[HISTORY: Adopted by the City Council of the City of Bangor 12-26-2001 by Ord. No. 02-40. Amendments noted where applicable.]
Building Code — See Ch. 81.
Residential Building Code — See Ch. 82.
Harbor and waterways — See Ch. 140.
Historic preservation — See Ch. 148.
Land development — See Ch. 165.
Mobile home parks — See Ch. 186.
Stormwater — See Ch. 268.
Editor's Note: This ordinance also repealed former Ch. 120, Floodplain Management, adopted 6-23-1987 by Ord. No. 87-174 (Ch. XIII), as amended.
Certain areas of the City of Bangor, Maine are subject to periodic flooding, causing serious damages to properties within these areas. Relief is available in the form of flood insurance as authorized by the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968.
Therefore, the City of Bangor, Maine has chosen to become a participating community in the National Flood Insurance Program, and agrees to comply with the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-488, as amended) as delineated in this Floodplain Management Ordinance.
It is the intent of the City of Bangor, Maine to require the recognition and evaluation of flood hazards in all official actions relating to land use in the floodplain areas having special flood hazards.
The City of Bangor has the legal authority to adopt land use and control measures to reduce future flood losses pursuant to Title 30-A M.R.S.A., Sections 3001-3007, 4352 and 4401-4407.
The National Flood Insurance Program, established in the aforesaid Act, provides that areas of the City of Bangor having a special flood hazard be identified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and that floodplain management measures be applied in such flood hazard areas. This chapter establishes a flood hazard development permit system and review procedure for development activities in the designated flood hazard areas of the City of Bangor, Maine.
The areas of special flood hazard, Zones A and AE, are identified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency in a report entitled "Flood Insurance Study - City of Bangor, Maine, Penobscot County," dated March 4, 2002, with accompanying Flood Insurance Rate Map dated March 4, 2002, which are hereby adopted by reference and declared to be a part of this chapter.
[Amended 2-25-2002 by Ord. No. 02-107]
Before any construction or other development (as defined in § 120-13), including the placement of manufactured homes, begins within any areas of special flood hazard established in § 120-1, a flood hazard development permit shall be obtained from the Code Enforcement Officer. This permit shall be in addition to any other permits which may be required pursuant to the Code of the City of Bangor, Maine.
The application for a flood hazard development permit shall be submitted to the Code Enforcement Officer and shall include:
The name, address and phone number of the applicant, owner, and contractor;
An address and a map indicating the location of the construction site;
A site plan showing location of existing and/or proposed development, including but not limited to structures, sewage disposal facilities, water supply facilities, areas to be cut and filled, and lot dimensions;
A statement of the intended use of the structure and/or development;
A statement of the cost of the development, including all materials and labor;
A statement as to the type of sewage system proposed;
Specification of dimensions of the proposed structure and/or development;
For new construction and substantial improvements:
The elevation in relation to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD), or to a locally established datum in Zone A only, of the:
Base flood at the proposed site of all new or substantially improved structures, which is determined:
In Zone AE, from data contained in the Flood Insurance Study - City of Bangor, Maine, as described in § 120-1; or
In Zone A:
From the contour elevation extrapolated from a best-fit analysis of the floodplain boundary when overlaid onto a USGS Quadrangle Map or other topographic map prepared by a professional land surveyor or registered professional engineer, if the floodplain boundary has a significant correlation to the elevation contour line(s); or, in the absence of all other data;
To be the elevation of the ground at the intersection of the floodplain boundary and a line perpendicular to the shoreline which passes along the ground through the site of the proposed building.
Highest and lowest grades at the site adjacent to the walls of the proposed building;
Lowest floor, including basement; and whether or not such structures contain a basement; and
Level, in the case of nonresidential structures only, to which the structure will be floodproofed.
A description of an elevation reference point established on the site of all developments for which elevation standards apply as required in § 120-6;
A written certification by a professional land surveyor, registered professional engineer or architect that the base flood elevation and grade elevations shown on the application are accurate;
The following certifications as required in § 120-6 by a registered professional engineer or architect:
A hydraulic openings certificate to verify that engineered hydraulic openings in foundation walls will meet the standards of § 120-6L(2)(a);
A description of the extent to which any watercourse will be altered or relocated as a result of the proposed development; and
An additional fee may be charged if the Code Enforcement Officer and/or Board of Appeals needs the assistance of a professional engineer or other expert. The expert's fee shall be paid in full by the applicant within 10 days after the City submits a bill to the applicant. Failure to pay the bill shall constitute a violation of the chapter and be grounds for the issuance of a stop work order. An expert shall not be hired by the municipality at the expense of an applicant until the applicant has either consented to such hiring in writing or been given an opportunity to be heard on the subject. An applicant who is dissatisfied with a decision to hire expert assistance may appeal that decision to the Board of Appeals.
The Code Enforcement Officer shall:
Review all applications for the flood hazard development permit to assure that proposed developments are reasonably safe from flooding and to determine that all pertinent requirements of § 120-6 (Development standards) have been, or will be, met;
Utilize, in the review of all flood hazard development permit applications:
The base flood data contained in the Flood Insurance Study - City of Bangor, Maine, as described in § 120-1;
In special flood hazard areas where base flood elevation data are not provided, obtain, review and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation and floodway data from federal, state, or other technical sources, including information obtained pursuant to § 120-3H(1)(b); § 120-6K; and § 120-8D, in order to administer § 120-6 of this chapter; and,
Make interpretations of the location of boundaries of special flood hazard areas shown on the map; described in § 120-1 of this chapter;
In the review of flood hazard development permit applications, determine that all necessary permits have been obtained from those federal, state, and local government agencies from which prior approval is required by federal or state law, including but not limited to Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, 33 U.S.C. 1334;
Notify adjacent municipalities, the Department of Environmental Protection, and the Maine Floodplain Management Program in the State Planning Office prior to any alteration or relocation of a watercourse and submit copies of such notifications to the Federal Emergency Management Agency;
If the application satisfies the requirements of this chapter, approve the issuance of one of the following flood hazard development permits based on the type of development:
A two-part flood hazard development permit for elevated structures. Part I shall authorize the applicant to build a structure to and including the first horizontal floor only above the base flood level. At that time the applicant shall provide the Code Enforcement Officer with a second elevation certificate completed by a professional land surveyor, registered professional engineer or architect based on the Part I permit construction, "as built," for verifying compliance with the elevation requirements of § 120-6, Subsections F, G, or H. Following review of the elevation certificate data, which shall take place within 72 hours of receipt of the application, the Code Enforcement Officer shall issue Part II of the flood hazard development permit. Part II shall authorize the applicant to complete the construction project; or
A flood hazard development permit for floodproofing of nonresidential structures that are new construction or substantially improved nonresidential structures that are not being elevated but that meet the floodproofing standards of § 120-6G(1)(a), (b), and (c). The application for this permit shall include a floodproofing certificate signed by a registered professional engineer or architect; or
A flood hazard development permit for minor development for all development that is not new construction or a substantial improvement, such as repairs, maintenance, renovations, or additions, whose value is less than 50% of the market value of the structure. Minor development also includes, but is not limited to, accessory structures as provided for in § 120-6J, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation, drilling operations, storage of equipment or materials, deposition or extraction of materials, public or private sewage disposal systems or water supply facilities that do not involve structures; and nonstructural projects such as bridges, dams, towers, fencing, pipelines, wharves and piers.
Maintain, as a permanent record, copies of all flood hazard development permit applications, corresponding permits issued, and data relevant thereto, including reports of the Board of Appeals on variances granted under the provisions of § 120-9 of this chapter, and copies of elevation certificates, floodproofing certificates, certificates of compliance and certifications of design standards required under the provisions of §§ 120-3, 120-6 and 120-7 of this chapter.
All developments in areas of special flood hazard shall meet the following applicable standards:
All development. All development shall:
Be designed or modified and adequately anchored to prevent flotation (excluding piers and docks), collapse or lateral movement of the development resulting from hydrodynamic and hydrostatic loads, including the effects of buoyancy;
Use construction materials that are resistant to flood damage;
Use construction methods and practices that will minimize flood damage; and
Use electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, and air-conditioning equipment, and other service facilities that are designed and/or located so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during flooding conditions.
Water supply. All new and replacement water supply systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the systems.
Sanitary sewage systems. All new and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall be designed and located to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the system and discharges from the system into floodwaters.
On-site waste disposal systems. On-site waste disposal systems shall be located and constructed to avoid impairment to them or contamination from them during floods.
Watercourse carrying capacity. All development associated with altered or relocated portions of a watercourse shall be constructed and maintained in such a manner that no reduction occurs in the flood-carrying capacity of the watercourse.
Residential. New construction or substantial improvement of any residential structure located within:
Zone AE shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated to at least one foot above the base flood elevation.
Nonresidential. New construction or substantial improvement of any nonresidential structure located within:
Zone AE shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated to at least one foot above the base flood elevation or, together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, shall:
Be floodproofed to at least one foot above the base flood elevation so that below that elevation the structure is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water;
Have structural components capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and the effects of buoyancy; and
Be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect that the floodproofing design and methods of construction are in accordance with accepted standards of practice for meeting the provisions of this section. Such certification shall be provided with the application for a flood hazard development permit, as required by § 120-3K, and shall include a record of the elevation above mean sea level to which the structure is floodproofed.
Zone A shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated to at least one foot above the base flood elevation utilizing information obtained pursuant to § 120-3H(1)(b); 120-5B; or 120-8D or, together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, meet the floodproofing standards of § 120-6G(1).
Manufactured homes. New or substantially improved manufactured homes located within:
Zone AE shall:
Be elevated such that the lowest floor (including basement) of the manufactured home is at least one foot above the base flood elevation;
Be on a permanent foundation, which may be poured masonry slab or foundation walls, with hydraulic openings, or may be reinforced piers or block supports, any of which support the manufactured home so that no weight is supported by its wheels and axles; and
Be securely anchored to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist flotation, collapse, or lateral movement.
Methods of anchoring may include, but are not limited to:
Over-the-top ties anchored to the ground at the four corners of the manufactured home, plus two additional ties per side at intermediate points (manufactured homes less than 50 feet long require one additional tie per side); or
Frame ties at each corner of the home, plus five additional ties along each side at intermediate points (manufactured homes less than 50 feet long require four additional ties per side).
All components of the anchoring system described in § 120-6H(1)(c)[a] and [b] shall be capable of carrying a force of 4,800 pounds.
Zone A shall:
Recreational vehicles. Recreational vehicles located within:
Zone AE shall either:
Be on the site for fewer than 180 consecutive days;
Be fully licensed and ready for highway use. A recreational vehicle is ready for highway use if it is on its wheels or jacking system, is attached to the site only by quick-disconnect-type utilities and security devices, and has no permanently attached additions; or
Accessory structures. Accessory structures, as defined in § 120-13, located within Zones AE and A, shall be exempt from the elevation criteria required in § 120-6F and G above, if all other requirements of § 120-6 and all the following requirements are met. Accessory structures shall:
Be 500 square feet or less and have a value less than $3,000;
Have unfinished interiors and not be used for human habitation;
Have hydraulic openings, as specified in § 120-6L(2), in at least two different walls of the accessory structure;
Be located outside the floodway;
When possible be constructed and placed on the building site so as to offer the minimum resistance to the flow of floodwaters and be placed further from the source of flooding than is the primary structure; and
Have only ground fault interrupt electrical outlets. The electric service disconnect shall be located above the base flood elevation and when possible outside the special flood hazard area.
In Zone AE riverine areas, encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvement, and other development shall not be permitted within a regulatory floodway which is designated on the community's Flood Insurance Rate Map, unless a technical evaluation certified by a registered professional engineer is provided demonstrating that such encroachments will not result in any increase in flood levels within the community during the occurrence of the base flood discharge.
In Zones AE and A riverine areas for which no regulatory floodway is designated, encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvement, and other development shall not be permitted in the floodway as determined in § 120-6K(3) unless a technical evaluation certified by a registered professional engineer is provided demonstrating that the cumulative effect of the proposed development, when combined with all other existing development and anticipated development:
Will not increase the water surface elevation of the base flood more than one foot at any point within the community; and
Is consistent with the technical criteria contained in Article 5 entitled "Hydraulic Analyses," Flood Insurance Study - Guidelines and Specifications for Study Contractors (FEMA 37/January 1995, as amended).
In Zone AE and A riverine areas for which no regulatory floodway is designated, the regulatory floodway is determined to be the channel of the river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas to a distance of 1/2 the width of the floodplain as measured from the normal high-water mark to the upland limit of the floodplain.
Enclosed areas below the lowest floor. New construction or substantial improvement of any structure in Zones AE and A that meets the development standards of § 120-6, including the elevation requirements of § 120-6, Subsection F, G, or H, and is elevated on posts, columns, piers, piles, "stilts," or crawlspaces may be enclosed below the base flood elevation requirements, provided all the following criteria are met or exceeded:
Enclosed areas shall be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the entry and exit of floodwater. Designs for meeting this requirement must either:
Be engineered and certified by a registered professional engineer or architect; or
Meet or exceed the following minimum criteria:
A minimum of two openings having a total net area of not less than one square inch for every square foot of the enclosed area;
The bottom of all openings shall be below the base flood elevation and no higher than one foot above the lowest grade; and
Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, valves, or other coverings or devices, provided that they permit the entry and exit of floodwaters automatically without any external influence or control such as human intervention, including the use of electrical and other non-automatic mechanical means;
The enclosed area shall not be used for human habitation; and
The enclosed areas are usable solely for building access, parking of vehicles, or storage.
Bridges. New construction or substantial improvement of any bridge in Zones AE and A shall be designed such that:
When possible, the lowest horizontal member (excluding the pilings, or columns) is elevated to at least one foot above the base flood elevation; and
A registered professional engineer shall certify that:
The structural design and methods of construction shall meet the elevation requirements of this section and the floodway standards of § 120-6K; and
The foundation and superstructure attached thereto are designed to resist flotation, collapse and lateral movement due to the effects of wind and water loads acting simultaneously on all structural components. Water loading values used shall be those associated with the base flood.
Containment walls. New construction or substantial improvement of any containment wall located within:
Zones AE and A shall:
Have the containment wall elevated to at least one foot above the base flood elevation;
Have structural components capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and the effects of buoyancy; and
Be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect that the design and methods of construction are in accordance with accepted standards of practice for meeting the provisions of this section. Such certification shall be provided with the application for a flood hazard development permit, as required by § 120-3K.
Wharves, piers and docks. New construction or substantial improvement of wharves, piers, and docks are permitted in Zones AE and A, in and over water and seaward of the mean high tide, if the following requirements are met:
No land in a special flood hazard area shall be occupied or used and no structure which is constructed or substantially improved shall be occupied until a certificate of compliance is issued by the Code Enforcement Officer subject to the following provisions:
For new construction or substantial improvement of any elevated structure, the applicant shall submit to the Code Enforcement Officer an elevation certificate completed by a professional land surveyor, registered professional engineer, or architect, for compliance with § 120-6, Subsection F, G, or H.
The applicant shall submit written notification to the Code Enforcement Officer that the development is complete and complies with the provisions of this chapter.
The Planning Board shall, when reviewing subdivisions and other proposed developments that require review under other federal law, state law or local ordinances or regulations and all projects on five or more disturbed acres, or in the case of manufactured home parks divided into two or more lots, assure that:
All such proposals are consistent with the need to minimize flood damage.
All public utilities and facilities, such as sewer, gas, electrical and water systems, are located and constructed to minimize or eliminate flood damages.
Adequate drainage is provided so as to reduce exposure to flood hazards.
All proposals include base flood elevations, flood boundaries, and, in a riverine floodplain, floodway data. These determinations shall be based on engineering practices recognized by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Any proposed development plan must include a condition of plan approval requiring that structures on any lot in the development having any portion of its land within a special flood hazard area, are to be constructed in accordance with § 120-6 of this chapter. Such requirement will be included in any deed, lease, purchase and sale agreement, or document transferring or expressing an intent to transfer any interest in real estate or structure, including but not limited to a time-share interest. The condition shall clearly articulate that the municipality may enforce any violation of the construction requirement, and that fact shall also be included in the deed or any other document previously described. The construction requirement shall also be clearly stated on any map, plat, or plan to be signed by the Planning Board or local reviewing authority as part of the approval process.
The Board of Appeals of the City of Bangor may, upon written application of an aggrieved party, hear and decide appeals where it is alleged that there is an error in any order, requirement, decision, or determination made by, or failure to act by, the Code Enforcement Officer or Planning Board in the administration of the provisions of this chapter.
The Board of Appeals may grant a variance from the requirements of this chapter consistent with state law and the following criteria:
Variances shall not be granted within any designated regulatory floodway if any increase in flood levels during the base flood discharge would result.
Variances shall be granted only upon:
A showing of good and sufficient cause; and
A determination that should a flood comparable to the base flood occur, the granting of a variance will not result in increased flood heights, additional threats to public safety, public expense, or create nuisances, cause fraud or victimization of the public or conflict with existing local laws or codes; and
A showing that the issuance of the variance will not conflict with other state, federal or local laws or ordinances; and
A determination that failure to grant the variance would result in undue hardship, which in this subsection means:
That the land in question cannot yield a reasonable return unless a variance is granted; and
That the need for a variance is due to the unique circumstances of the property and not to the general conditions in the neighborhood; and
That the granting of a variance will not alter the essential character of the locality; and
That the hardship is not the result of action taken by the applicant or a prior owner.
Variances shall only be issued upon a determination that the variance is the minimum necessary, considering the flood hazard, to afford relief, and the Board of Appeals may impose such conditions to a variance as it deems necessary.
Variances may be issued for new construction, substantial improvements, or other development for the conduct of a functionally dependent use, provided that:
Variances may be issued for the repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, or restoration of historic structures upon the determination that:
The proposed repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, or restoration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as an historic structure and the variance is the minimum necessary to preserve the historic character and design of the structure.
Any applicant who meets the criteria of § 120-9, Subsections A through E, shall be notified by the Board of Appeals in writing over the signature of the Chairperson of the Board of Appeals that:
The issuance of a variance to construct a structure below the base flood level will result in greatly increased premium rates for flood insurance up to amounts as high as $25 per $100 of insurance coverage;
Such construction below the base flood level increases risks to life and property; and
The applicant agrees in writing that the applicant is fully aware of all the risks inherent in the use of land subject to flooding, assumes those risks and agrees to indemnify and defend the municipality against any claims filed against it that are related to the applicant's decision to use land located in a floodplain and that the applicant individually releases the municipality from any claims the applicant may have against the municipality that are related to the use of land located in a floodplain.
Appeal procedure for administrative and variance appeals.
An administrative or variance appeal may be taken to the Board of Appeals by an aggrieved party within 30 days after receipt of a written decision of the Code Enforcement Officer or Planning Board.
Upon being notified of an appeal, the Code Enforcement Officer or Planning Board, as appropriate, shall transmit to the Board of Appeals all of the papers constituting the record of the decision appealed from.
The Board of Appeals shall hold a public hearing on the appeal within 35 days of its receipt of an appeal request.
The person filing the appeal shall have the burden of proof.
The Board of Appeals shall decide all appeals within 35 days after the close of the hearing, and shall issue a written decision on all appeals.
The Board of Appeals shall submit to the Code Enforcement Officer a report of all variance actions, including justification for the granting of the variance and an authorization for the Code Enforcement Officer to issue a flood hazard development permit, which includes any conditions to be attached to said permit.
Any aggrieved party who participated as a party during the proceedings before the Board of Appeals may appeal a decision of the Board in accordance with Rule 80B of the Maine Rules of Civil Procedure.
It shall be the duty of the Code Enforcement Officer to enforce the provisions of this chapter pursuant to Title 30-A M.R.S.A. § 4452.
The penalties contained in Title 30-A M.R.S.A. § 4452 shall apply to any violation of this chapter.
In addition to any other actions, the Code Enforcement Officer, upon determination that a violation exists, shall submit a declaration to the Administrator of the Federal Insurance Administration requesting a denial of flood insurance. The valid declaration shall consist of:
The name of the property owner and address or legal description of the property sufficient to confirm its identity or location;
A clear and unequivocal declaration that the property is in violation of a cited state or local law, regulation, or ordinance;
A clear statement that the public body making the declaration has authority to do so and a citation to that authority;
Evidence that the property owner has been provided notice of the violation and the prospective denial of insurance; and
A clear statement that the declaration is being submitted pursuant to Section 1316 of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended.
If any section or provision of this chapter is declared by the courts to be invalid, such decision shall not invalidate any other section or provision of this chapter.
This chapter shall not in any way impair or remove the necessity of compliance with any other applicable rule, ordinance, regulation, bylaw, permit, or provision of law. Where this chapter imposes a greater restriction upon the use of land, buildings, or structures, the provisions of this chapter shall control.
Unless specifically defined below, words and phrases used in this chapter shall have the same meaning as they have at common law and to give this chapter its most reasonable application. Words used in the present tense include the future, the singular number includes the plural, and the plural number includes the singular. The word "may" is permissive; "shall" is mandatory and not discretionary.
As used in this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
- ACCESSORY STRUCTURE
- A small detached structure that is incidental and subordinate to the principal structure.
- ADJACENT GRADE
- The natural elevation of the ground surface prior to construction next to the proposed walls of a structure.
- AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD
- The land in the floodplain having a one-percent-or-greater chance of flooding in any given year, as specifically identified in the flood insurance study cited in § 120-1 of this chapter.
- BASE FLOOD
- The flood having a one-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year, commonly called the "one-hundred-year flood."
- Any area of the building having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides.
- See "structure."
- CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE
- A document signed by the Code Enforcement Officer stating that a structure is in compliance with all of the provisions of this chapter.
- CODE ENFORCEMENT OFFICER
- Any person or board responsible for performing the inspection, licensing, and enforcement duties required by a particular statute or ordinance.
- Any change caused by individuals or entities to improved or unimproved real estate, including but not limited to the construction of buildings or other structures; the construction of additions or substantial improvements to buildings or other structures; mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation, drilling operations or storage of equipment or materials; and the storage, deposition, or extraction of materials, public or private sewage disposal systems or water supply facilities.
- (1) A non-basement building:
- (a) Built, in the case of a building in Zones AE or A, to have the top of the elevated floor elevated above the ground level by means of pilings, columns, post, piers, or "stilts"; and
- (b) Adequately anchored so as not to impair the structural integrity of the building during a flood of up to one foot above the magnitude of the base flood.
- (2) In the case of Zone AE or A, "elevated building" also includes a building elevated by means of fill or solid foundation perimeter walls with hydraulic openings sufficient to facilitate the unimpeded movement of floodwaters, as required in § 120-6L.
- ELEVATION CERTIFICATE
- An official form (FEMA Form 81-31, 08/99, as amended) that:
- (2) The collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or other body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels or suddenly caused by an unusually high water level in a natural body of water, accompanied by a severe storm, or by an unanticipated force of nature, such as flash flood or an abnormal tidal surge, or by some similarly unusual and unforeseeable event which results in flooding as defined in Subsection (1)(a) of this definition.
- FLOOD ELEVATION STUDY
- An examination, evaluation and determination of flood hazards and, if appropriate, corresponding water surface elevations.
- FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM)
- An official map of a community, on which the Federal Insurance Administrator, has delineated both the special hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the community.
- FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY
- See "flood elevation study."
- FLOODPLAIN or FLOOD-PRONE AREA
- Any land area susceptible to being inundated by water from any source (see "flooding").
- FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT
- The operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood damage, including but not limited to emergency preparedness plans, flood control works, and floodplain management regulations.
- FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS
- Zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations, special purpose ordinances (such as a floodplain ordinance, grading ordinance, and erosion control ordinance) and other applications of police power. The term describes such state or local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction.
- Any combination of structural and nonstructural additions, changes, or adjustments to structures which reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitary facilities, structures and contents.
- See "regulatory floodway."
- FLOODWAY ENCROACHMENT LINES
- The lines marking the limits of floodways on federal, state, and local floodplain maps.
- A factor of safety usually expressed in feet above a flood level for purposes of floodplain management. Freeboard tends to compensate for the many unknown factors, such as wave action, bridge openings, and the hydrological effect of urbanization of the watershed, that could contribute to flood heights greater than the height calculated for a selected size flood and floodway conditions.
- FUNCTIONALLY DEPENDENT USE
- A use which cannot perform its intended purpose unless it is located or carried out in close proximity to water. The term includes only docking facilities, port facilities that are necessary for the loading and unloading of cargo or passengers, and ship building and ship repair facilities, but does not include long-term storage or related manufacturing facilities.
- HISTORIC STRUCTURE
- Any structure that is:
- (1) Listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places (a listing maintained by the Department of Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;
- (2) Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior to qualify as a registered historic district;
- (3) Individually listed on a state inventory of historic places in states with historic preservation programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or
- (4) Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either:
- LOCALLY ESTABLISHED DATUM
- For purposes of this chapter, an elevation established for a specific site to which all other elevations at the site are referenced. This elevation is generally not referenced to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) or any other established datum and is used in areas where mean sea level data is too far from a specific site to be practically used.
- LOWEST FLOOR
- The lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area (including basement). An unfinished or flood-resistant enclosure, usable solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage in an area other than a basement area, is not considered a building's lowest floor, provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in violation of the applicable non-elevation design requirements described in § 120-6L of this chapter.
- MANUFACTURED HOME
- A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities. For floodplain management purposes the term "manufactured home" also includes park trailers, travel trailers, and other similar vehicles placed on a site for greater than 180 consecutive days.
- MANUFACTURED HOME PARK or SUBDIVISION
- A parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale.
- MEAN SEA LEVEL
- For purposes of the National Flood Insurance Program, the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929, or other datum, to which base flood elevations shown on a community's Flood Insurance Rate Map are referenced.
- MINOR DEVELOPMENT
- All development that is not new construction or a substantial improvement, such as repairs, maintenance, renovations, or additions, whose value is less than 50% of the market value of the structure. It also includes, but is not limited to accessory structures as provided for in § 120-6J, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation, drilling operations, storage of equipment or materials, deposition or extraction of materials, public or private sewage disposal systems or water supply facilities that do not involve structures; and nonstructural projects such as bridges, dams, towers, fencing, pipelines, wharves, and piers.
- NATIONAL GEODETIC VERTICAL DATUM (NGVD)
- The national vertical datum, whose standard was established in 1929, which is used by the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). NGVD was based upon mean sea level in 1929 and also has been called "1929 Mean Sea Level (MSL)."
- NEW CONSTRUCTION
- Structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of the initial floodplain management regulations adopted by a community and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures.
- ONE-HUNDRED-YEAR FLOOD
- See "base flood."
- RECREATIONAL VEHICLE
- A vehicle which is:
- (1) Built on a single chassis;
- (2) Four hundred square feet or less when measured at the largest horizontal projection, not including slideouts;
- (3) Designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable by a motor vehicle; and
- (4) Designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel, or seasonal use.
- (1) The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one foot; and
- (2) When not designated on the community's Flood Insurance Rate Map, it is considered to be the channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas to a distance of 1/2 the width of the floodplain, as measured from the normal high-water mark to the upland limit of the floodplain.
- Relating to, formed by, or resembling a river (including tributaries), stream, brook, etc.
- SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA
- See "area of special flood hazard."
- START OF CONSTRUCTION
- The date the building permit was issued, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, placement, substantial improvement or other improvement was within 180 days of the permit date. The "actual start" means either the first placement of permanent construction of a structure on a site, such as the pouring of slab or footings, the installation of piles, the construction of columns, or any work beyond the stage of excavation; or the placement of a manufactured home on a foundation. Permanent construction does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading and filling; nor does it include the installation of streets and/or walkways; nor does it include excavation for basement, footings, piers, or foundations or the erection of temporary forms; nor does it include the installation on the property of accessory buildings, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure. For a substantial improvement, the actual start of construction means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of a building, or modification of any construction element, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building.
- For floodplain management purposes, a walled and roofed building. A gas or liquid storage tank that is principally above ground is also a structure.
- SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE
- Damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its before-damage condition would equal or exceed 50% of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
- SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT
- Any reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, or other improvement of a structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50% of the market value of the structure before the start of construction of the improvement. This term includes structures which have incurred substantial damage, regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does not, however, include either:
- (1) Any project for improvement of a structure to correct existing violations of state or local health, sanitary, or safety code specifications which have been identified by the local code enforcement official and which are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions; or
- (2) Any alteration of an historic structure, provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as an historic structure, and a variance is obtained from the community's Board of Appeals.
- A grant of relief by a community from the terms of a floodplain management regulation.
- The failure of a structure or development to comply with a community's floodplain management regulations.
This chapter repeals and replaces any municipal ordinance previously enacted to comply with the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-488, as amended).