by the Department of the Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;
B. 
Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary to qualify as a registered historic district;
C. 
Individually listed on a state inventory of historic places in states with historic preservation programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or
D. 
Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either:
(1) 
By an approved state program as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or
(2) 
By the Secretary of the Interior directly in states without approved programs.
LEVEE
A man-made structure, usually an earthen embankment, designed and constructed in accordance with sound engineering practices to contain, control, or divert the flow of water so as to provide protection from temporary flooding.
LEVEE SYSTEM
A flood protection system which consists of a levee, or levees, and associated structures, such as closure and drainage devices, which are constructed and operated in accordance with sound engineering practices.
LOWEST FLOOR
The lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area (including basement). An unfinished or flood-resistant enclosure usable solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage in an area other than a basement area is not considered a building's lowest floor; provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in violation of the applicable nonelevation design requirement of Section 60.3 of the National Flood Insurance Program Regulations.
MANUFACTURED HOME
A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities.
MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
A parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale.
MEAN SEA LEVEL
For purposes of the National Flood Insurance Program, the North American Vertical Datum (NAVD) of 1988 or other datum to which base flood elevations shown on a community's Flood Insurance Rate Map are referenced.
NEW CONSTRUCTION
For the purpose of determining insurance rates, structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of an initial FIRM or after December 31, 1974, whichever is later, and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures. For floodplain management purposes, "new construction" means structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of a floodplain management regulation adopted by a community and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures.
NEW MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed on or after the effective date of floodplain management regulations adopted by a community.
RECREATIONAL VEHICLE
A vehicle which is:
A. 
Built on a single chassis;
B. 
Four hundred square feet or less when measured at the largest horizontal projections;
C. 
Designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable by a light-duty truck; and
D. 
Designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel, or seasonal use.
START OF CONSTRUCTION
For other than new construction or substantial improvements under the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (Pub.L. 97-348), includes substantial improvement and means the date the building permit was issued, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, placement, or other improvement was within 180 days of the permit date. The "actual start" means either the first placement of permanent construction of a structure on a site, such as the pouring of slab or footings, the installation of piles, the construction of columns or any work beyond the state of excavation; or the placement of a manufactured home on a foundation. "Permanent construction" does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading, and filling; nor does it include the installation of streets and/or walkways; nor does it include excavation for basement, footings, piers or foundations, or the erection of temporary forms; nor does it include the installation on the property of accessory buildings such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure. For a substantial improvement, the "actual start of construction" means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building.
STRUCTURE
A walled and roofed building, including a gas or liquid storage tank that is principally above ground, as well as a manufactured home.
SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE
Damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its before-damaged condition would equal or exceed 50% of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT
Any repair, rehabilitation, addition, reconstruction, or other improvement of a structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50% of the market value of the structure before the start of construction of the improvement. This includes structures which have incurred substantial damage, regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does not, however, include either:
A. 
Any project for improvement of a structure to correct existing violations or to comply with existing state or local health, sanitary, or safety code specifications which have been identified by the local code enforcement official and which are the minimum necessary conditions; or
B. 
Any alteration of an historic structure, provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as an historic structure.
VARIANCE
A grant of relief to a person from the requirements of this chapter when specific enforcement would result in unnecessary hardship. A variance, therefore, permits construction or development in a manner otherwise prohibited by this chapter. (For full requirements see § 200-8 below, and Section 60.6 of the National Flood Insurance Program Regulations.)
VIOLATION
The failure of a structure or other development to be fully compliant with the community's floodplain management regulations. A structure or other development without the elevation certificate, other certifications, or other evidence of compliance required in Section 60.3(b)(5), (c)(4), (c)(10), (d)(3), (e)(2), (e)(4), or (e)(5) of the National Flood Insurance Program Regulations is presumed to be in violation until such time as that documentation is provided.
WATER SURFACE ELEVATION
The height, in relation to the North American Vertical Datum (NAVD) of 1988 (or other datum, where specified), of floods of various magnitudes and frequencies in the floodplains of coastal or riverine areas.
A. 
Lands to which this chapter applies. This chapter shall apply to all areas within the jurisdiction of the City of Española.
B. 
Basis for establishing the areas of special flood hazard. The areas of special flood hazard are identified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the current scientific and engineering reports entitled:
(1) 
"The Flood Insurance Study (FIS) for Santa Fe County, New Mexico and Incorporated Areas," dated December 4, 2012, with accompanying Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) dated December 4, 2012;
(2) 
"The Flood Insurance Study (FIS) for the City of Española," dated February 16, 2006, with accompanying Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) dated February 16, 2006; and
(3) 
"The Flood Insurance Study for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico and Incorporated Areas," dated March 15, 2012, with accompanying Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) dated March 15, 2012.
C. 
Development permit required. A development permit shall be required within areas of special flood hazard to ensure conformance with the provisions of this chapter.
D. 
Compliance. No structure or land shall hereafter be located, altered, or have its use changed without full compliance with the terms of this chapter and other applicable regulations.
E. 
Abrogation and greater restrictions. This chapter is not intended to repeal, abrogate, or impair any existing easements, covenants, or deed restrictions. However, where this chapter and another ordinance, easement, covenant, or deed restriction conflict or overlap, whichever imposes the more stringent restrictions shall prevail.
F. 
Interpretation. In the interpretation and application of this chapter, all provisions shall be:
(1) 
Considered as minimum requirements;
(2) 
Liberally construed in favor of the governing body; and
(3) 
Deemed neither to limit nor repeal any other powers granted under state statutes.
G. 
Warning and disclaimer of liability. The degree of flood protection required by this chapter is considered reasonable for regulatory purposes and is based on scientific and engineering considerations. On rare occasions, greater floods can and will occur, and flood heights may be increased by man-made or natural causes. This chapter does not imply that land outside the areas of special flood hazards or uses permitted within such areas will be free from flooding or flood damages. This chapter shall not create liability on the part of the community or any official or employee thereof for any flood damages that result from reliance on this chapter or any administrative decision lawfully made hereunder.
A. 
Appointment. The current Floodplain Manager from the Planning and Zoning Department is hereby appointed the Floodplain Manager to administer and implement the provisions of this chapter and other appropriate sections of 44 CFR (National Flood Insurance Program Regulations) pertaining to floodplain management.
B. 
Duties and responsibilities of the Floodplain Manager. Duties and responsibilities of the Floodplain Manager shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
(1) 
Maintain and hold open for public inspection all records pertaining to the provisions of this chapter.
(2) 
Review permit applications to determine whether proposed building sites will be reasonably safe from flooding.
(3) 
Review, approve or deny all applications for development permits required by adoption of this chapter.
(4) 
Review permits for proposed development to assure that all necessary permits (including those authorized by Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, 33 U.S.C. § 1334) have been obtained from those federal, state, or local governmental agencies from which prior approval is required.
(5) 
Where interpretation is needed as to the exact location of the boundaries of the areas of special flood hazards (for example, where there appears to be a conflict between a mapped boundary and actual field conditions), the Floodplain Manager shall make the necessary interpretation.
(6) 
Notify, in riverine situations, adjacent communities and the state coordinating agency, which is the New Mexico Department of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (DHSEM), prior to any alteration or relocation of a watercourse, and submit evidence of such notification to the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
(7) 
Assure that the flood-carrying capacity within the altered or relocated portion of any watercourse is maintained.
(8) 
When base flood elevation data has not been provided in accordance with § 200-5B, the Floodplain Manager shall obtain, review and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation data and floodway data available from a federal, state, or other source, in order to administer the provisions of § 200-9.
(9) 
When a regulatory floodway has not been designated, the Floodplain Manager must require that no new construction, substantial improvements, or other development (including fill) shall be permitted within Zone AE on the community's FIRM, unless it is demonstrated that the cumulative effect of the proposed development, when combined with all other existing and anticipated development, will not increase the water surface elevation of the base flood more than one foot at any point within the community.
(10) 
Under the provisions of 44 CFR Chapter I, Section 65.12, of the National Flood Insurance Program regulations, a community may approve certain development in Zones A1-A30, AE, AH, on the community's FIRM which increases the water surface elevations of the base flood by more than one foot, provided that the community first applies for a conditional FIRM revision through FEMA (conditional letter of map revision).
A. 
An application for a development permit shall be presented to the Floodplain Manager on forms furnished by him and may include, but not be limited to, plans in duplicate and drawn to scale showing the location, dimensions, and elevation of proposed landscape alterations, existing and proposed structures, and the location of the foregoing in relation to areas of special flood hazard. Additionally, the following information is required:
(1) 
Elevation, in relation to mean sea level, of the lowest floor (including basement) of all new and substantially improved structures.
(2) 
Elevation, in relation to mean sea level, to which any nonresidential structure shall be floodproofed.
(3) 
A certificate from a licensed professional engineer or architect that the nonresidential floodproofed structure shall meet the floodproofing criteria of § 200-9B(2).
(4) 
Description of the extent to which any watercourse or natural drainage will be altered or relocated as a result of proposed development.
(5) 
A record of all such information in accordance with § 200-6B(1).
B. 
Approval or denial of a development permit by the Floodplain Manager shall be based on all of the provisions of this chapter and the following relevant factors:
(1) 
The danger to life and property due to flooding or erosion damage;
(2) 
The susceptibility of the proposed facility and its contents to flood damage and the effect of such damage on the individual owner;
(3) 
The danger that materials may be swept onto other lands to the injury of others;
(4) 
The compatibility of the proposed use with existing and anticipated development;
(5) 
The safety of access to the property in times of flood for ordinary and emergency vehicles;
(6) 
The costs of providing governmental services during and after flood conditions, including maintenance and repair of streets and bridges, and public utilities and facilities such as telephone, sewer, gas, electrical and water systems;
(7) 
The expected heights, velocity, duration, rate of rise and sediment transport of the floodwaters and the effects of wave action, if applicable, expected at the site;
(8) 
The necessity to the facility of a waterfront location, where applicable;
(9) 
The availability of alternative locations, not subject to flooding or erosion damage, for the proposed use; and
(10) 
The relationship of the proposed use to the most current City of Española Master Plan.
A. 
The appeal board is the Planning Commission, which shall hear and render judgment on requests for variances from the requirements of this chapter.
B. 
The appeal board (Planning Commission) shall hear and render judgment on an appeal only when it is alleged there is an error in any requirement, decision or determination made by the Floodplain Manager in the enforcement or administration of this chapter.
C. 
Any person or persons aggrieved by the decision of the appeal board (Planning Commission) may appeal such decision to the City Council of the City of Española. Such appeal shall be taken as an appeal of the record, with no new evidence not previously presented to the Planning Commission allowed or considered in the determination of the City Council.
D. 
Any person or persons aggrieved by the decision of the City Council of the City of Española may appeal such decision in the courts of competent jurisdiction.
E. 
The Floodplain Manager shall maintain a record of all actions involving an appeal and shall report variances to the Federal Emergency Management Agency upon request.
F. 
Variances may be issued for reconstruction, rehabilitation or restoration of structures listed on the National Register of Historic Places or the State Inventory of Historic Places, without regard to the procedures set forth in the remainder of this chapter.
G. 
Variances may be issued for new construction and substantial improvements to be erected on a lot of 1/2 acre or less in size contiguous to and surrounded by lots with existing structures constructed below the base flood level, provided the relevant factors in § 200-7B have been fully considered. As the lot size increases beyond the 1/2 acre, the technical justification required for issuing the variance increases. Upon consideration of the factors noted above and the intent of this chapter, the City Council may attach such conditions to the granting of variances as it deems necessary to further the purpose and objectives of this chapter.
H. 
Variances shall not be issued within any designated floodway if any increase in flood levels during the base flood discharge would result.
I. 
Variances may be issued for the repair or rehabilitation of historic structures upon a determination that the proposed repair or rehabilitation will not preclude the structure's continued designation as an historic structure and the variance is the minimum necessary to preserve the historic character and design of the structure.
J. 
Prerequisites for granting variances.
(1) 
Variances shall only be issued upon a determination that the variance is the minimum necessary, considering the flood hazard, to afford relief.
(2) 
Variances shall only be issued upon:
(a) 
A showing of good and sufficient cause;
(b) 
A determination that failure to grant the variance would result in exceptional hardship to the applicant; and
(c) 
A determination that the granting of a variance will not result in increased flood heights, additional threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, create nuisances, cause fraud on or victimization of the public, or conflict with existing local laws or ordinances.
(3) 
Any applicant to whom a variance is granted shall be given written notice that the structure will be permitted to be built with the lowest floor elevation below the base flood elevation, and that the cost of flood insurance will be commensurate with the increased risk resulting from the reduced lowest floor elevation.
K. 
Variances may be issued by a community for new construction and substantial improvements and for other development necessary for the conduct of a functionally dependent use, provided that:
(1) 
The criteria outlined in Subsections A through J are met; and
(2) 
The structure or other development is protected by methods that minimize flood damages during the base flood and create no additional threats to public safety.
A. 
General standards. In all areas of special flood hazards in the City of Española, the following provisions are required for all new construction and substantial improvements:
(1) 
All new construction or substantial improvements shall be designed (or modified) and adequately anchored to prevent flotation, collapse or lateral movement of the structure resulting from hydrodynamic and hydrostatic loads, including the effects of buoyancy;
(2) 
All new construction or substantial improvements shall be constructed by methods and practices that minimize flood damage;
(3) 
All new construction or substantial improvements shall be constructed with materials resistant to flood damage;
(4) 
All new construction or substantial improvements shall be constructed with electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing and air-conditioning equipment and other service facilities that are designed and/or located so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding;
(5) 
All new and replacement water supply systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the system;
(6) 
New and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the system and discharge from the systems into floodwaters; and
(7) 
On-site waste disposal systems shall be located to avoid impairment to them or contamination from them during flooding.
B. 
Specific standards. In all areas of special flood hazards where base flood elevation data has been provided as set forth in §§ 200-5B, 200-6B(8), or 200-9C(4), the following provisions are required:
(1) 
Residential construction. New construction and substantial improvement of any residential structure shall have the lowest floor (including basement), elevated to or above the base flood elevation. A licensed professional engineer, architect, or land surveyor shall submit a certification to the Floodplain Manager that the standard of this subsection as proposed in § 200-7A(1), is satisfied.
(2) 
Nonresidential construction. New construction and substantial improvements of any commercial, industrial or other nonresidential structure shall either have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated to or above the base flood level or, together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, be designed so that below the base flood level the structure is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy. A licensed professional engineer or architect shall develop and/or review structural design specifications and plans for the construction and shall certify that the design and methods of construction are in accordance with accepted standards of practice as outlined in this subsection. A record of such certification, which includes the specific elevation (in relation to mean sea level) to which such structures are floodproofed, shall be maintained by the Floodplain Manager.
C. 
Enclosures. New construction and substantial improvements, with fully enclosed areas below the lowest floor that are usable solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage in an area other than a basement and which are subject to flooding, shall be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the entry and exit of floodwaters. Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a licensed professional engineer or architect or meet or exceed the following minimum criteria:
(1) 
A minimum of two openings having a total net area of not less than one square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding shall be provided.
(2) 
The bottom of all openings shall be no higher than one foot above grade.
(3) 
Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, valves, or other coverings or devices, provided that they permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters.
D. 
Manufactured homes.
(1) 
All manufactured homes to be placed within Zone A on a FIRM shall be installed using methods and practices which minimize flood damage. For the purposes of this requirement, manufactured homes must be elevated and anchored to resist flotation, collapse, or lateral movement. Methods of anchoring may include, but are not limited to, use of over-the-top or frame ties to ground anchors. This requirement is in addition to applicable state and local anchoring requirements for resisting wind forces.
(2) 
Manufactured homes that are placed or substantially improved within Zones A1-A30, AH, and AE on the community's FIRM on sites outside of a manufactured home park or subdivision; in a new manufactured home park or subdivision; in an expansion to an existing manufactured home park or subdivision; in an existing manufactured home park or subdivision on which a manufactured home has incurred substantial damage as a result of a flood, shall be elevated on a permanent foundation such that the lowest floor of the manufactured home is elevated to or above the base flood elevation and be securely anchored to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement.
(3) 
Manufactured homes placed or substantially improved on sites in an existing manufactured home park or subdivision with Zones A1-A30, AH, and AE on the community's FIRM that are not subject to the provisions of Subsection D(1) of this section shall be elevated so that either:
(a) 
The lowest floor of the manufactured home is at or above the base flood elevations; or
(b) 
The manufactured home chassis is supported by reinforced piers or other foundation elements of at least equivalent strength that are no less than 36 inches in height above grade and be securely anchored to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement.
E. 
Recreational vehicles. Recreational vehicles placed on sites within Zones A1-A30, AH, and AE on the community's FIRM shall either be on the site for fewer than 180 consecutive days; be fully licensed and ready for highway use; or meet the permit requirements of § 200-7, and the elevation and anchoring requirements for manufactured homes in Subsection D of this section. A recreational vehicle is ready for highway use if it is on its wheels or jacking system, is attached to the site only by quick-disconnect-type utilities and security devices, and has no permanently attached additions.
F. 
Standards for subdivision proposals.
(1) 
All subdivision proposals, including the placement of manufactured home parks and subdivisions, shall be consistent with §§ 200-5, 200-6, and 200-7 of this chapter.
(2) 
All proposals for the development of subdivisions, including the placement of manufactured home parks and subdivisions, shall meet development permit requirements of § 200-7; and the provisions of § 200-9 of this chapter.
(3) 
Base flood elevation data shall be generated for subdivision proposals and other proposed development, including the placement of manufactured home parks and subdivisions which are greater than 50 lots or five acres, whichever is less, if not otherwise provided pursuant to § 200-5B or 200-6B(8) of this chapter.
(4) 
All subdivision proposals, including the placement of manufactured home parks and subdivisions, shall have adequate drainage provided to reduce exposure to flood hazards.
(5) 
All subdivision proposals, including the placement of manufactured home parks and subdivisions, shall have public utilities and facilities such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems, which are otherwise required, located and constructed to minimize or eliminate flood damage.
Located within the areas of special flood hazard established in § 200-5B are areas designated as areas of shallow flooding. These areas have special flood hazards associated with base flood depths of one foot to three feet where a clearly defined channel does not exist and where the path of flooding is unpredictable and where velocity flow may be evident. Such flooding is characterized by ponding or sheet flow; therefore, the following provisions apply:
A. 
All new construction and substantial improvements of residential structures shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated above the highest adjacent grade at least as high as the depth number specified in feet on the community's FIRM (at least two feet if no depth number is specified).
B. 
All new construction and substantial improvements of nonresidential structures shall:
(1) 
Have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated above the highest adjacent grade at least as high as the depth number specified in feet on the community's FIRM (at least two feet if no depth number is specified); and
(2) 
Together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, be designed so that below the base flood level the structure is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and the hydrodynamic loads of effects of buoyancy.
C. 
A licensed professional engineer or architect shall submit a certification to the Floodplain Manager that the standards of this section, as proposed in § 200-9B are satisfied.
D. 
Within Zone AH or AO, adequate drainage paths around structures on slopes will be required to guide floodwaters around and away from proposed structures.
Located within areas of special flood hazard established in § 200-5B are areas designated as floodways. Since the floodway is an extremely hazardous area due to the velocity of floodwaters which carry debris, potential projectiles and erosion potential, the following provisions shall apply:
A. 
Encroachments are prohibited, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements and other development within the adopted regulatory floodway, unless it has been demonstrated through hydrologic and hydraulic analyses performed in accordance with standard engineering practice that the proposed encroachment would not result in any increase in flood levels within the community during the occurrence of the base flood discharge.
B. 
If Subsection A above is satisfied, all new construction and substantial improvements shall comply with all applicable flood hazard reduction provisions of § 200-9. Under the provisions of 44 CFR Chapter I, Section 65.12, of the National Flood Insurance Regulations, a community may permit encroachments within the adopted regulatory floodway that would result in an increase in base flood elevations, provided that the community first applies for a conditional FIRM and floodway revision through FEMA.
The provisions of this chapter shall be enforced by the current certified Floodplain Manager. Such citations shall be heard by the City of Española Municipal Court. No structure or land shall hereafter be constructed, located, extended, converted, or altered without full compliance with the terms of this chapter and other applicable regulations. Violation of the provisions of this chapter by failure to comply with any of its requirements (including violations of conditions and safeguards established in connection with conditions) shall constitute a misdemeanor. Any person who violates this chapter or fails to comply with any of its requirements shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not less than $50 nor more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than 90 days, or both, for each violation, and a separate violation shall be deemed committed on each day during or on which a violation occurs or continues; in addition, such person shall pay all costs and expenses involved in the prosecution of the case. Nothing herein contained shall prevent the City of Española from taking such other lawful action as is necessary to prevent or remedy any violation.