The Village Council of the Village of Cassopolis in the County of Cass under the authority of the Michigan zoning enabling act, Public Act No. 110 of 2006 (MCLA § 125.3101 et seq.), hereby ordains, enacts and publishes this chapter.
This chapter shall be commonly known as the "Village of Cassopolis Zoning Ordinance."
The Village Zoning Ordinance is hereby established in accordance with the needs of the Village. The text, map and schedules contained herein shall constitute this chapter. This chapter is expressly adopted for the following purposes:
To protect and promote the public health, safety, and general welfare of the Village.
To control and guide the orderly growth and development of the Village in accordance with its comprehensive planning program, and to implement the growth and development goals and policies contained therein, some of which are enumerated as follows:
To encourage a wide range of housing opportunities in an orderly manner in the Village from single-family to multiple-family and congregate housing for the elderly;
To ensure that the residential housing environment of the Village is safe, healthful and free of visual blight;
To preserve the character and value of certain historic areas and structures;
To preserve and enhance the appearance and viability of the Central Business District;
To ensure the orderly development and operation of industrial uses;
To guard against community impacts which can adversely affect those positive qualities that make up the distinctive character of the Village, and which can adversely affect its social and economic climate;
To promote and protect the value of land and buildings which are appropriate to the various districts established by this chapter; and
To prevent conflicts between the use of land and buildings.
For the purpose of this chapter, certain numbers, abbreviations, terms and words used herein shall be used, interpreted and defined as set forth in this section.
Unless the context clearly indicates the contrary, words used in the present tense include the future tense; words used in the singular number include the plural; and words used in the plural number include the singular; the word "herein" means this chapter; the word "regulation" means the regulations of this chapter; and the words "this chapter" shall mean "the chapter text, tables and maps included herein, as enacted or subsequently amended."
A "person" includes a corporation, a partnership, a limited-liability corporation, and an unincorporated association of persons such as a club; "shall" is always mandatory; a "lot" includes a plot or parcel; a "building" includes a structure; a "building" or "structure" includes any part thereof; "used" or "occupied" as applied to any land or building shall be construed to include the words "intended, arranged or designed to be used or occupied."
The "Village" is the Village of Cassopolis in the County of Cass, State of Michigan; and "Village Council," "Board of Appeals," and "Planning Commission" are respectively the Village Council, Board of Appeals, and Planning Commission of the Village.
Any words not defined in this chapter shall be construed as defined in the Housing Law of Michigan, Public Act No. 167 of 1917 (MCLA 125.401 et seq.).
Terms and words in this chapter shall be defined as follows:
- ACCESSORY BUILDING
- A detached subordinate building or structure on the same premises with a main building, occupied or devoted to an accessory use which is appropriate, supplemental and customarily related to the use of the main building or premises. Where an accessory building is attached to a main building in a substantial manner by a wall or roof, such accessory building shall be considered part of the main building, including a carport, covered porch or other roofed structure.
- ACCESSORY USE
- A use subordinate and customarily incidental to the main use of a lot.
- ADULT BUSINESSES
- The following definitions shall apply to adult businesses
as permitted in the I-2 Zoning District:[Amended 11-25-2019 by Ord. No. 259]
- ADULT DAY-CARE SERVICE
- Care of any part of a day, but less than twenty-four-hour care, for adults.
- ADULT FOSTER CARE
- A governmental or private facility for adults who are aged, emotionally disturbed, developmentally disabled, or physically handicapped and who require supervision but not continuous nursing care.
- A strip of land over which there is a right-of-way, public or private, on which generally no dwelling or land uses front, serving as a rear entrance to one or more properties.
- Any change, addition, or modification in construction or type of occupancy; and any change in the roof or supporting members of the building structure, such as bearing walls, partitions, columns, beams, girders, or any change which may be referred to herein as "altered" or "reconstructed."
- Any dog, cat, bird, reptile, mammal, fish or any other nonhuman creature.
- AUTOMOBILE OR TRAILER SALES AREA
- An area used for the display, sale or rental of new and/or used motor vehicles, snowmobiles, motorcycles, recreational vehicles, boats or trailers in operable condition and where no repair work is done.
- AUTOMOBILE REPAIR, MAJOR
- Any activity involving the general repair, rebuilding or reconditioning of motor vehicles, engines, or trailers; collision services, such as body, frame, or fender straightening and repair, overall painting and vehicle rust proofing.
- AUTOMOBILE REPAIR, MINOR
- Any activity involving minor repairs to motor vehicles and the incidental replacement of parts of such vehicles. A place where either gasoline or any other fuel or lubricating oil or grease for operating motor vehicles is offered for sale to the public and applied directly into motor vehicles, including the sale of accessories, greasing, oiling and minor automotive repair on the premises.
- AUTOMOBILE WASH ESTABLISHMENT
- A building, or portion thereof, the primary purpose of which is that of washing motor vehicles.
- BASEMENT or CELLAR
- A portion of a building having more than 1/2 of its height below grade.
- BED-AND-BREAKFAST FACILITY
- A building, other than a hotel, where lodgings and light breakfasts for persons, other than the family, are regularly provided for compensation.
- A building or part thereof, other than a hotel or motel, where lodgings are provided for remuneration, more or less transiently, and with or without provision for meals.
- BOARD OF ZONING APPEALS
- The Village Board of Zoning Appeals, the members of which have been duly appointed by the Village Council and is authorized as a body to interpret, hear appeals, and grant variances only in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.
- The portion of a lot remaining after required yards have been provided.
- BUILDING, EXISTING
- Any building actually constructed or the construction of which was started previous to the effective date of the ordinance from which this chapter is derived, provided that the construction of any such building continues uninterruptedly and is completed within six months from such date. Any building damaged by fire, collapse, or decay to the extent of its full assessed value of record at the time of damage shall not be considered an existing building.
- BUILDING HEIGHT
- The vertical distance from the average elevation of the established finished grade of a lot to the highest point of the roof surface if the roof is flat; to the deck line, if the roof is of the mansard type; or to the average height between the eaves and the ridge if the roof is gable, hip or gambrel type. Where a building is located on sloping terrain, the height may be measured from the average ground level of the grade at the building wall.
- BUILDING INSPECTOR
- The officer charged with the administration and enforcement of the single state construction code, or his duly authorized representative.
- BUILDING LINE
- A line parallel to the front lot line, which marks the location of the building.
- BUILDING PERMIT
- A permit signifying compliance with the provisions of this chapter as to use, activity, bulk and density, and with the requirements of all other development codes and ordinances currently in effect in the Village.
- BUILDING SITE
- A lot, or a two-dimensional condominium unit of land (i.e., envelope, footprint), with or without limited common elements, designed for construction of a principal structure or a series of principal structures plus accessory buildings. All building sites shall have access to a public or private road.
- A building used principally for religious worship, but the word "church" shall not include or mean an undertaker's chapel or funeral building.
- A building or group of buildings where human patients are treated, but not lodged overnight, for examination and treatment by more than one professional, such as a physician or dentist.
- COMMERCIAL VEHICLE
- Any motor vehicle other than a motorcycle or private passenger automobile designed or used primarily for the transportation of persons or property.
- COMMON ELEMENTS
- Portions of the condominium project other than the condominium sites.
- CONDOMINIUM UNIT
- That portion of the condominium project designed and intended for separate ownership and use, as described in the master deed, regardless of whether it is intended for residential, office, industrial, business, recreational, or any other type of use approved by the state.
- The building, erection, alteration, repair, renovation (or demolition or removal) of any building, structure or structural foundation, or the physical excavation, filling and grading of any lot other than normal maintenance, shall constitute construction.
- CONVALESCENT OR NURSING HOME
- A home for the care of children or the aged or infirm, or a place of rest for those suffering bodily disorders wherein seven or more persons are cared for. This home shall conform and qualify for license as required by the state.
- CONVENIENCE STORE
- A commercial establishment which sells miscellaneous food and nonfood items, and may be constructed in conjunction with another principal use, such as a gasoline station.
- CURB LEVEL or GRADE
- The mean level of the established curb in front of the building. Where no curb has been established, the Village Engineer shall establish such curb level for the purpose of these regulations.
- DOMESTIC PET
- Any animal commonly kept as a household pet, including but not limited to dogs, cats, small animals and birds. "Domestic pet" shall not include any livestock, or animals which present a hazard to humans.
- A house or building, or portion thereof, which is occupied wholly as the home, residence, or sleeping place by one or more human beings, either permanently or transiently, but in no case shall a travel trailer, motor home, automobile/vehicle, tent, or portable building be considered as a dwelling. In case of mixed occupancy where a building is occupied in part as a dwelling, the part so occupied shall be deemed a dwelling for the purpose of this chapter and shall comply with the provisions hereof relative to dwellings. Garage space, whether in an attached or detached garage, shall not be deemed as part of a dwelling for area requirements.
- EMERGENCY/TRANSITIONAL RESIDENCES
- A facility operated by a government agency or private nonprofit organization which provides temporary accommodations and on-site management for homeless persons or families, or other individuals or families in similar or related circumstances.
- Built, constructed, reconstructed, moved upon.
- Includes any physical operations required for the building on the premises where the building is being constructed, reconstructed, or moved. Excavating, filling, draining, and the like, shall be considered part of erecting.
- ESSENTIAL SERVICES
- All publicly or privately owned utilities, such as electrical, gas, water, sewer and communication generation, storage, distribution, collection, supply, and disposal systems; municipal police and fire; the erection, maintenance, alteration and removal of the foregoing; and all personal property and fixtures, including poles, wires, pipes and other accessories reasonably necessary for the furnishing of adequate service by such utility or municipal department shall be allowed in all zoning districts.
- FIRST STORY
- The lowest story of a building, the ceiling of which is more than seven feet above the average surface elevation of the ground, or sidewalk adjacent to its exterior walls.
- The total length along which a parcel of land fronts on a street, measured along the line where the property abuts the street right-of-way.
- GARAGE, AUTOMOTIVE COMMERCIAL
- Any premises available to the public and used solely for the storage of automobile or motor-driven vehicles, for remuneration, hire, or sale, where any such vehicles or engines may also be serviced for operation, or repaired, rebuilt or reconstructed.
- GARAGE, PRIVATE
- A building or other structure designed for the housing of automobiles.
- GARAGE, PUBLIC
- Any building or premises, other than a gasoline filling station, used for the housing or care of more than three automobiles, or where any such automobiles are equipped for operation, repaired or kept for remuneration, hire, or sale.
- GASOLINE STATION
- A space, structure, building or part of a building, used for the retail sale, service or supply of motor vehicle fuels, lubricants, air, water, batteries, tires, other accessories, motor vehicle washing or lubricating; or customary facilities for the installation of such commodities in or on such motor vehicles, including special facilities for the painting, repair or similar servicing thereof.
- A planting strip or buffer strip, at least 10 feet in width, which shall consist of deciduous and/or evergreen trees spaced not more than 30 feet apart and at least one row of dense shrubs spaced not more than five feet apart and which are five feet or more in height after one full growing season, which shall be planted and maintained in a healthy, growing condition by the property owner.
- GROSS SITE AREA
- The total area within and conforming to the legal description of the site.
- HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
- Any materials that have been declared to be hazardous to any agency of the state or of the United States, including but not limited to toxic materials and metal hydroxides.
- HOME OCCUPATION
- Any occupation or profession carried on by one or more members of a family residing on the premises. No commodity other than those customarily associated with the business is sold upon the premises. No more than one person is employed, contracted or subcontracted, other than a member of the immediate family residing on the premises. No mechanical equipment may be installed except such as is normally used for purely domestic or household purposes. No more than 25% of the total actual floor area of any story is used for home occupation or professional purposes. Home occupation does not include a family or group day-care home licensed by the state.
- HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY
- A multiple-family development having the following tenant eligibility requirements. At the time of rental application, tenants must be:
- (1) Families or two or more persons, the head of which (or the spouse of which) is 62 years of age or older, or is handicapped; or
- (2) Single persons who are 62 years of age or older or who are handicapped. A handicapped person is one whose impairment:
- INSTITUTIONAL USES
- Churches, schools, hospitals, and other similar public or semipublic uses. This excludes nursing homes, convalescent homes, and adult foster care facilities.
- Any land area, including buildings thereon, used primarily for the outdoor collecting, storage and abandonment of wastepaper, rags, scrap metal or discarded materials which are for sale; or which is used for the outdoor collecting, dismantling, storage or salvaging of machinery or vehicles not in running condition for the sale of parts thereof.
- Any lot or premises on which not more than five domestic pets, including more than three dogs or four cats, are kept permanently or temporarily boarded.
- Any place devoted to experimental, routine study or basic study, such as testing and analytical operations, in which the manufacturing of products, except prototypes for test marketing, is not performed.
- LANDSCAPED AREA
- A portion of land area which has been changed, rearranged, or to which plant materials or scenery have been added to produce an aesthetic effect appropriate for a zoned area.
- LAND USE PLAN, OFFICIAL
- The official land use plan so designated by the Planning Commission and incorporated into and made a part of this chapter.
- LIMITED COMMON ELEMENTS
- The portion of the common elements reserved in the master deed for the exclusive use of less than all of the co-owners.
- LOADING BERTH
- An off-street space on the same lot with a building or group of buildings, for temporary parking for a commercial vehicle while loading or unloading merchandise or materials. Off-street loading space is not to be included as off-street parking space in the computation of required off-street parking. A loading space is 528 square feet in area.
- A measured portion of a parcel or tract of land which is described and fixed in a recorded plat or designated on a recorded subdivision.
- LOT AREA
- The area of a lot bounded by lot lines.
- LOT, CORNER
- A lot whose lot lines form an interior angle of less than 135° at the intersection of two street lines. A lot abutting on a curved street shall be deemed a corner lot if the tangents to the curve at the points of intersection of the side lot lines with the street lines intersect at an interior angle of less than 135°.
- LOT COVERAGE
- The amount of a lot, stated in terms of percentage, that is covered by all roofed buildings and/or structures located thereon. This shall be deemed to include all buildings, porches, arbors, breezeways, patio roofs, and the like, whether open box-type and/or lathe roofs, or fully roofed, but shall not be deemed to include fences, walls, or hedges used as fences, or swimming pools.
- LOT LINE
- The boundary line of a lot.
- LOT LINE, FRONT
- The line which is parallel or nearly parallel to the rear lot line.
- LOT LINE, REAR
- The lot line, other than a front lot line, which is parallel or nearly parallel to the front lot line.
- LOT LINE, SIDE
- Any lot line not a front or rear lot line.
- LOT OF RECORD
- A lot which actually exists in a subdivision or plat as shown on the records of the County Register of Deeds, or a lot or parcel described by metes and bounds, the description of which has been recorded.
- LOT WIDTH
- The average distance between side lot lines measured at the building line, on a line parallel to the street, and measured at right angles to the side lot lines.
- MASTER DEED
- The condominium document recording the condominium project as approved by the Village Council to which is attached as exhibits and incorporated by reference the approved bylaws for the project and the approved condominium subdivision plan for the project.
- MANUFACTURED HOME
- A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a chassis and designed to be used with or without a permanent foundation, when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems contained in the structure. "Manufactured home" does not include a recreational vehicle [Public Act No. 96 of 1987 (MCLA 125.2301 et seq.)]. All manufactured homes must conform to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's code for manufactured homes. "Manufactured home" includes a double-wide unit.
- MANUFACTURED HOME PARK
- A parcel or tract of land, upon which three or more manufactured homes are located on a continual nonrecreational basis, and which is offered to the public for that purpose regardless of whether a charge is made therefor, together with any building, structure, enclosure, street, equipment, or facility used or intended or used incidental to the occupancy of a manufactured home, and which is not intended for use as a recreational vehicle trailer park [Public Act No. 96 of 1987 (MCLA 125.2301 et seq.)].
- MODULAR DWELLING
- A structure which meets the requirements of the single state construction code, and which is transported in one or more sections on a removable chassis, and is designed to be used on a permanent foundation, when connected to the required utilities, such as plumbing, heating, and electrical systems.
- MOTEL or MOTOR HOTEL
- A series of attached, semidetached, or detached rental units providing long-term or transient lodging with motor vehicle parking in an area contiguous to the building.
- NONCONFORMING LOT OF RECORD (SUBSTANDARD LOT)
- A lot lawfully existing at the effective date of the ordinance from which this chapter is derived, or affecting amendment, and which fails to meet the minimum area requirements of the zoning district in which it is located.
- NONCONFORMING STRUCTURE
- A structure, or portion thereof, lawfully existing at the effective date of the ordinance from which this chapter is derived, or affecting amendment, and which fails to meet the minimum yard setback requirements of the zoning district in which it is located.
- NONCONFORMING USE
- A use lawfully existing in a building or on land at the effective date of the ordinance from which this chapter is derived, or affecting amendment, and which fails to conform to the use regulations of the zoning district in which it is located.
- Shall be held to embrace "public nuisance" as known at common law or in equity jurisprudence; whatever is dangerous to human life or detrimental to health; any dwelling or building which is overcrowded or is not provided with adequate ingress or egress to or from the same, or is not sufficiently supported, ventilated, sewered, drained, cleaned or lighted in reference to its intended or actual use; and whatever renders the air or human food or drink unwholesome, are also severally, in contemplation of this chapter, nuisances and all such nuisances are hereby declared illegal.
- OPEN AIR BUSINESS
- Shall be defined to include the following:
- (1) Retail sale of trees, shrubbery, plants, flowers, seed, topsoil, humus, fertilizer, trellises, lawn furniture, playground equipment, and other home garden supplies and equipment.
- (2) Retail sale of fruits and vegetables.
- (3) Tennis courts, archery courts, shuffleboard, horseshoe courts, miniature golf, golf driving range, children's amusement park and/or similar recreational uses.
- (4) Bicycle, utility truck or trailer, motor vehicles, boats or home equipment sale; rental or repair services.
- (5) Outdoor display and sale of garages, swimming pools, motor homes, snowmobiles, modular dwellings, farm implements, and similar products.
- A tract or continuous area or acreage of land which is occupied or intended to be occupied by a building, series of buildings, accessory building, condominium units, or by any other use or activity permitted thereon and including open spaces and setbacks required under this chapter, and having its frontage on a public or private road.
- PAVED ROAD OR STREET
- A right-of-way reserved for the use of the occupants of the abutting structures and shall have a minimum thirty-foot paved width or mandatory minimum established by emergency personnel.
- PERSONAL SERVICE ESTABLISHMENT
- A business providing a service to customers, including but not limited to hair salon, health spa, and similar businesses but in no case adult businesses as defined in this chapter.
- PLANNING COMMISSION
- The Village Planning Commission and shall have all powers granted under authority of Public Act No. 285 of 1931 (MCLA 125.31 et seq.), and as provided in this chapter.
- PRIVATE STREET
- A right-of-way reserved for the use of the occupants of the abutting structures. Said private street shall not be accepted by the Village for maintenance in any form and shall have a minimum thirty-foot paved width or mandatory minimum established by emergency personnel.
- PUBLIC UTILITY
- Any person, firm, corporation, municipal department or board duly authorized to furnish or furnishing under regulation, to the public, electricity, gas, steam, communication, transportation, drainage or water.
- PUTRESCIBLE WASTE
- Material which is capable of undergoing the process of decomposition resulting in the formation of malodorous by-products.
- RECREATIONAL VEHICLE
- Any self-propelled vehicle or towed vehicle intended primarily for recreational purposes and shall be deemed to include, but not be limited to, motor homes, travel trailers, tent trailers, collapsible trailers, expandable trailers, pickup coach campers, unattached pickup covers, motorcycle trailers, snowmobile trailers, utility trailers, vehicle transporting trailers, stock car trailers, camping trailers, boat trailers, snowmobiles, trail bikes or cycles, unlicensed motorcycles or motor-driven cycles, pontoon boats, rafts, and boats.
- RECYCLING FACILITY
- A facility to receive recyclable material, where any method, technique, or process is utilized to separate, process, modify, convert, treat or otherwise prepare nonputrescible waste so that component materials or substances may be used or reused or sold to third parties for such purposes. The use or reuse or a solid waste may not be used in a manner that would constitute solid waste disposal.
- The rebuilding or renewal of a part of an existing building for the purpose of maintaining its original type and classification.
- RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FACILITY
- Any facility that is involved in the inquiry, examination, investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and/or interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws and the development thereof. Development may include a limited number of test units of a given product resulting from such research and shall include limited production while a product is being test-marketed which is the interim step between full research and development and ultimate full scale production.
- (a) Foods, frozen desserts, or beverages are served directly to the customer in a motor vehicle either by a carhop or by other means which eliminate the need for the customer to exit the motor vehicle.
- (b) The consumption of foods, frozen desserts, or beverages within a motor vehicle parked upon the premises, or at other facilities on the premises outside the restaurant building, is allowed, encouraged, or permitted.
- (a) Foods, frozen desserts, or beverages are usually served in edible containers, or in paper, plastic, or other disposable containers.
- (b) The consumption of foods, frozen desserts, or beverages within a motor vehicle parked upon the premises is posted as being prohibited and such prohibition is strictly enforced by the restaurateur.
- (b) The consumption of foods, frozen desserts, or beverages within the restaurant building, within a motor vehicle parked upon the premises, or at other facilities on the premises outside the restaurant building is posted as being prohibited and such prohibition is strictly enforced by the restaurateur.
- (a) Customers, normally provided with an individual menu, are served their foods, frozen desserts, or beverages by a restaurant employee at the same table or counter at which said items are consumed.
- (b) A cafeteria-type operation where foods, frozen desserts, or beverages (alcoholic and nonalcoholic) generally are consumed within the restaurant building.
- ROAD OR STREET, PUBLIC
- A public right-of-way of 66 feet or more in width which has been dedicated for the purposes of providing access to abutting private lots of land, including the space for pavement and sidewalks.
- The minimum horizontal distance a building or structure or any portion thereof is required to be located from the boundaries of a lot or parcel.
- SHOPPING CENTER
- A retail commercial establishment or a group of retail establishments which is planned, developed, owned and managed as a unit, with off-street parking provided on the property.
- A device, fixture, placard, or structure that uses any color, form, graphic, illumination, symbol, or writing to advertise, announce the purpose of, or identify the purpose of any business, establishment, person, entity, product, service or activity, or to communicate information of any kind to the public.
- (a) Temporary construction sign for development and construction projects in any district, provided that signs are used in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.
- (b) Temporary business sign, including freestanding signs, portable signs, banner, pennant, streamer, balloon or gas-filled figures which are used for on-premises business promotional purposes. The signs shall meet the size, area and placement provisions of this chapter.
- (c) Community special event signs that announce an on-premises drive, campaign, activity or event of a civic, philanthropic, educational, religious organization or nonprofit for noncommercial purposes and shall be subject to the following:
-  Limited to freestanding signs, portable signs and items such as banners, pennants, streamers, balloons and gas-filled figures. Banners, pennants, streamers and balloons shall be securely anchored and consistent with public safety standards. Each item used shall constitute a separate sign usage, and the number of signs shall be in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. Portable signs may be used as temporary event signs upon the issuance of a sign permit; however, no movable sign used as a temporary event sign shall be located on any premises with any other movable sign.
-  Temporary event signs may be illuminated in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and subject to the supervision and discretion of the Village.
- SITE CONDOMINIUM PROJECT
- A plan or project consisting of not less than two single-family units established in conformance with the condominium act [Public Act No. 59 of 1978 (MCLA 559.61 et seq.)].
- SPECIAL USE PERMIT
- A permit for a use that would not be appropriate generally or without restriction throughout the zoning district, but which, if controlled as to the number, area, location or relation to the Village, would not adversely affect the public health, safety, order, comfort, convenience, appearance, prosperity, and general welfare. Such uses shall be permitted when the review criteria provided for them in this chapter are met.
- STRUCTURAL CHANGES OR ALTERATIONS
- Any change in the supporting members of a building, such as bearing walls, columns, beams, or girders, or any substantial change in the roof.
- Any constructed object having footing on the ground, including fences, buildings, sheds and similar constructions.
- SWIMMING POOL
- Any structure or container, either above or below grade, located either in part or wholly outside a permanently enclosed and roofed building, designed to hold water to a depth of greater than 12 inches when filled to capacity, intended for immersion of the human body, whether for swimming or wading or both.
- TEMPORARY BUILDING OR USE
- A structure or use permitted by the Building Inspector to exist during periods of construction of the main use or for special events, not to exceed six months. Two extension periods of six months each are allowed.
- A varying or relaxation of the standards of this chapter by the Board of Zoning Appeals; where such variances will not be contrary to the public interest; and where, owing to conditions peculiar to the property and not the result of the actions of the applicant, a literal enforcement of this chapter would result in practical difficulty.
- A conveyance which includes automobiles, trucks, and other motorized forms of transportation.
- That scenic area which is visible from a specific location on the ground.