[Ord. 2-80, 11/17/1980, § 700; as amended by Ord. 91-4, 9/3/1991]
There is hereby created for the Township a Zoning Hearing Board in accordance with the provisions of Article IX of the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code, 53 P.S. § 10901 et seq.
The membership of the Board shall consist of three residents of the Township appointed by resolution by the Board of Supervisors. The terms of office shall be for three years and shall be so fixed that the term of office of one member shall expire each year. The Board shall promptly notify the Board of Supervisors of any vacancies which occur. Appointments to fill vacancies shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term. Members of the Board shall hold no other office in the Township.
Any Board member may be removed for malfeasance, misfeasance or nonfeasance in office or for other just cause by a majority vote of the Board of Supervisors which appointed the member, taken after the member has received 15 days' advance notice of the intent to take such a vote. A hearing shall be held in connection with the vote if the member shall request it in writing.
The Board shall elect from its own membership its officers, who shall serve annual terms as such and may succeed themselves. For the conduct of any hearing and the taking of any action a quorum shall be not less than a majority of all the members of the Board, but the Board may appoint a hearing officer from its own membership to conduct any hearing on its behalf and the parties may waive further action by the Board as provided in this chapter.
The Board may make, alter and rescind rules and forms for its procedure, consistent with ordinances of the Township and laws of the Commonwealth. The Board shall keep full public records of its business, which records shall be the property of the Township and shall submit a report of its activities to the Board of Supervisors as requested by the Board of Supervisors.
Within the limits of funds appropriated by the Board of Supervisors, the Board may employ or contract for secretaries, clerks, legal counsel, consultants and other technical and clerical services. Members of the Board may receive compensation for the performance of their duties, as may be fixed by the Board of Supervisors, but in no case shall it exceed the rate of compensation authorized to be paid to the members of the Board of Supervisors.
[Ord. 2-80, 11/17/1980, § 703; as amended by Ord. 3-81, 12/7/1981, §§ 8 & 9; and by Ord. 91-4, 9/3/1991]
The Zoning Hearing Board shall conduct hearings and make decisions in accordance with the following requirements:
Public notice shall be given and written notice shall be given to the applicant, the Zoning Officer and to any person who has made timely request for the same. Written notices shall be given at such time and in such manner as shall be prescribed by rules of the Board. In addition to the written notice provided herein, written notice of said hearing shall be conspicuously posted on the affected tract of land at least one week prior to the hearing.
The hearing shall be held within 60 days from the date of the applicant's request, unless the applicant has agreed in writing to an extension of time.
The hearings shall be conducted by the Board or the Board may appoint any member as a hearing officer. The decision, or, where no decision is called for, the findings shall be made by the Board, however, the appellant or the applicant, as the case may be, in addition to the Township, may, prior to the decision of the hearing, waive decision or findings by the Board and accept the decision or findings of the hearing officer as final.
The parties to the hearing shall be the Township, any person affected by the application who has made timely appearance of record before the Board, and any other person including civic or community organizations permitted to appear by the Board. The Board shall have power to require that all persons who wish to be considered parties enter appearances in writing on forms provided by the Board for that purpose.
The chairman or acting chairman of the Board or the hearing officer presiding shall have power to administer oaths and issue subpoenas to compel the attendance of witnesses and the production of relevant documents and papers, including witnesses and documents requested by the parties.
The parties shall have the right to be represented by counsel and shall be afforded the opportunity to respond and present evidence and argument and cross-examine adverse witnesses on all relevant issues.
Formal rules of evidence shall not apply, but irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious evidence may be excluded.
The Board or the hearing officer, as the case may be, shall keep a stenographic record of the proceedings. The appearance fee for a stenographer shall be shared equally by the applicant and the Board. The cost of the original transcript shall be paid by the Board if the transcript is ordered by the Board or hearing officer or shall be paid by the person appealing from the decision of the Board if such appeal is made, and in either event the cost of additional copies shall be paid by the person requesting such copy or copies. In other cases the party requesting the original transcript shall bear the cost thereof.
The Board or the hearing officer shall not communicate, directly or indirectly, with any party or his representatives in connection with any issue involved except upon notice and opportunity for all parties to participate, shall not take notice of any communication, reports, staff memoranda, or other materials, except advice from their solicitor, unless the parties are afforded an opportunity to contest the material so noticed and shall not inspect the site or its surroundings after the commencement of hearings with any party or his representative unless all parties are given an opportunity to be present.
The Board or the hearing officer, as the case may be, shall render a written decision or, when no decision is called for, make written findings on the application within 45 days after the last hearing before the Board or hearing officer. Where the application is contested or denied, each decision shall be accompanied by findings of fact and conclusions based thereon together with the reasons therefor. Conclusions based on any provisions of this chapter or of any law, ordinance, rule or regulation shall contain a reference to the provision relied on and the reasons why the conclusion is deemed appropriate in the light of the facts found. If the hearing is conducted by a hearing officer, and there has been no stipulation that his decision or findings are final, the Board shall make his report and recommendations available to the parties within 45 days and the parties shall be entitled to make written representations thereon to the Board prior to final decision or entry of findings, and the Board's decision shall be entered no later than 30 days after the report of the hearing officer. Where the Board fails to render the decision within the period required by this subsection, or fails to hold the required hearing within 60 days from the date of the applicant's request for a hearing, the decision shall be deemed to have been rendered in favor of the applicant unless the applicant has agreed in writing or on the record to an extension of time. When a decision has been rendered in favor of the applicant because of the failure of the Board to meet or render a decision as hereinabove provided, the Board shall give public notice of the said decision within 10 days from the last day it could have met to render a decision in the same manner as provided in Subsection 1 of this section. If the Board shall fail to provide such notice, the applicant may do so. Nothing in this subsection shall prejudice the right of any party opposing the application to appeal the decision to a court of competent jurisdiction.
A copy of the final decision or, where no decision is called for, of the findings shall be delivered to the applicant personally or mailed to him not later than the day following its date. To all other persons who have filed their name and address with the Board not later than the last day of the hearing, the Board shall provide by mail or otherwise, brief notice of the decision or findings and a statement of the place at which the full decision or findings may be examined.
The Board of Supervisors shall establish, by resolution, fees with respect to hearings before the Zoning Hearing Board.
[Ord. 91-4, 9/3/1991]
The Zoning Hearing Board shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and render final adjudications in the following matters:
Substantive challenges to the validity of any land use ordinance, except those brought before the Board of Supervisors pursuant to §§ 609.1 and 916.1(a)(2) of the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code (hereinafter "MPC"), 53 P.S. §§ 10609.1, 10916.1.
Challenges to the validity of a land use ordinance raising procedural questions or alleged defects in the process of enactment or adoption which challenges shall be raised by an appeal taken within 30 days after the effective date of said ordinance. Where the ordinance appealed from is the initial zoning ordinance of the Township and a Zoning Hearing Board has not been previously established, the appeal raising procedural questions shall be taken directly to court.
Appeals from the determination of the Zoning Officer, including, but not limited to, the granting or denial of any permit, or failure to act on the application therefor, the issuance of any cease and desist order or the registration or refusal to register any nonconforming use, structure or lot.
Appeals from a determination by the Township engineer or the Zoning Officer with reference to the administration of any floodplain or flood hazard ordinance or such provisions within a land use ordinance.
Applications for variances from the terms of this chapter and flood hazard ordinance or such provisions within a land use ordinance, pursuant to § 910.2 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10910.2.
Applications for special exceptions under this chapter or floodplain or flood hazard ordinance or such provisions within a land use ordinance, pursuant to § 912.1 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10912.1.
Appeals from the determination of any officer or agency charged with the administration of any transfers of development rights or performance density provisions of this chapter.
Appeals from the Zoning Officer's determination under § 916.2 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10916.2.
Appeals from the determination of the Zoning Officer or Township engineer in the administration of any land use ordinance or provision thereof with reference to sedimentation and erosion control and storm water management insofar as the same relate to development not involving applications under Article V or VII of the MPC, 53 P.S. §§ 10501 et seq., 10701 et seq.
The Board of Supervisors, shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and render final adjudications in the following matters:
All applications for approvals of planned residential developments under Article VII of the MPC pursuant to the provisions of § 702 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10702.
All applications pursuant to § 508 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10508, for approval of subdivisions or land developments under Article V of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10501 et seq.
Applications for conditional use under the express provisions of this chapter.
Applications for curative amendment to this chapter or pursuant to §§ 609.1 and 916.1(a) of the MPC, 53 P.S. §§ 10609.1, 10916.1(a).
All petitions for amendments to land use ordinances, pursuant to the procedures set forth in § 609 of the MPC, 53 P.S. § 10609.
Appeals from the determination of the Zoning Officer or the Township engineer in the administration of any land use ordinance or provisions thereof with reference to sedimentation and erosion control and storm water management insofar as the same relate to applications for land development under Articles V and VII of the MPC, 53 P.S. §§ 10501 et seq., 10701 et seq. Where such determination relates only to development not involving an Article V or VII application, the appeal from such determination of the Zoning Officer or the Township engineer shall be to the Zoning Hearing Board pursuant to this section. Where the applicable land use ordinance vests jurisdiction for final administration of subdivision and land development applications in the Planning Commission, all appeals from determinations under this subsection shall be to the Planning Commission and all appeals from the decision of the Planning Commission shall be to court.
[Ord. 2-80, 11/17/1980, § 704; as amended by Ord. 91-4, 9/3/1991]
The landowner shall file a request for a variance with the Zoning Officer along with all maps, plans and text which may be relevant to the request. Said request shall be accompanied by a fee specified by the Board of Supervisors.
The Zoning Officer shall transmit the request and any information received therewith, along with his file on said issue forthwith to the Zoning Hearing Board.
The Zoning Hearing Board shall hear requests for variances where it is alleged that the provisions of this chapter inflict unnecessary hardship upon the applicant. The Board may by rule prescribe the form of application and may require preliminary application to the Zoning Officer. The Board may grant a variance, provided that all of the following findings are made where relevant in a given case:
That there are unique physical circumstances or conditions, including irregularity, narrowness, or shallowness of lot size or shape, or exceptional topographical or other physical conditions peculiar to the particular property and that the unnecessary hardship is due to such conditions and not the circumstances or conditions generally created by the provisions of this chapter in the neighborhood or district in which the property is located.
That because of such physical circumstances or conditions, there is no possibility that the property can be developed in strict conformity with the provisions of this chapter and that the authorization of a variance is therefore necessary to enable the reasonable use of the property.
That such unnecessary hardship has not been created by the applicant.
That the variance, if authorized, will not alter the essential character of the neighborhood or district in which the property is located, nor substantially or permanently impair the appropriate use or development of adjacent property, nor be detrimental to the public welfare.
That the variance, if authorized, will represent the minimum variance that will afford relief and will represent the least modification possible of the regulation in issue.
In granting any variance, the Board may attach such reasonable conditions and safeguards as it may deem necessary to implement the purposes of this chapter and the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code, 53 P.S. § 10101 et seq.
[Ord. 2-80, 11/17/1980, § 704; as amended by Ord. 91-4, 9/3/1991]
Where the Board of Supervisors, in this chapter, has stated special exceptions to be granted or denied by the Zoning Hearing Board pursuant to express standards and criteria, the Board shall hear and decide requests for such special exceptions in accordance with such standards and criteria. In granting a special exception, the Board may attach such reasonable conditions and safeguards, in addition to those expressed in this chapter, as it may deem necessary to implement the purposes of this chapter and the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code, 53 P.S. § 10101 et seq.
The landowner shall file a request for the granting of a special exception along with all maps, plans and text which may be necessary to explain the development proposed and its conformance with the standards and criteria of this chapter with the Zoning Officer. Said request shall be accompanied by a fee specified by the Board of Supervisors.
The Zoning Officer shall transmit the request and background data forthwith to the Zoning Hearing Board.
[Ord. 2-80, 11/17/1980, § 706; as amended by Ord. 91-4, 9/3/1991]
Appeals raising the substantive validity of any land use ordinance (except those to be brought before the Board of Supervisors pursuant to the Pennsylvania Municipalities Code, procedural questions or alleged defects in the process of enactment or adoption of a land use ordinance; or from the determination of the Zoning Officer, including, but not limited to, the granting or denial of any permit, or failure to act on the application therefor, the issuance of any cease and desist order or the registration or refusal to register any nonconforming use, structure or lot; from a determination by the Township engineer or the Zoning Officer with reference to the administration of any floodplain or flood hazard ordinance or such provisions within a land use ordinance; from the determination of any officer or agency charged with the administration of any transfers of development rights or performance density provisions of this chapter; from the determination of the Zoning Officer or Township engineer in the administration of any land use ordinance or provision thereof with reference to sedimentation and erosion control and storm water management insofar as the same relate to development not involving subdivision and land development or planned residential development may be filed with the Zoning Hearing Board in writing by the landowner affected, any officer or agency of the Township, or any person aggrieved. Requests for a variance and for special exception may be filed with the Board by any landowner or any tenant with the permission of such landowner.
[Ord. 2-80, 11/17/1980, § 705; as amended by Ord. 91-4, 9/3/1991]
No person shall be allowed to file any proceeding with the Zoning Hearing Board later than 30 days after an application for development, preliminary or final, has been approved by the Township if such proceeding is designed to secure reversal or to limit the approval in any manner unless such person alleges and proves that he had no notice, knowledge or reason to believe that such approval had been given. If such person has succeeded to his interest after such approval, he shall be bound by the knowledge of his predecessor in interest. The failure of anyone other than the landowner to appeal from an adverse decision on a tentative plan or from an adverse decision by the Zoning Officer on a challenge to the validity of this chapter or an amendment hereto or map or an amendment thereto shall preclude an appeal from a final approval except in the case where the final submission substantially deviates from the approved tentative approval.
All appeals from determinations adverse to the landowner shall be filed by the landowner within 30 days after notice of the determination is issued.
[Ord. 91-4, 9/3/1991]
Upon filing of any appeal proceeding before the Zoning Hearing Board and during its pendency before the Board, all land development pursuant to any challenged ordinance, order or approval of the Zoning Officer or of any agency or body, and all official action thereunder, shall be stayed unless the Zoning Officer or any other appropriate agency or body certifies to the Board facts indicating that such stay would cause imminent peril to life or property, in which case the development or official action shall not be stayed otherwise than by a restraining order, which may be granted by the Board or by the court having jurisdiction of zoning appeals, on petition, after notice to the Zoning Officer or other appropriate agency or body. When an application for development, preliminary or final, has been duly approved and proceedings designed to reverse or limit the approval are filed with the Board by persons other than the applicant, the applicant may petition the court having jurisdiction of zoning appeals to order such persons to post bond as a condition to continuing the proceedings before the Board.
After the petition is presented, the court shall hold a hearing to determine if the filing of the appeal is frivolous. At the hearing, evidence may be presented on the merits of the case. It shall be the burden of the applicant for a bond to prove the appeal is frivolous. After consideration of all evidence presented, if the court determines that the appeal is frivolous, it shall grant the petition for a bond. The right to petition the court to order the appellants to post bond may be waived by the appellee, but such waiver may be revoked by him if an appeal is taken from a final decision of the court.
The question whether or not such petition should be granted and the amount of the bond shall be within the sound discretion of the court. An order denying a petition for bond shall be interlocutory. An order directing the responding party to post a bond shall be interlocutory.
If an appeal is taken by a respondent to the petition for a bond from an order of the court dismissing a zoning appeal for refusal to post a bond and the appellate court sustains the order of the court below to post a bond, the respondent to the petition for a bond, upon motion of the petitioner and after hearing in the court having jurisdiction of zoning appeals, shall be liable for all reasonable costs, expenses and attorney fees incurred by the petitioner.