[HISTORY.- Adopted by the Town Board of the Town of Southeast 5-11-1965; amended in its entirety 8-10-1976. Amendments noted where applicable.]
Building construction and fire prevention — See Ch. 54.
Driveways — See Ch. 64.
Excavations and grading — See Ch. 69.
Protection of scenic roads — See Ch. 110.
Sewers and water — See Ch. 112.
Stormwater management and erosion and sediment control — See Ch. 119.
Streets and sidewalks — See Ch. 121.
Subdivision of land — See Ch. 123.
Vehicles and traffic — See Ch. 131.
Roadway and drainage facilities, and their various appurtenances as required, shall be installed and constructed in accordance with these standard specifications of the Town of Southeast and in all cases must be constructed subject to the inspection and approval of the Town Superintendent of Highways or his duly designated representatives.
Whenever in these specifications the word "Superintendent" is used, it shall be deemed to mean the Town Superintendent of Highways and/or his duly designated representative(s).
Streets shall be constructed in accordance with the following design standards:
Street width. Streets shall have the following minimum width of right-of-way according to their classification. Street classifications shall be as approved by the Town Planning Board and shall be clearly shown on the subdivision plat and construction drawings prior to the commencement of work.
Width of pavement. Streets shall be paved to the following width:
Major thoroughfare: 40 feet.
Secondary thoroughfare: 36 feet.
Local street: 24 feet.
Local permanent dead-end street (permanent cul-de-sac) not over 300 feet long and not having a grade in excess of 5%: 20 feet.
Alignment. The vertical and horizontal alignment of all streets shall conform to the following requirements.
Horizontal curves. The radius of curvature at the center line of streets and the minimum length of tangent between reverse curves shall be as follows:
Street lines. Street lines on each side of a proposed street shall be parallel or shall be concentric arcs.
Vertical curves. All changes in grade shall be connected by vertical curves having the following minimum stopping sight distances and lengths:
Intersections. Intersections of major streets by other streets shall be at least 800 feet apart, if possible. Cross (four-cornered) street intersections shall be avoided, except at important and higher-volume traffic intersections. A distance of at least 150 feet shall be maintained between offset intersections. Within 100 feet of an intersection, streets shall be approximately at right angles, and grades shall be limited to 3%. Street intersection corners shall be rounded at the property line by curves having a radius of 35 feet for major and secondary thoroughfares and 25 feet for local streets. Edges of pavement and curbs at intersections shall have curves concentric with property line curves. At intersections of local streets with thoroughfares, the requirements for thoroughfares shall govern. Within the triangular area formed at corners by the intersecting street lines, for a distance of 75 feet from their intersection and the diagonal connecting the end points of these lines, visibility for traffic safety shall be provided by excavating if necessary. Nothing in the way of fences, walls, hedges or other landscaping shall be permitted to obstruct such visibility. Deeds for corner lots at street intersections shall have covenants included therein prohibiting the planting or construction of obstructions to visibility within the triangular area described above.
Streets shall be constructed in accordance with the following standards and procedures:
Clearing and grubbing.
All trees, perishable matter, boulders, structures, fences and debris of whatever nature shall be cleared from the full width of the roadway section, including both cut and fill slopes, except that trees located not closer than three feet from the edge of pavement may remain subject to the approval of the Superintendent. All roots and stumps within the limits of the road section shall be grubbed and excavated, except that no grubbing will be required where the finished roadway surface will be six feet or more above the original ground surface where foundation soil is satisfactory. Where trees are cleared and grubbing is not required, the trunks shall be cut off flush to the ground if possible, and in any instance not more than six inches above the ground.
Specially designated trees or other objects which have been designated to remain within the right-of-way shall be protected and preserved by whatever means necessary to ensure that no damage will be incurred during the construction.
At intersections and on curves additional clearing may be necessary to provide adequate visibility.
This work shall all be as approved by the Superintendent.
Topsoil. Topsoil shall be stripped from all surfaces of the roadway area which will be disturbed by the cut or fill operation. Topsoil so stripped shall be stockpiled on the site and shall be reserved for roadway landscaping unless approval for other usage has been granted by the Superintendent.
The subgrade shall be brought to the required grade by excavation or filling.
The subgrade material in cuts or fills shall be excavated or placed as the case may be so that the compacted and shaped subgrade surface is at least 19 inches below the finished grade of the proposed pavement surface.
All objectionable materials, including soft clays, muck, peat and organic material lying below the proposed subgrade elevation within the paved area of the roadway shall be excavated to good bottom and replaced by crushed stone, gravel or other approved granular material.
Excavated material, if suitable, may be used in forming embankments.
Rock, when encountered, shall be removed to the slopes and lines shown on the Standard Details contained herein or as directed by the Superintendent. Excavated rock shall be replaced with suitable material in a manner that will provide a compacted earth layer to a minimum thickness of 12 inches below the subgrade surface and at least eight inches below the bottom of pipes, conduits, cables, drainage structures or manholes. Blasting shall be performed only by licensed, competent personnel. Blasts shall be properly covered and safety measures observed, all in accordance with the Safety Code of the State of New York governing storage and use of explosives, § 764, Subdivision 3, of the General Business Law, as amended, and all other pertinent laws, ordinances or codes. Insurance coverage shall be as required, and proof of adequate insurance shall be presented to the Superintendent prior to commencement of any blasting work.
The subgrade shall be constructed by rolling, shaping and such rerolling and reshaping and removal and replacement of unsuitable material causing soft spots as required to provide a uniform, stable, dense surface properly crowned to drain water laterally to the roadway edges.
Where an embankment is required, the fill shall be spread in layers not to exceed six inches in depth, loose, bladed to an even surface free from clods and compacted by rolling with an approved power roller. Boulders or rock fill shall not be deposited within two feet of the finished subgrade elevation. Areas not accessible to the power roller, such as in the vicinity of catch basins, manholes, culverts, underground utilities and the like, shall be adequately compacted by approved mechanical hand tampers. Filling, compacting and shaping operations shall continue alternately until the roadway section, free of all soft spots, both cut and fill, conforms in all respects to the lines and grades shown on the approved construction plans and to the standards contained herein.
Crushed stone or gravel may be substituted for earth fills if specifically approved by the Superintendent.
Smooth steel wheel rollers, when approved, shall have a minimum weight of 10 tons. Rollers of other types shall be as approved by the Superintendent.
Approval of the subgrade elevations must be obtained prior to the installation of any underground utility.
Base course. The base course shall be constructed to the lines, grades and typical cross section as shown on the approved plat and construction plan and to the Standard Details contained herein. The thickness of the base course after compaction shall be 12 inches. All material shall be approved by the Superintendent.
Materials. All materials used in the construction of the base course shall consist of selected sand, gravel and soil binder, free from injurious quantities of flaky materials. The particles shall be well graded from coarse to fine and of such size as will pass a two-inch-square sieve, 30% to 65% by weight shall pass the one-fourth-inch-square sieve and not more than 10% by weight shall pass a No. 200 sieve. Particles passing a No. 40 mesh sieve shall have a plasticity index of zero.
Construction. No segregation of large or fine particles will be allowed, but the material as spread shall be well graded with no pockets of fine material, and the thickness of any layer shall have a maximum depth of six inches after compaction. Water shall be added in such amounts as the Superintendent may consider necessary to secure satisfactory compaction. When the moisture content of the layer is within the limits for proper compaction, the entire surface shall be rolled with a smooth wheel roller having a minimum weight of 10 tons. After compaction, the course shall be tested with a straight edge 16 feet in length, and any depression over 1/4 inch shall be eliminated by the use of the same material and the surface rerolled. In all cases, this course must be so thoroughly compacted that it will not weave under the roller.
Surface course. The penetration macadam surface course shall be composed of broken stone and bituminous material applied by the penetration method. It shall be constructed on the prepared base course in conformity with the lines, grades, compacted thickness and typical cross section shown on the plans. The thickness of the surface course after compaction shall be five inches. All materials shall be approved by the Superintendent.
The coarse aggregate and key stone shall be crushed stone. The crushed stone shall consist of hard, durable particles or fragments of stone, free from flat, elongated, soft or disintegrated pieces, dirt or other objectionable matter. Crushed stone for coarse aggregate and key stone shall meet the requirements for grading given in Table I.
Bituminous materials used for this course shall meet the requirements of New York State Department of Public Works. Specifications of January 2, 1972, for asphalt emulsions, Grade MS-2h.
No bituminous material shall be applied at any time without the approval of the Superintendent.
Upon a prepared subgrade, coarse aggregate conforming to Gradation 3 shall be spread in the required amount by approved mechanical spreaders to a uniform depth and true to line and grade.
No stone with a dust coating will be permitted for use in this course. If any stone spread for this course becomes wet or dirty, it must be allowed to dry to the full depth of the course, and dirty stone removed and replaced with clean stone before the spreading of bituminous material proceeds. The coarse aggregate shall be dry rolled with a self-propelling roller weighing approximately 10 tons, until compacted and keyed. Rolling shall progress gradually from the sides to the center parallel to the center line of the road and shall continue until the aggregate does not creep or wave ahead of the roller.
After the coarse aggregate has been thoroughly compacted, bituminous material, heated to a temperature between 75° F. and 170° F., shall be evenly spread over the surface by the use of an approved pressure distributor, operating under a pressure of 50 pounds per square inch or more as the Superintendent may direct. The quantity of bituminous material used in the first application shall be 2 1/2 gallons per square yard, or as directed by the Superintendent.
Immediately following the application of bituminous material, key aggregate conforming to Gradation 1 shall be spread evenly over the surface until the voids are filled. Rolling of the surface shall start immediately after spreading while the bituminous material is still warm and shall continue until the course of stone is thoroughly compacted and its surface is true and even to the established grade.
After this portion of the work shall have been completed, all loose stones shall be swept from the surface.
After the penetration course has been completed and thoroughly cleaned of foreign material, a tack coat of asphaltic emulsion shall be applied to the surface at the rate of 1/10 gallons to 1/20 gallons per square yard. The tack coat shall be required in all cases unless specific approval for omitting this requirement has been granted by the Superintendent. A final wearing course of fine bituminous concrete shall be uniformly spread by a self-propelling mechanical spreader equipped with tamper bars and heating unit in sufficient depth as to provide a finished compacted thickness after rolling of not less than two inches. The fine wearing course in place shall be thoroughly compacted with a two- or three-wheel tandem roller weighing approximately 10 tons.
Extreme care shall be exercised in the placing of bituminous concrete to ensure that all longitudinal joints shall be lapped in the placing of adjoining strips and that all lateral joints are trimmed before continuing with the placing of additional materials on that strip.
The aforementioned top course bituminous concrete wearing course shall be constructed conforming to the New York State Department of Public Works Specifications of January 2, 1973, or as amended, for hot-mix asphalt concrete pavement, Section 403.
Slopes. Cut or fill sections beyond the sidewalk area shall not be steeper than one unit vertical to 1 1/2 units horizontal except in rock. The Superintendent may require a decrease in the amount of slope to whatever extent necessary to maintain the stability of the bank under the particular soil conditions. All earth slopes and areas that have been disturbed in any way due to construction of the road shall be covered with a minimum four inches of topsoil and suitably seeded or planted with perennial rye grass to prevent erosion. The Superintendent may require the removal of or adjustment of slopes adjacent to intersections in order to assure adequate sight distance at the intersection. Excess excavated material may be used to flatten slopes as approved by the Superintendent.
Storm drainage shall be designed in accordance with the following standards:
Sufficient pipe shall be installed within the subdivision to carry existing watercourses and to drain the proposed roads and roads which may reasonably be expected to be constructed at some future date on adjoining property which normally drains across the area of the proposed subdivision. If, in the judgment of the Superintendent, there will be no substantial danger from soil erosion or danger to the public health and safety, the Superintendent may permit the discharge of stormwater and established watercourses in open ditches across proposed lots of 40,000 square feet or larger. All pipe shall be of such diameter, not less than 15 inches, as will be sufficient to properly carry stormwater expected to enter the pipe from the proposed subdivision and from other properties, when developed, which normally drain across the area of the proposed subdivision.
Storm sewers shall be designed to safely carry loads resulting from storms of the maximum intensity which can be expected to occur on an average of once in 10 years without being surcharged. Culverts crossing under existing or proposed public streets shall be designed to accommodate flows resulting from storms of the maximum intensity which can be expected to occur on an average of once in 25 years without causing flooding of the roadway or adjacent properties.
Method of design. The following criteria are intended to act as a guide for engineers designing storm drainage facilities for installation in the Town of Southeast. They are intended to indicate the minimum acceptable stormwater runoff quantities. Special conditions may warrant the use of more stringent design criteria.
Stormwater flows may be computed by use of the Rational Method or by use of the methods described in the U.S. Soil Conservation Service publications SCS-TP-149 and Technical Release No. 55.
The designer should contact the Town Engineer early in the preliminary design to discuss what method or methods shall be used in the design of storm drainage facilities.
Manholes. Manholes shall be provided at each change of slope or alignment, at all junction points and otherwise at intervals in general not greater than 400 feet apart.
Catch basins. Catch basins shall be provided in order that surface water will not travel excessive distances without interception. Catch basins will be provided generally in accordance with the following schedules:
Underdrains. The installation of underdrains will be required beneath the edge of pavement of a proposed street wherever the groundwater is known to be less than three feet below the proposed finished grade of the street. The Superintendent may require underdrains to be installed where localized seeps or springs are observed within the proposed street lines.
Headwalls, endwalls and erosion protection. Suitable headwalls, endwalls and channel erosion protection shall be provided at the open end of any pipe.
Culverts. Culverts under streets shall have a minimum diameter of 24 inches and shall be extended to the edge of the right-of-way of the street unless otherwise permitted by the Superintendent. The minimum driveway culvert diameter shall be 15 inches.
Discharge. The discharge of all stormwater shall be into streams, rivers or Town drains with adequate capacity to carry the additional water. Where the discharge of stormwater shall be into or through private property, proper easements and discharge rights shall be secured by the applicant for the Town before approval of the drainage plan. Paved ditches or gutters, where required, shall be in accordance with details and dimensions shown in Standard Details.
The storm drainage system shall be constructed in accordance with the following standards and procedures:
Pipe. Pipe generally shall be standard reinforced concrete sewer pipe conforming to ASTM Designation C-76. The groove end shall be so constructed that the tongue end shall be seated to the full depth of the tongue. Joints shall be watertight. In special instances where a portion of the storm drainage system is located outside the roadway area, approval may be granted by the Superintendent to allow metal pipe to be used. Metal pipe so allowed shall be bituminous-coated, galvanized corrugated metal with paved invert or aluminum of the size and gauge indicated on the approved construction drawings and shall be provided with metal end sections where required.
Catch basins and manholes. Catch basins and manholes shall be constructed in accordance with the dimensions and details shown on the Standard Details. Catch basins shall be located in conformance with § A143-4D herein. On steep slopes or in special drainage situations, the Superintendent may require catch basins to be depressed and/or set back from the street curbline to facilitate the collection of water and may require the furnishing and installation of double inlets.
Construction procedures. All pipe shall be laid to line and grade as shown on the approved construction drawings. Line and grade stakes shall be maintained in good order until the work has been inspected and approved by the Superintendent.
Bedding and backfill.
All pipe shall be properly bedded for its entire length in accordance with the details and dimensions shown on Standard Details. The material used for backfill shall generally be granular material except where less permeable material is deemed desirable. In all cases the type and quality of the backfill material shall be approved by the Superintendent prior to placement. All backfill shall be placed in layers not to exceed six inches in depth after compaction and shall be thoroughly compacted by approved mechanical rammers, vibrators or pneumatic tampers. Material placed immediately adjacent to the pipe shall be deposited on both sides to approximately the same elevation at the same time. Material shall not be deposited in back of headwalls until all material in front of these structures has been entirely placed and compacted. Special care shall be exercised in placing and compacting material immediately adjacent to the pipe to avoid damage to either the pipe or its alignment. Any pipe that is damaged or moved out of alignment regardless of cause, will not be accepted.
All drainage piping and appurtenances shall be completed and backfilled before the roadway base course is placed.
To the extent practicable, electric and communication cable shall be installed in the same trench. The trench generally shall be 36 inches deep, but in no case shall the minimum cover below subgrade be less than 18 inches. (In general, cable installed by New York State Electric and Gas Corporation or New York Telephone is of the direct-burial type.) In locations where cable passes below pavement, an empty conduit shall be installed to allow replacement or additional cable to be installed without pavement removal. Direct-burial cable and conduit shall be installed with a sand cushion and cover extending at least six inches all around. The installation shall conform in all respects to the requirements as shown on the Standard Details. All the applicable requirements of the State of New York Public Service Commission concerning underground extensions for new residential subdivisions shall be met. Excavation and backfill of the utility trench shall be completed and compacted prior to placing the roadway base course. Compaction efforts shall be as outlined hereinbefore in § A143-5D. Advance notice of at least 72 hours shall be given to the Town prior to commencement of installation of underground utilities.
Bridges, box culverts, deep manholes and other special structures shall be designed in accordance with good engineering practice and shall be designed to carry the full width of required street pavement and at least a four-foot sidewalk on each side.
Two monuments, preferably on a tangent and with an unobstructed line of sight between them, shall be provided for each 800 feet of street and shall not be spaced less than 200 feet apart. Monuments shall be built of one-to-two-to-three concrete, four inches square at the top and six inches square at the bottom. They shall be 3 1/2 feet long with four one-eighth-inch reinforcing rods and set on the street line.
Guideposts and guide railings shall be installed where shown on the approved construction drawings and/or as directed by the Superintendent. Guideposts shall be required on any roadway section constructed on an embankment which places the roadway surface five feet or more above the existing ground surface from the toe of the embankment where the slope of the embankment is steeper than four feet horizontal to one foot vertical. Guide railing may be required in certain locations that require greater protection. The installation of guideposts or guide rails shall be in accordance with the dimensions and details shown on the Standard Details. Surface-dried redwood, red cedar, cypress or black locust may be used untreated. Other lumber, including Douglas fir, pine, oak, birch, maple and beech may be used but shall be subjected to a pressure creosote treatment to a final retention of eight pounds per cubic foot of wood by the empty-cell process. Posts shall be spaced six feet on center where only posts are used and 10 feet on center where the guide rail is used.
Street trees shall be planted on both sides of any street. Trees shall be spaced approximately 100 feet apart, subject to variations made necessary by driveways, street corners and walks, and shall be located three feet from the edge of the pavement. Trees to be planted shall be a caliper of 1 3/4 inches or larger and shall have a minimum height of 10 feet. The kind of tree shall be subject to the approval of the Superintendent and shall not include evergreens, low branching trees, trees which are disease-bearing or cause damage to sewers or trees which create a hazard to traffic or pedestrians. Where the trees may interfere with utility poles and wires or may restrict the required sight distance of a street, the Superintendent may permit the location of required trees within the front 10 feet of the proposed lots. Trees shall be planted in an approved manner and in accordance with Standard Details. Existing trees along the proposed streets which conform to these requirements may be substituted for new trees. Tree wells, if required for trees that have been designated to remain, shall be constructed in accordance with the Standard Details.
Where the installation of sidewalks is required on secondary thoroughfares, major thoroughfares, in pedestrian easements, on streets in the vicinity of schools and playgrounds and in other places deemed proper by the Planning Board, the sidewalks shall be installed in accordance with the dimensions and details shown on the Standard Details. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant pedestrian curb ramps shall be required at all intersections, driveway crossings, and crosswalks.
Driveway curb cuts and paved driveway aprons shall be provided at each intersection of a driveway with a street. The driveway apron is that portion of the driveway extending from the roadway pavement to the right-of-way line of the street. Driveway grades within the street right-of-way shall not exceed 8%. The minimum width of a driveway shall be 10 feet, and the minimum driveway curb radius shall be five feet. Maximum driveway widths and curb radii shall be as approved by the Superintendent.
Paving of driveway aprons shall consist of a two-inch single course of bituminous concrete laid on a six-inch broken stone base over a properly prepared subgrade, all as approved by the Superintendent. Each course shall be compacted by rolling with a suitable approved roller.
Prior to final acceptance of the roadway, all driveway aprons shall be properly graded and paved.
Street signs shall be installed at all street intersections. Signs shall conform in style and construction to standards established by the Superintendent.
The Superintendent shall have access to all parts of the work while under construction at all times. No portion of the work which will not be exposed upon final completion shall be covered until reasonable opportunity for inspection after notice has been given. The Superintendent shall be notified at least 48 hours before the inspection is desired.
Construction and installation of roads, drainage and other improvements required by the Subdivision Regulations and governed by these specifications shall not be deemed authorized until the proposed subdivision plat, construction drawings and specifications have received final approval of the Planning Board and all of the conditions of final approval have been met, with the exception of completion of improvements or posting of a bond to guarantee such completion.
Editor's Note: See Ch. A144, Subdivision Regulations.
The foregoing specifications will apply to streets to be dedicated to and accepted by the Town of Southeast for public use and maintenance after construction by private parties.