Allegheny County, PA
 
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
A. 
Contents of Article V. This Article V includes specific standards for the design of subdivisions and land developments and requirements for improvements. Minimum standards and requirements are specified for each element of design or improvement. General goals or statements of desired outcomes are listed in § 780-502. The Department will consider alternatives to specific standards and requirements specified in § 780-503 and following sections if the applicant demonstrates that an alternative will achieve the desired outcome to a higher degree or will produce more desirable results than application of the specified standard.
B. 
Site analysis. The design of a subdivision or land development shall be based upon an analysis of existing conditions of the site, which includes consideration of the site's natural and man-made features and of the opportunities and constraints for development that are associated with these features. The site analysis shall also consider the relationship of the site to surrounding developed and undeveloped areas and to applicable municipal, County and regional plans. The required project narrative should summarize how the analysis of existing conditions has influenced the design of the subdivision or land development.
C. 
Alternative development plan. Before considering requests for waivers or modifications of standards or requirements contained in this Article V that will reduce the attainment of the goals listed in § 780-502, the Department may require the applicant to prepare alternative development plans which more nearly meet the requirements of this chapter. Such alternatives may be required to include the clustering of development on portions of the site which are not constrained by the environmental protection provisions of this chapter and may include a reduction in the otherwise allowable density or intensity of development on the total site. The original plan shall be approved only if the applicant demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Department that an alternative plan is not practical or feasible.
D. 
Regulations of other jurisdictions. It shall be the responsibility of the applicant for approval of a subdivision or land development to obtain all required permits and approvals from other jurisdictions or agencies. No application shall be finally approved by the Department or recorded until all required permits and approvals have been obtained, unless the plan for recording includes a notation that specified permits will be obtained prior to issuance of construction permits.
Subdivisions and land developments shall be designed to achieve the general goals or outcomes that are listed in this section.
A. 
Allegheny County Comprehensive Plan. All development should be consistent with the land use patterns promoted in Allegheny Places, the Allegheny County Comprehensive Plan. Allegheny Places encourages efficient development density close to existing infrastructure and community resources to minimize the need for the development of new infrastructure. New subdivisions and land developments shall be interconnected with existing developments to the greatest extent possible and include multimodal transportation options to reduce vehicle dependency. The purpose of requiring interconnectivity and street connections is to achieve a street network that provides multiple routes to and from destinations. Such a network is key to supporting walking and bicycling as convenient, safe, and healthy forms of transportation.
B. 
Minimize damage to the environment. All subdivisions and land developments shall be designed to minimize environmental damage to the maximum extent possible, by carefully fitting the subdivision or development to the existing conditions and natural features of the site.
(1) 
Minimize grading. Roads, building sites and lots should be laid out in a manner that will minimize disturbance of the land. Roads should generally follow existing contours, where doing so will minimize cuts and fills. Naturally level areas should in general be utilized for building sites. Clustering of development on less steep areas of the site is strongly encouraged, as an alternative to mass grading.
(2) 
Protect steep slopes. Wooded hillsides are important environmental and aesthetic resources of Allegheny County. Development should be located to avoid disturbance of steeply sloped areas and to preserve the visual character of wooded hillsides.
(3) 
Protect watercourses and wetlands. Watercourses are the County's natural drainageways for the conveyance of surface waters, including runoff and floodwaters. Streams, land bordering streams and wetlands provide habitat for aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals and may function as wildlife corridors. The County's larger streams and rivers are primary elements of the visual character of the County and are also important resources for recreation and commerce. Development should be designed to preserve and protect the County's watercourses and wetlands so that they can continue to serve all of these functions.
(4) 
Preserve woodlands and mature trees. New developments should be designed to preserve and protect existing woodlands, as excessive cutting of trees and clearance of woodlands in conjunction with subdivision and land development causes soil erosion, increased runoff, loss of habitat, and diminution of one of the County's most significant visual resources: the wooded hillsides that are so prominent throughout the area. Except for regulated commercial timbering operations, the cutting of mature trees and clearance of woodland shall commence only after final approval of a plan for subdivision or land development, and then only to the extent required for the construction of roads, utilities and buildings.
(5) 
Protect other identified natural resources. Special care should be taken in the design and construction of subdivisions and land developments to protect habitats in which rare or endangered plants or animals are found and other ecologically important sites.
(6) 
Protect historic, architectural and archaeological resources. Sites containing structures of historic or architectural significance should be designed to preserve, enhance or reuse such structures, in accordance with any applicable state regulations.
(7) 
Protect the quality of the County's air and water. All land development shall comply fully with federal, state and County laws and regulations concerning air and water pollution.
C. 
Avoid hazardous development. Where hazardous or potentially hazardous features are present on proposed development sites, the design of subdivisions and land developments shall consider such features. Appropriate precautions shall be taken to ensure that development will be safe and that the public health and welfare will be protected. Development shall not be approved unless safety is ensured.
(1) 
Landslide-prone areas. In areas where soils or underlying geology may be unstable, geotechnical investigation shall be required to ensure the safety of any proposed disturbance.
(2) 
Undermined areas. In areas where mining has occurred in the past, subsidence risk assessments may be required to establish that proposed development will be safe.
(3) 
Flood-prone areas. New construction in the undeveloped one-hundred-year floodplain should be avoided. New construction in other undeveloped areas subject to frequent flooding should also be avoided. In areas where the floodplain has been developed in the past and new construction is unavoidable, such development shall be in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations.
(4) 
Contaminated sites. In order to protect the public health, no subdivision or development of land in areas which may have been contaminated by former industrial or other uses shall be approved unless the site has been made safe for development. Development of contaminated sites shall be limited to uses which will not pose health risks for site occupants.
(5) 
Areas exposed to aircraft noise or hazards. Subdivisions and land developments in areas of the County where airport-related noise is high or where aircraft landings and takeoffs can be endangered by vertical obstructions or other hazards shall ensure that development does not reduce the ability of the airport to function safely and efficiently. Conversely, the safety of development and the health and welfare of occupants should not be compromised because of proximity to airports.
D. 
The general layout of subdivisions and land development should respect the natural resources of the site and the character of the surrounding area and be suitable for the intended uses. The design of blocks and lots shall comply with the zoning requirements of the municipality and should provide suitable sites for buildings. The design of subdivisions and land development should consider the topography and other natural features of the site, requirements for safe and convenient pedestrian and vehicular circulation and the character of surrounding development. Subdivisions and land developments should be compatible with municipal, County and regional comprehensive plans and components thereof.
E. 
Land development shall include landscaping which is designed to improve community appearance, to contribute to the environmental quality and livability of new development areas and to mitigate the negative impacts of development upon other areas of the community. Uses and structures should be sited to minimize adverse impacts from or upon adjoining uses. Landscaping and buffer yards should be designed to reduce unavoidable impacts and to augment the natural features of the site.
F. 
Provide a full range of improvements in subdivisions and land developments as required to ensure the public health, safety and welfare and the creation of desirable communities for living, working and recreation.
(1) 
Water. A safe and sufficient supply of potable water shall be provided for new subdivisions and land developments, in accordance with applicable regulations of the commonwealth and County. New development should not degrade the quality of potable water supplies.
(2) 
Sanitary sewage facilities shall be provided for new subdivisions and land developments, in accordance with applicable regulations of the commonwealth and County.
(3) 
Stormwater management. Every subdivision and land development shall manage stormwater flows in accordance with the Pennsylvania Storm Water Management Act[1] and PADEP's implementing regulations. All development located in watersheds for which watershed stormwater management plans have adopted shall comply with all requirements of the watershed plan.
[1]
Editor's Note: See 32 P.S. § 680.1 et seq.
(4) 
Other essential public utilities. New subdivisions and land developments shall be served by other essential public utilities, including electricity, natural gas and telephone. New subdivisions and land developments may also be served by alternative energy sources, such as solar or wind, in accordance with any applicable state, federal and local regulations.
(5) 
Public and community services. All new development should have access to a full range of community services and facilities, such as public safety and emergency services and recreation facilities, schools and libraries.
(6) 
Transportation facilities. New subdivisions and land developments should include a range of transportation facilities, for access to all lots, buildings, and open space areas intended for use by people. Transportation facilities developed within new subdivisions and land developments should be designed as parts of the larger system of transportation facilities which serve the community. Transportation facilities may include streets, public transportation, sidewalks, bikeways and multipurpose trails for nonmotorized transportation.
A. 
Purpose. The purpose of these standards is to ensure public health, safety and welfare and to protect property by preventing rock and soil slippage, loss and degradation of natural drainageways, increased soil erosion and sedimentation and other soil- and water-management-related problems.
B. 
Application. If the municipality in which a proposed subdivision or land development is located has enacted a grading ordinance, the municipal standards shall apply. If a more stringent related standard is contained in another section of this chapter (e.g., § 780-504, 780-505 or 780-509) than in the municipal grading ordinance, the stricter standard shall govern. If the municipality has no applicable regulations, the following general standards shall apply.
C. 
General standards for grading.
(1) 
No grading, stripping of topsoil, excavation or any other earth disturbance activity which changes the existing contours of the land, and no clearing, grubbing or any other activity which results in the removal of existing vegetation (other than the removal of dead or diseased plant material), shall be permitted except in conjunction with a finally approved land development, subdivision or phased master plan.
(2) 
Grading shall be limited to the minimum area necessary to provide for buildings, roads, parking areas, utilities and other facilities shown on the approved land development plan.
(3) 
Grading in areas susceptible to landslides, subsidence, or flooding, on steep slopes, or in wetlands shall comply with the additional provisions of §§ 780-504, 780-505 and 780-509 hereunder.
(4) 
A soil erosion and sedimentation pollution control plan shall be prepared in accordance with the provisions of Title 25, Environmental Protection, Chapter 102, Erosion and Sediment Control,[1] and where required, a finding of adequacy shall be issued by the Allegheny County Conservation District (ACCD) prior to the commencement of any grading or other regulated earth disturbance activity. Where submission of the plan to the ACCD is not required by state or federal regulations (generally for sites less than five acres), the Department may require that the plan be submitted to the ACCD for review.
[1]
Editor's Note: See 25 Pa. Code Chapter 102.
(5) 
Where required by the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and/or state regulations, a permit shall be obtained prior to commencement of grading:
(a) 
For development sites equal to or greater than one acre in size, a DEP general permit PAG-2 or an individual NPDES permit for stormwater discharges pursuant to current regulations under 25 Pa. Code Chapter 102 is required. Issuance of the PAG-2 permit has been delegated to the ACCD. The processing of individual NPDES permits has been delegated to the ACCD. Permits are issued by the DEP Southwest Regional Office.
(6) 
The applicant shall be responsible for protecting adjacent and downstream properties from any damage which occurs as a result of earth disturbance on the development site. Such protection shall include cleaning up and restoring to their original condition any adjacent and downstream properties adversely affected by silt, debris, flooding, or other damage resulting from the earth disturbance activity.
(7) 
The top and bottom edges of cut or fill slopes shall be kept back from property or right-of-way lines three feet plus 1/5 the height of the cut or fill, which total distance need not exceed 10 feet.
(8) 
Topsoil stripped from the site in preparation for earthmoving activities shall be stockpiled and replaced on the site over all regraded, nondeveloped areas, at a minimum depth of six inches.
(9) 
Fill areas shall be prepared by removing organic material such as vegetation and rubbish and any other material determined by the engineer to prevent proper compaction and stability.
(10) 
Proposed grading shall be accomplished so that post-development stormwater runoff flows cause no harm to abutting properties.
(11) 
Maximum steepness of graded slopes shall be no greater than two horizontal to one vertical except under the following conditions:
(a) 
Where the height of a proposed slope will not exceed 12 feet, then a maximum slope steepness of one to one may be allowed where soil conditions permit and doing so will help to preserve existing vegetation or other significant natural features. The cut or fill shall be located so that a line having a slope of two horizontal to one vertical and passing through any portion of the slope face will be entirely inside the property lines of the proposed development.
(b) 
Where a retaining wall, designed and sealed by a registered professional engineer, is constructed to support the face of the slope.
(c) 
A geotechnical analysis by a registered professional engineer in Pennsylvania with geotechnical training and experience that demonstrates the steep slopes are stable with a slope stability factor of 1.5 for slopes potentially impacting a structure and a slope stability factor of 1.3 for other slopes, unless otherwise approved by the County. These requirements indicate that the soil strength (resisting force) is 50% or 30%, respectively, greater than the shearing (driving force) acting on the slope.
(12) 
Excavation adjacent to any building foundation walls, footings or structures shall not extend beyond the angle of repose or natural slope of the soil under the nearest point of same unless the footings, foundations or structures have been sufficiently underpinned or otherwise protected against settlement.
(13) 
Reforestation.
(a) 
Graded slopes whose height equals or exceeds 40 feet shall be reforested in order to prevent erosion, promote slope stabilization, encourage natural revegetation, and reduce the visual impacts of extensive areas of graded slopes.
(b) 
Slopes shall be planted with trees and shrubs. The use of hardy, self-propagating indigenous species is recommended. Invasive plants are prohibited as noted in § 780-512B. Quantities, sizes and condition of the plant material shall be appropriate to the species and the growing conditions. Bare-root trees, whips and seedlings may be permitted with the concurrence of the Department.
Limitations on disturbance. The following standards shall apply to all grading and disturbance of land with slopes of 15% or greater. If any of the delineated steep slope areas include soils or geologic features which indicate possible instability, the additional standards contained in § 780-510A shall apply.
A. 
Slopes between 25% and 40%. No more than 30% of slope areas with existing grades between 25% and 40% shall be stripped of vegetation or disturbed through grading. Grading and clearing for roads on these slopes shall be limited to that necessary to accommodate the cartway and shoulders or berms. Wherever possible, roads should follow the contours of the land.
B. 
Slopes between 15% and 40% located within Greenprint areas, as defined in Allegheny Places: no development.
C. 
Slopes exceeding 40%. No development or disturbance shall be allowed on slopes exceeding 40%. Limited disturbance for utilities may be allowed where no reasonable alternative location exists.
A. 
Purpose. The regulations contained in this section are intended to promote the public health, safety and welfare by ensuring that watercourses and wetlands will be preserved in their natural condition so that they may continue to convey and store water, provide habitat for flora and fauna, and serve as recreational and aesthetic resources.
B. 
Setback or open space easement required. No grading, cutting, filling, removal of vegetation, or other disturbance of land shall be permitted within the required setback.
(1) 
The minimum setback for watercourses shall be 50 feet, measured from the top of the channel bank. In addition, land development involving the construction of new buildings shall not be permitted within 100 feet of the top of the bank of the Allegheny, Monongahela, Ohio or Youghiogheny Rivers.
(2) 
The setback for wetlands shall be as follows:
(a) 
Determination of setback area:
[1] 
Wetlands one acre and over: fifty-foot setback depth, times the perimeter of the wetland (measured in lineal feet), equals the minimum setback area.
(b) 
Distribution of the required setback area shall be either:
[1] 
At the uniform setback depth from the delineated edge of the wetland; or
[2] 
At a variable setback depth, based on a wetland management plan prepared by a certified professional wetlands biologist. In no case, however, shall the setback be less than 10 feet from the delineated edge of a wetland less than acre in extent or 20 feet from the delineated edge of a wetland one acre or more in extent.
(3) 
Minor earth disturbance and construction within the area of the required setback or easement, required for development in other areas of the site, may be allowed in accordance with all regulations of the Department of Environmental Protection and municipal floodplain regulations, where applicable.
(4) 
Construction may also be allowed within the required setback area of rivers to enable the development of uses that require proximity or access to the river, in accordance with applicable federal, DEP and municipal regulations.
(5) 
In larger subdivisions and land developments, the required setback area should be integrated into a system of public or common open space. In smaller subdivisions and land developments, the preservation of these open space areas shall be ensured through recorded easements, deed restrictions or other means acceptable to the Department and to the municipality.
(6) 
Where the required setback or easement would render a site unusable under the municipality's zoning regulations because of the limited size or dimensions of a parcel of land prior to its subdivision, the Department may reduce the depth of the setback to not less than 50 feet along a river and to not less than 20 feet along other watercourses. Any reduction in depth of setback which may be allowed by the Department does not supersede any requirement for a greater setback imposed by federal, state or municipal regulations.
C. 
Alteration of drainage. When a proposed subdivision or land development encompasses or adjoins a watercourse or wetland, the design of the proposed development shall not alter site drainage in ways that will reduce the ability of the watercourse or wetland to support the vegetation and animal life that characterized the area before development. Existing wetlands may be used to control stormwater runoff flows from a development site, provided that a certified wetlands biologist participates in the design of the proposed stormwater detention facility or certifies that the proposed facility will not adversely affect the wetland, as defined herein.
A. 
Woodland preservation. Not more than 50% of the total area of mature woodlands and not more than 75% of the total area of woodlands on a development site shall be removed in conjunction with a subdivision or land development. The remaining woodlands shall be protected as open space. No area of any existing woodland shall be removed prior to the granting of final approval of the proposed subdivision or land development.
(1) 
Priority in woodland preservation shall be given to woodlands in one-hundred-year floodplains, wetlands, stream valley corridors, steep slopes and landslide-prone areas.
(2) 
The Department may consider modification of this standard if evidence is presented from a professional arborist, forester, landscape architect or other expert whose qualifications are acceptable to the Department that a lesser area of woodlands should be preserved because of disease, undesirability of species, or other reason affecting the quality and health of the woodland.
(3) 
The Department may allow a greater percentage of woodland area to be cleared if new replacement woodlands are provided elsewhere on the site or an approved off-site mitigation area. The minimum area of the replacement woodland shall be at least 125% of the woodland area cleared in excess of the areas allowed in Subsection A above. The replacement woodland shall be prepared, planted and maintained in accordance with a plan prepared by a forester or other qualified professional and approved by the Department.
B. 
Preservation of large or unique trees.
(1) 
All healthy trees with trunks equal to or exceeding 24 inches DBH, or any tree which may be noteworthy because of its species, age, uniqueness, rarity or status as a landmark due to historical or other cultural associations, and which is located within the area of disturbance shall be preserved unless removal is deemed necessary. Criteria for evaluating the necessity for removal shall include the following:
(a) 
The health of the tree, whether it is dead or diseased beyond remedy, or whether it is likely to endanger the public or an adjoining property.
(b) 
Other constraints of the site, where the applicant demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Department that no reasonable alternative exists and the removal of a tree is necessary for construction of building foundations, roads, utilities or other essential improvements.
(2) 
Trees to be preserved shall be protected during construction. The critical root zone shall be protected by securely staked fencing with a minimum height of 36 inches. No storage or placement of any soil or construction materials, including construction wastes, shall occur within the fenced area. Cables, ropes, signs and fencing shall not be placed on protected trees.
(3) 
Abrupt changes of grade shall be avoided within 40 feet of the critical root zone of any trees to be preserved.
(4) 
Large or unique trees which cannot be preserved shall be replaced by trees of the same species, in the following manner:
(a) 
For every tree with a caliper of 24 inches DBH or larger, at least five trees with a minimum caliper of three inches to 3.5 inches DBH or at least seven trees with a minimum caliper of two inches to 2.5 inches DBH shall be required.
(b) 
The placement and spacing of the replacement trees shall be appropriate to conditions of the replacement site and is subject to the approval of the Department but shall at a minimum be such as to ensure the health and longevity of the replacement trees.
(5) 
Where large or unique trees will be preserved within the area of disturbance, such trees may be used to satisfy the landscaping requirements of § 780-512D(8), E(1)(e) and F(4).
C. 
Preservation of bicentennial trees. No subdivision or land development shall be approved which includes the destruction of a tree listed in the Allegheny County Register of Bicentennial Trees.
A. 
Allegheny County Natural Heritage Inventory. Every subdivision and land development site plan shall consider and, to the maximum extent feasible, ensure the preservation of natural heritage areas and resources identified in the Allegheny County Natural Heritage Inventory, February 1994 or most recent edition, prepared for Allegheny County by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy.
B. 
Protected resources. Where a proposed subdivision or land development includes an identified natural feature, such as a rare or endangered species, which is regulated by municipal, state or federal law, the applicant shall provide evidence of compliance with any applicable regulation.
A. 
Identification of resources. Structures and site features which have known historic or architectural significance and locations of known or probable archaeological sites shall be identified on the existing conditions map and described in the preliminary application materials.
B. 
Notification to PHMC. Where the presence of such features is known or suspected, or where required by DEP or another permitting agency, the applicant shall notify the Pennsylvania and Historical Museum Commission of the proposed subdivision or land development and request a determination concerning the presence of significant resources from the PHMC.
(1) 
A copy of the notification to the PHMC shall be submitted with the application for preliminary approval.
(2) 
The Department shall condition preliminary approval upon the applicant's receipt from the PHMC of a determination that:
(a) 
No significant resources are present on the site or that the proposed subdivision or land development will not adversely impact resources that may be present.
(b) 
Significant resources are present or likely to be present on the site, together with an approved plan or program for the mitigation of any adverse impacts of the proposed subdivision or land development upon the historic or archaeological resource, if required by the PHMC.
(3) 
A copy of the required determination by the PHMC shall be submitted with an application for final approval, and no subdivision or land development requiring such a determination shall be finally approved without it.
C. 
Municipal historic districts. If a proposed subdivision or land development is located within an historic district established by the municipality, the applicant shall provide evidence that the municipal body empowered to approve development activities within the historic district has reviewed and approved the proposed subdivision or land development. A copy of the municipal approval shall be required prior to final approval of an application.
A. 
Air quality. An application for preliminary approval of a nonresidential land development shall include a written certification from the Allegheny County Health Department that the Health Department has been notified of the proposed development and that the applicant has been apprised in writing of the County air pollution control requirements. If a preliminary plan is not required, the certification shall be submitted with the application for final approval.
B. 
Water quality. All subdivisions and land developments shall comply with all laws and regulations of the federal government, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and County of Allegheny concerning water quality.
(1) 
All earth disturbance activity shall be carried out in accordance with a soil erosion and sedimentation pollution control plan prepared in accordance with regulations of the Department of Environmental Protection, which has been submitted to and determined to be adequate by the Allegheny County Conservation District.
(2) 
Every subdivision and land development shall be supplied with sanitary sewage facilities in accordance with all requirements of the Department of Environmental Protection and the Allegheny County Health Department (see § 780-514).
(3) 
Any site proposed for development that is wholly or partly within a designated wellhead protection area shall comply with the wellhead protection ordinance of the municipality in which the land is located. Proposed subdivisions and land developments in areas where municipal wellhead protection regulations are not in effect shall comply with the provisions for wellhead protection in Appendix 6.[1] Appendix 6 is hereby incorporated as part of this chapter. Subdivision and land development plans in areas subject to the provisions of Appendix 6 shall be reviewed by the Allegheny County Health Department and approved by the Department.
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix 6 is included at the end of this chapter.
A. 
Landslide-prone areas. No grading, removal of vegetation, construction or other disturbance shall be permitted on soils that are classified as slide-prone or unstable in the soil survey of Allegheny County, on any land that is delineated as unstable on the Landslide Susceptibility Map of Allegheny County, or on any other areas of a proposed development site that exhibit signs of instability, except in accordance with the provisions of this section.
(1) 
Unstable areas of a site may be set aside as common or private open space.
(2) 
Limited disturbance of unstable areas may be allowed if the applicant demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Department that the proposed disturbance will not cause sliding or movement or any unsafe condition either on the development site or on any property adjacent to it.
(3) 
Evidence of the safety of any proposed disturbance shall require site investigation and certification in writing by a professional engineer that the proposed activity will not create or exacerbate unsafe conditions. The geotechnical analysis shall be conducted by a registered professional engineer in Pennsylvania with geotechnical training and experience.
(4) 
Any disturbance shall be revegetated with hardy, indigenous vegetation to help stabilize the slopes. Per § 780-512B(2), the planting of invasive species is prohibited.
B. 
Undermined areas. No land development involving construction of buildings and no subdivision of land intended to create lots for building construction shall be approved on a site which has been undermined at shallow depths or in an area where there is evidence of past subsidence unless the applicant demonstrates that the proposed subdivision or land development will be safe and will not create hazards for adjacent properties. Evidence of safety shall be one of the following:
(1) 
If the site or any area of the site has been undermined and has 100 feet or less of overburden, evidence of the safety of the proposed subdivision or land development shall require site investigation and certification in writing by a professional engineer, experienced in subsidence risk assessment, that the proposed development will be safe.
(2) 
If the site has been undermined and has more than 100 feet of overburden, a subsidence risk assessment by a professional engineer and written certification that the proposed subdivision or land development will be safe may be required if the Department, municipality, or applicant has knowledge of any past occurrences of subsidence in the general vicinity of the site.
C. 
Flood-prone areas. To the maximum extent feasible, new development should not be undertaken in areas subject to period flooding, including identified floodplain areas and flood hazard areas, as determined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), or in other areas where FEMA maps and studies have not been provided but which may be flood-prone as indicated in local records and histories, field studies or on-site investigations.
(1) 
Portions of proposed development sites that are susceptible to flooding should be preserved as open space and for uses that will not be harmed or cause hazards if exposed to inundation by floodwaters.
(2) 
Construction in the floodway portion of a flood-prone area shall comply with DEP regulations.
(3) 
Where development is necessary in an area delineated as within the one-hundred-year floodplain on a FEMA map, all construction shall comply with municipal floodplain regulations and with the minimum requirements of the Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development.
D. 
Contaminated sites. The Department shall not approve the subdivision or development of land which is known to contain substances which are classified as hazardous unless the site has been made safe for the proposed development.
(1) 
A contaminated site shall be considered safe for subdivision or development when a remediation plan has been completed and approved by DEP, subject to the provisions of Subsections D(2) and (3) hereunder.
(2) 
If a remediation plan includes limitations on uses or other site restrictions that would not apply to other property in the same zoning district, the Department may require that the proposed subdivision or land development, including any restrictions on uses or other limitations imposed by the remediation plan, be approved by the municipal governing body.
(3) 
The subdivision of contaminated land, not including any development or earth disturbance, may be approved prior to remediation if a notation approved by the Department is placed on the recorded plan which indicates that the site or specified lots within the site contain or may contain hazardous substances.
E. 
Areas exposed to aircraft noise or airport-related hazards.
(1) 
Noise-impacted areas.
(a) 
Subdivisions and land developments located in areas which are impacted or projected to be impacted by high levels of aircraft-related noise, as delineated in the most recent airport noise contour maps, shall comply with one of the following two options:
[1] 
Land shall be subdivided or developed only for uses that are compatible with existing and projected noise levels.
[2] 
Structures shall be soundproofed in accordance with standards promulgated by the Allegheny County Department of Aviation.
(b) 
In addition, a notation shall be placed on a plan of subdivision in a noise-impacted area that lots may be exposed to high levels of airport-related noise.
(2) 
Airport hazard areas. Subdivisions and land developments located in areas where development may create hazards to aircraft because of height, illumination or other features that may interfere with aircraft takeoffs and landings shall be designed and constructed so as not to create hazards to aircraft.
(a) 
Land development shall comply with applicable municipal airport zoning regulations and with federal and state regulations requiring submission of notice of proposed construction or alteration.
(b) 
If notice of proposed construction or alteration is required, the applicant shall provide copies of permits or approvals of the proposed land development from the PennDOT Bureau of Aviation and the Federal Aviation Administration or a copy of a notification from those agencies that a permit is not required.
(3) 
Subdivisions and land developments shall comply with any conditions of the PennDOT and FAA permits and municipal zoning regulations, including notation of restrictions on the plan for recording where applicable.
A. 
Purpose. The design and layout of blocks, lots, and streets shall promote connectivity, access, and mobility for vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists to the maximum extent feasible. An interconnected network of streets, sidewalks and pathways shall link destinations within the development. Points of connection to the existing and planned transportation networks outside of the development shall be considered. In older, established communities, the layout of blocks and streets in new subdivisions and land developments should continue the pattern of existing, adjacent streets and blocks where feasible.
(1) 
Subdivisions and land developments shall provide, at a minimum, the following access points:
(a) 
For developments containing 25 or more lots or generating 250 or more daily trips, there shall be a minimum of two functional access points located on different sides of the development, except where infeasible due to original tract dimensions or topography.
(b) 
For developments containing only one access point, an emergency service access shall be provided in addition to the primary access and shall be maintained to provide continual ingress and egress for emergency vehicles. The emergency service access may be grassed or landscaped with traversable vegetation or may be gated, provided that gates are able to be opened by emergency service personnel.
(2) 
To ensure future street connections to adjacent developable parcels, a proposed development shall provide a local street connection spaced at intervals not to exceed 800 feet along each boundary that abuts potentially developable or redevelopable land.
(3) 
Blocks in a residential subdivision shall generally be of sufficient depth to accommodate two tiers of lots, except double or reverse frontage lots are permitted to border an arterial or collector road or where a barrier such as a watercourse or railroad is present.
(4) 
Blocks along arterial streets shall not be more than 1,200 feet in length.
(5) 
The requirements of Subsection A(2), (3), and (4) above may be waived if the applicant can demonstrate that meeting these requirements is not feasible due to topographic features, existing development, or a natural area or feature.
(6) 
For blocks 800 feet or more in length, interior pedestrian walks may be required to provide for safe and convenient pedestrian access. Such walks shall be located close to the center of the block and protected by an easement or other form of legal agreement.
B. 
Lots.
(1) 
General standards.
(a) 
Lots shall be laid out so as to provide buildable areas, accessible driveways and usable yards and open space areas with the minimum possible disturbance to the site.
(b) 
Lots and building sites shall be laid out with consideration given to the provision of adequate solar access and air circulation. New development shall be accomplished such that excessive winds are neither created or exacerbated.
(c) 
Lots and building sites shall be laid out and buildings sited with consideration given to views and privacy.
(2) 
Specific standards.
(a) 
Lots shall meet the minimum dimensional and area requirements specified by the municipal zoning ordinance.
(b) 
Lots shall be laid out and graded to provide positive drainage away from buildings and water wells.
(c) 
In general, lots shall abut on public streets. The Department may waive this requirement and permit private streets in commercial or industrial subdivisions or developments or in planned residential developments, with the approval of the municipal governing body.
(d) 
Lots which require access to an arterial or collector street shall be avoided. Where lots adjoin arterial or collector streets, access to such lots shall be from service or minor access roads.
(e) 
Lots that have frontage along two or more streets shall provide along each street the minimum front setback required by the municipal zoning regulations.
(f) 
Side lot lines shall be at right angles or radial to street right-of-way lines.
(g) 
Remnant land areas which are not buildable under the municipal zoning regulations shall not be permitted. Such remnants shall be incorporated into existing or proposed lots or dedicated to public use if acceptable to the municipality.
C. 
Other design considerations.
(1) 
Views. The design of a land development shall consider views of the development site, as well as views from the site and through the site.
(a) 
Views of the development site. The placement of buildings, screening elements, and landscaping shall be planned so that rooftop mechanical equipment, service and loading areas are not visible from adjacent public areas, streets, or residential areas. Parking areas should also be designed, landscaped and screened or buffered so that potentially negative impacts on adjacent public or residential areas are avoided or reduced to the maximum extent possible.
(b) 
Views from the development site. If a development site has scenic qualities, either internally or because scenic features are visible from the site, development shall be planned to preserve those scenic site features and views.
(c) 
Views through the development site. If a development site is located between a public road or other viewing place, such as a park, and a scenic view such as a river or wooded hillside, the design of the development shall preserve visual access through some portion of the site so that people can continue to see the scenic area.
(2) 
Land development adjacent to rivers. The design of a land development which has river frontage or is across a road or railroad from a river shall, where possible, provide physical and visual access to the riverfront or to the top of the riverbank for residents, occupants, and users of the proposed development.
(a) 
Streets shall be located and designed so that public access to the riverfront is not impeded or blocked.
(b) 
Pedestrian walkways shall be located and designed to enhance public access to the riverfront.
(c) 
Where allowed by zoning, land uses in developments along a river shall be arranged so that uses which are public or open to the public are nearest the river.
(3) 
The arrangement, character, and location of all lots, blocks, and streets in a development shall be designed to make advantageous use of existing and planned streets, topographical conditions, public convenience and safety, mature trees, and other natural physical features.
A. 
Purpose. The standards contained in this section are intended to promote public health, safety and welfare by filtering noise, softening or diverting light and glare, modifying climatic conditions such as wind and heat and reducing stormwater runoff and air pollution. The standards contained in this section are also intended to increase the value to the community from new developments by recognizing the role that landscaping plays in overall community appearance and livability.
B. 
General requirements.
(1) 
In general, all areas of a site proposed for development shall be landscaped with trees, shrubs, ground covers, grasses and other herbaceous plants, except for those areas which are occupied by buildings and other structures and facilities or are paved.
(2) 
Landscaping shall not include any plants documented on the Pennsylvania DCNR "Invasive Plants in Pennsylvania" list. The planting of hardy indigenous species is encouraged.
C. 
Landscaping defined. Landscaping shall be understood to include the provision of street trees, buffer yards, replacement woodlands, and other new planted areas. Landscaping shall also be understood as the provision of undisturbed ground, where such is fully integrated into the design and layout of the subdivision or land development and preserves existing natural features of the site.
D. 
Street trees. All new residential and nonresidential developments shall provide street trees, in addition to any replacement trees required by § 780-506, in accordance with the following standards:
(1) 
Street trees shall be provided along the entire length of the street right-of-way on both sides of the street if the street lies within the development.
(2) 
Street trees in residential subdivisions shall be located within five feet of the right-of-way and in nonresidential developments between the right-of-way and the building line. An easement shall be granted to the municipality for the purpose of maintaining the trees, and a restrictive covenant shall be placed in the deed for the property prohibiting removal of the trees by the property owner.
(3) 
Street trees shall be located so as not to interfere with the maintenance of utilities, required sight distances and visibility of street and traffic signs.
(4) 
The species chosen shall be appropriate to the location. Factors such as microclimate, soils, habit of growth, salt, air pollution and disease tolerance, proximity of sidewalks and overhead utility lines, and social conditions (likelihood of soil compaction, vandalism, damage by dogs, deer, etc.) shall be considered. Tree species shall be selected that do not have root structures that may damage adjacent sidewalks or utilities.
(5) 
Street trees shall have the following minimum calipers at the time of planting:
(a) 
Large trees, defined as those trees whose height will ultimately exceed 40 feet, shall have a minimum caliper of 2.5 inches to 3.0 inches DBH.
(b) 
Medium trees, defined as those trees with an ultimate height of 25 feet to 40 feet, shall have a minimum caliper of 2.0 inches to 2.5 inches DBH.
(c) 
Small trees, being those trees whose ultimate height will not exceed 25 feet, shall have a minimum caliper of 1.5 inches to 2.0 inches DBH.
(6) 
Street trees shall be spaced with regard to the ultimate spread of the fully developed canopy. Spacing requirements are as follows:
(a) 
Large and medium trees shall be spaced at a maximum distance not to exceed the average spread of the fully developed canopy plus five feet.
(b) 
Small trees shall be spaced a maximum distance of 25 feet on center.
(7) 
Tree grates and/or permanent fencing may be required to protect new street trees in areas of dense development or high use.
(8) 
Mature trees, woodlands or other significant vegetation which remains undisturbed adjacent to the street right-of-way may be used in place of or in conjunction with the requirements of this section.
(9) 
Pervious pavement shall be utilized where necessary to provide water infiltration to support tree growth.
E. 
Landscaping of parking lots. All new parking areas that have 10 or more parking spaces, or any existing parking area that will be expanded by five or more parking spaces, shall be landscaped in accordance with the following provisions:
(1) 
Perimeter landscaping. Where the parking area is adjacent to any public street, walk, right-of-way, or neighboring properties, the perimeter of the parking lot shall be landscaped. Such landscaping shall be in addition to any required buffer yard plantings but may be in conjunction with any required adjacent street trees. Landscaping shall be provided in accordance with the following criteria:
(a) 
The landscaped area shall be at least 10 feet wide.
(b) 
The landscaped area shall be planted with large, medium tree, or small trees, spaced as per Subsection D(6), and sufficient shrubs or grasses sufficient to form a hedge or a screen. The height of hedges and screens at the time of planting shall not be less than 2.5 feet.
(c) 
The caliper of all new trees shall be as in Subsection D(5) above.
(d) 
Masonry walls, fencing, berms or a combination thereof may also be used. Walls, fences and berms adjacent to neighboring properties shall have a minimum height of 3.5 feet. Berms shall have maximum slopes of 33% and shall be completely covered with shrubs, grasses or other plant material. Walls or solid fencing shall be planted with at least one shrub or vine per 10 lineal feet of wall. Nonsolid fencing shall be planted with at least three shrubs or vines per 12 lineal feet.
(e) 
Mature trees, woodlands or other high-quality existing vegetation which remains undisturbed between the parking area and the right-of-way or adjoining properties may be used to satisfy the requirements of this section. New shrubs or trees may be added as needed to help provide an effective screen.
(f) 
Screening requirements adjacent to public streets, walks or rights-of-way may be modified in circumstances where public safety is a concern.
(2) 
Landscaping in interior areas. Landscaping in the interior of parking areas shall be designed to provide visual and climatic relief from large expanses of paving, to channelize vehicular traffic and to define areas for safe pedestrian circulation.
(a) 
At least 5% of the total area of any parking lot containing 30 spaces or less shall be landscaped, and at least 7% of any parking lot containing more than 30 parking spaces shall be landscaped.
[1] 
The landscaped area can take the form of a rain garden or bioswale designed to capture and treat stormwater. At a minimum, the rain garden or bioswale shall be planted with a fine, close-growing water-tolerant species that provide large amounts of vegetative surface area for contact with stormwater.
[2] 
The rain garden or bioswale shall be a minimum of 10 feet wide.
[3] 
The rain garden or bioswale should be provided between head-to-head parking rows.
[4] 
The rain garden or bioswale and parking areas shall be graded to direct runoff to the median and accommodate stormwater infiltration.
(b) 
At least one large tree and three shrubs, or one medium tree, one small tree and three shrubs, shall be planted per 10 parking spaces.
(c) 
The caliper of all new trees shall be as in Subsection D(5) above.
(d) 
Trees required in this section shall be planted in protected areas such as along walkways or within curbed islands located between rows of parking spaces, at the ends of bays, or between parking stalls.
(e) 
Curbed landscaped islands shall have a minimum width of nine feet or a minimum radius of 4.5 feet, exclusive of the curbing.
(f) 
The requirement to curb parking areas shall be waived if stormwater is directed to a low-impact stormwater treatment method, such as the rain garden or bioswale described in Subsection E(2)(a). Alternate measures to protect landscaping from damage by vehicles shall be provided.
F. 
Buffer yards.
(1) 
Purpose. In addition to the yards which municipal zoning ordinances require on all or most lots, additional landscaped open space or buffer yards may be needed to provide greater separation where disparate or incompatible land uses are located on adjacent sites. However, careful site planning can minimize the need for constructed buffer yards. Uses should be arranged to avoid locating incompatible uses in close proximity. Natural topographic and vegetative features of a development site should be used to separate uses which may impact negatively on each other. This subsection includes requirements for buffer yards that apply where land uses with differing visual, functional and operational characteristics are located in close proximity. These situations are most likely to arise within multiuse land developments, on development sites that are located at the edges of zoning districts, and on development sites bordering major highways, railroads and public transit lines.
(2) 
Application. If the zoning ordinance of the municipality in which a proposed subdivision or land development is located contains standards for buffer yards, the municipal standards shall apply. If the municipality has no applicable regulations, the standards contained in this subsection shall apply.
(3) 
Calculation of buffer yard requirement. The type of buffer yard and the extent of planting or other screening that must be provided within it shall be a function of the difference or incompatibility between adjacent land uses.
(a) 
Land use compatibility classes. The magnitude of incompatibility shall be determined in accordance with Table V-1, which categorizes land uses into six compatibility classes. Uses within each class are assumed to be similar in visual, functional and operational characteristics and require no separation beyond yards required by zoning and landscaping required by other subsections of this section. Requirements for buffer yards, planting and screening increase as the numerical difference between compatibility classes increases.
(b) 
Buffer yard types. Table V-2 defines five types of buffer yards, ranging from 10 feet to 70 feet in width, which shall be required to separate land uses in different compatibility classes. The planting and screening component of each buffer yard type is described qualitatively in terms of the result to be achieved, rather than quantitatively.
Table V-1: Land Use Compatibility Classes
Compatibility
Class
Land Uses
1
Single-family residential, passive recreation, historic resources
2
Multifamily residential, townhouses, mobile home parks, primary schools, cultural facilities, public recreation
3
Business, professional and government offices; small-scale neighborhood and commercial
4
Hotel, motel, conference center; commercial recreation; general commercial; office park, secondary schools, government public safety facilities
5
Wholesale, warehousing, construction-related, light industrial, community shopping center, major freestanding retail, government public works
6
Heavy industrial, regional shopping centers, stadiums, expressways and major arterial highways, railroads, transit corridors, transportation terminals
Table V-2: Buffer Yard Types
Buffer Yard Type
Description of Buffer Yard Objective
Width
(feet)
A
Minor separation; partial visual screening; trees, hedge, 3-foot to 4-foot fence appropriate
10
B
Moderate separation required; total visual screening; varied landscape materials; hedge, fence as above
20
C
Substantial separation; total visual screening; varied landscape materials; solid fence or berm appropriate
40
D
Major spatial separation; total visual screening plus mitigation of noise, lights, traffic through heavy landscaping, solid fence or berm appropriate
55
E
Maximum spatial separation; total visual screening plus mitigation of traffic, noise, lights, emissions
70
(c) 
Required buffer yard. Table V-3 specifies the buffer yard type which must be provided to separate land uses in different compatibility classes.
Table V-3: Required Buffer Yard Type
Proposed
Use Class
Existing Class of Adjacent Use or Zoning District
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
*
A
B
C
D
E
2
A
*
A
B
C
D
3
B
A
*
A
B
C
4
C
B
A
*
A
B
5
D
C
B
A
*
A
6
E
D
C
B
A
*
NOTES:
*
Buffer yard not required in same use class.
(d) 
Options for flexibility. The Department may permit the provision of a narrower buffer yard in combination with denser planting and/or screening devices if the applicant demonstrates that a narrower buffer yard will provide acceptable mitigation of the effects of heavy traffic, noise, glare, fumes and other potential impacts and that the proposed plant materials will be able to thrive if spaced more closely.
(4) 
Required plantings. Buffer yards shall be planted with a mix of trees, shrubs, grasses, and perennials. The use of hardy indigenous species is encouraged. Minimum caliper of trees shall be as specified in Subsection D(5). Quantities and spacing of plant material shall be determined by the density of screening needed. Existing natural features, woodlands or other high-quality existing vegetation preserved within the buffer yard may be used to satisfy planting requirements.
(5) 
General standards for buffer yards.
(a) 
Buffer yards shall be provided by the applicant along the perimeter of the site or lot and shall extend to the property or right-of-way line. Different buffer yards may be required along various portions of the site perimeter if more than one category of land use adjoins the site.
(b) 
Buffer yards shall be maintained by the owner of the property. Buffer yards shall be kept free of trash, debris and graffiti at all times. Plant materials shall be inspected yearly, and all dead, diseased and damaged plant materials shall be replaced.
(c) 
No structure or vehicular use areas, buildings, accessory uses, utilities, light standards, etc., shall be permitted in a buffer yard. Access drives are permitted only in buffer yards which separate a proposed development from a street.
(d) 
Buffer yards may be used for passive recreation uses such as pedestrian and bicycle trails, provided that the required separation and screening is maintained.
G. 
Foundation plantings. In all land developments that propose the construction of a new multifamily residential building or a new nonresidential building, 50% of the length of a building facade that faces a public street shall include foundation plantings immediately adjacent to the building.
(1) 
The plantings shall include a combination of ground cover, shrubs and flowering perennials.
(2) 
The minimum height of shrubs at the time of planting shall be 36 inches.
(3) 
Foundation plantings shall be shown on the landscaping plan that is required to be submitted with the application for final approval of the land development.
(4) 
The plant materials proposed and the design of the foundation plantings shall be subject to approval by the Director.
(5) 
The planting and maintenance of the required foundation plantings shall be the shared responsibility of the developer, the builder and the landowner. Occupancy permits may be withheld if the required plantings have not been installed. Between November 1 and April 1, temporary occupancy permits may be issued subject to the posting of a bond or other financial security to guarantee the installation of the required foundation plantings during the ninety-day period beginning April 1.
A. 
Water supply required. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for every building to be used for human occupancy or habitation in a subdivision or land development.
B. 
Public water systems.
(1) 
Where an existing public water system is accessible to or can be extended to the proposed development site, the applicant shall provide a complete on-site system with connections to such public water system in conformance with the standards and requirements of DEP and the water supplier whose facilities will serve the development.
(2) 
Where an existing public water system is not accessible to the proposed development, water may be supplied by a new public water system, subject to the approval of DEP and the Allegheny County Health Department.
(3) 
In the case of Subsection B(1) or (2), the applicant shall present evidence to the Department that the subdivision or development is to be supplied with water by a certificated public utility, a bona fide cooperative association of lot owners, or by a municipal corporation, authority or utility. A copy of a certificate of public convenience from the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission or an application for such certificate, a cooperative agreement or a commitment or agreement to serve the area, whichever is appropriate, shall be acceptable evidence.
(4) 
Hydrants. Subdivisions and land developments to be served by public water systems shall be provided with fire hydrants which meet all specifications of the municipality and fire company which will serve the development.
C. 
Individual water systems.
(1) 
Where public water supply systems, as defined in the Allegheny County Health Department Rules and Regulations, Article XV, Plumbing and Building Drainage, Chapter 17 [Chapter 6, Part 15], are inaccessible and cannot be extended to the proposed development site, the applicant may provide potable water through individual water supplies, designed and constructed in conformance with the standards and requirements of the Health Department.
(2) 
The use of private water systems shall not be permitted in any subdivision or land development with more than 10 lots, unless the applicant provides hydrogeologic data, acceptable to the Health Department, assuring that adequate quantity and quality of water are available.
(3) 
Private water systems and individual water supplies may be permitted to be located off site, provided that a permanent easement is recorded on the final plan, a legal agreement that sets forth dearly all of the rights and responsibilities of all affected parties is executed, and all other applicable provisions of this section are met.
A. 
Sanitary sewage facilities required. All subdivisions and land developments, unless excepted in Subsection B below, shall be provided with sanitary sewage facilities which are in accordance with the municipal sewage facilities plan and which have been approved by the Allegheny County Health Department, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, and the municipality, authority or other public agency responsible for the collection, conveyance and treatment of sanitary sewage in the municipality in which the development is located.
(1) 
Sanitary sewage facilities approval required; conditional final approval.
(a) 
No plat shall be finally approved or recorded until the plans and specifications for sanitary sewage facilities have been approved and permits issued, as required, by the Health Department and/or the DEP.
(b) 
Conditional final approval may be granted; however, provided that the complete Sewage Facilities Planning Module, as required for the proposed development, has been approved by the municipality in which the proposed development is located and transmitted by the municipality to the Allegheny County Health Department and/or Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, together with a resolution adopting the revision to its sewage facilities plan, if required.
(2) 
All sanitary sewers and related facilities shall be constructed in accordance with requirements of DEP, the construction standards of the municipality, and the Allegheny County Health Department Rules and Regulations, Article XV, Plumbing and Building Drainage [Chapter 7, Part 15].
(3) 
Private sanitary sewer systems may be permitted to be located off site, provided that a permanent easement is recorded on the final plan, a legal agreement that sets forth clearly all of the rights and responsibilities of all affected parties is executed, and all other applicable provisions of this section are met.
B. 
Exceptions.
(1) 
Plat adjustments. Sewage facilities shall not be required for subdivisions that are classified as plat adjustments in this chapter and where no new buildable lots are created.
(2) 
Plans with no new development. Subdivisions and land developments in which no development of buildings or improvement of land for purposes requiring sewage facilities is proposed need not provide sanitary sewage facilities, provided that a properly executed "Form B - Request for Non-Building Waiver" (PADEP Bureau of Water Quality Management form ER-BWQ-349:6/92) has been submitted to and approved by DEP. Where a waiver is approved by DEP, the final plan for recording shall include the notation specified in Appendix 3, Subsection 7A.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix 3 is included at the end of this chapter.
A. 
Management of runoff required. Every subdivision or land development which will affect stormwater runoff characteristics shall include provision for the management of runoff to comply with the following:
(1) 
Development in areas where municipal stormwater management regulations have been enacted. Proposed subdivisions and land developments located in municipalities or areas of municipalities where municipal stormwater management regulations have been enacted shall comply with the municipal regulations. Stormwater management plans for proposed development in those areas and municipalities shall be approved in accordance with the municipal regulations and reviewed by the County, where County review is required by the municipal ordinance.
(2) 
Development in areas where municipal stormwater management regulations are not in effect. Proposed subdivisions and land developments located in areas where municipal regulations are not in effect shall comply with the provisions for stormwater management contained in Appendix 5.[1] Appendix 5 is hereby incorporated as a part of this chapter.
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix 5 is included at the end of this chapter.
(3) 
Stormwater management plans for proposed development in areas subject to the provisions of Appendix 5 shall be reviewed by the municipality and approved by the Department.
B. 
Implementation and enforcement of stormwater management plans.
(1) 
Where governed by municipal regulations. Implementation of stormwater management plans including construction of facilities and provision for inspection, operation, and maintenance of facilities for developments in areas subject to municipal regulations shall comply with the municipal regulations.
(2) 
Where governed by provisions of Appendix 5. Implementation of stormwater management plans, following approval by the Department, shall be in accordance with the provisions of Article III, § 780-303D, E, F and G. Enforcement procedures and remedies for violation of the provisions for stormwater management shall be in accordance with Article I.
C. 
Nonstructural management techniques preferred. All stormwater management plans shall utilize nonstructural techniques, where feasible, to reduce the volume and rate of flow of stormwater runoff and to minimize the need for detention facilities.
(1) 
These techniques are described in the Pennsylvania Stormwater BMP Manual and may include:
(a) 
Natural conservation areas.
(b) 
Stream buffers.
(c) 
Utilization of existing natural stormwater features.
(2) 
Where stormwater management plans are subject to approval by the Department, the Department may require the revision of the development plan and stormwater management plan to increase the utilization of nonstructural stormwater management techniques.
D. 
Certain structural stormwater management practices are preferred to the commonly used detention facilities. Where feasible, to reduce the need for and size of detention facilities and to reduce the volume and rate of stormwater runoff, the structural BMPs in the Pennsylvania Stormwater BMP Manual should be used. The following structural stormwater management practices are preferred:
(1) 
Enhanced infiltration techniques, including pervious pavement, infiltration trenches, rain gardens, vegetated swales and vegetated filter strips.
(2) 
Constructed wetlands or wetland restoration.
(3) 
Floodplain restoration.
(4) 
Reduced use of curbs allowing stormwater runoff to flow through vegetated filter strips prior to collection.
(5) 
Level spreaders are not preferred, but may be used in certain situations (e.g., where there is no on-site channel for stormwater discharge), provided that the level spreaders are not located at the top of a slope.
E. 
To the maximum extent permitted under the MPC and PA Act 167,[2] as amended, new land developments shall provide for conveyance and discharge of all surface water runoff to discharge outlet(s) within the same watershed at locations acceptable to the municipal engineer to minimize flooding and soil erosion/sedimentation.
[2]
Editor's Note: See 32 P.S. § 680.1 et seq., the Pennsylvania Storm Water Management Act.
F. 
When a new flow crosses an adjacent landowner's property, a stormwater easement must be obtained and shown on the land development plans.
G. 
To the maximum extent permitted under the MPC and PA Act 167, as amended, redevelopment areas with existing stormwater infrastructure are required to upgrade the affected stormwater infrastructure to current standards to the extent economically and technically feasible.
H. 
Where governed by the provisions of Appendix 5, all regulated stormwater management facilities shall be designed, implemented, operated and maintained to meet the purposes and requirements of Appendix 5, Pennsylvania Code Title 25, the Clean Streams Law, and PA Act 167.
A. 
General requirement. Subdivisions and land developments shall be served by gas, electric, cable television, and telephone service distribution systems, where these systems are accessible to the development. Renewable energy systems such as geothermal heating and cooling, solar energy generation, and wind power generation are strongly encouraged.
B. 
Easements. Easements for public and private utilities shall comply with the requirements of the utility providers and with the following standards:
(1) 
Easements shall be adjacent to property lines where possible.
(2) 
Minimum widths for utility easements shall be 20 feet for public utilities and 10 feet for private utilities. Utility companies shall use common easements wherever possible.
C. 
Underground wiring.
(1) 
Electric, telephone, television and other communication service lines shall be provided by wiring placed underground within easements or dedicated rights-of-way, installed in accordance with the prevailing standards and practices of the utility or other companies providing such services unless the applicant demonstrates to the Public Utilities Commission that physical conditions render such underground installation infeasible.
(2) 
If a lot abuts an easement or right-of-way with existing overhead electrical, telephone, television or other service lines, the lot may utilize the overhead lines, but service connections shall be installed underground. Where a subdivision or land development requires a road widening or service extension which necessitates the replacement or relocation of overhead lines, replacement or relocation may be underground, in accordance with the requirements of the Public Utilities Commission.
(3) 
Where overhead lines are permitted, the placement and alignment of poles shall be designed to lessen the visual impact of overhead lines as follows:
(a) 
Alignments and pole locations should be routed to avoid locations along horizons.
(b) 
Poles should be located so that the need to clear swaths through treed areas is avoided or mitigated.
(c) 
Trees should be planted in open areas and at key locations to minimize the view of the poles and lines.
(d) 
Alignments should generally follow rear lot lines.
(4) 
Utility apparatus placed above the ground, other than utility poles, shall be screened with plant materials.
A. 
General provisions.
(1) 
Purpose.
(a) 
The purpose of this section is to encourage or require the provision of land and facilities for open space and recreational uses in new land developments. Open space and recreational facilities are important to the public health and welfare, and the quality of life in communities is enhanced when areas are available for active and passive recreational use. Areas and facilities for recreational use are desirable in both residential and nonresidential developments and may include a wide range of areas and facilities such as tot lots, playgrounds, game courts and playing fields, parks, landscaped plazas, picnic areas, hiking and biking trails, and greenways.
(b) 
Parks, open space, and recreation facilities provide economic benefits by attracting and retaining businesses, increasing property values by making communities more desirable, enhancing place identity, and reducing public costs through better management of natural events such as flooding.
(2) 
Intent. The intent of this section is to encourage or require the public dedication or private reservation of land for recreational use, the construction of facilities, payment of fees in lieu of dedication, or combination thereof only in accordance with Section 503(11) of the MPC.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: See 53 P.S. § 10503(11).
(3) 
Mandatory provision of land for recreation. If a municipality has formally adopted a recreation plan, land suitable for recreation and open space shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of Subsections B, C and D hereunder. Preference will be given to land prioritized in the municipal recreation plan or Allegheny Places. To ensure consistency with Allegheny Places, the following land will be prioritized for dedication:
(a) 
Greenways that provide connections between people, recreational facilities, cultural facilities, or significant public areas.
(b) 
Environmentally sensitive lands identified in the Allegheny Places Greenway Map, including, but not limited to, biodiverse areas, floodplains, steep slopes, forested areas, landslide-prone areas, riparian corridors, and wildlife corridors.
(c) 
Lands that facilitate public access to riverfronts.
(d) 
Land that expands or improves an existing park or trail system.
(4) 
Voluntary provision of land and facilities. If a municipality has not formally adopted a plan for recreation, compliance with the provisions of this section shall be voluntary, but land developments should include open space areas and facilities to meet the recreational needs of residents, employees and other users of proposed developments. Often recreational use may be made of areas where development is restricted for environmental reasons. There may be opportunities to link open space within a development to open space in adjoining areas and to create, over time, continuous systems of open space that will add great value to a development and to the community. Although voluntary, land that meets the standards established in § 780-517A(3) are strongly encouraged for dedication.
B. 
Parks, open space and recreation facilities for residential development.
(1) 
Purpose. Parks and recreation facilities provide open space for conservation of environmentally sensitive features and for active and passive recreational needs. The purpose of this subsection is to provide for the park and recreation needs of new residential development. These requirements are intended primarily for recreation rather than environmental protection purposes; however, it is not the intent to prohibit parks or recreation facilities in environmentally sensitive areas if compatible with the primary recreation goals of this subsection.
(2) 
Amount of land required. Residential land developments which will contain 10 or more dwelling units shall provide open space for recreation purposes at a rate ranging from 6.25 acres to 10.50 acres per 1,000 estimated population, which is equal to approximately 270 to 350 square feet per person. This standard is based upon recommendations of the National Recreation and Park Association for local recreation space within neighborhoods and communities and may be adapted to reflect specific recommendations of a municipal park and recreation plan, existing facilities near the development site, and the character and suitability of land within the site for park and recreation purposes.
(3) 
Characteristics. Land proposed to be dedicated or reserved for park and recreation purposes shall meet the following standards:
(a) 
Minimum size. Recreation and open space sites shall be of sufficient size for the recreation uses that are identified in the municipal park and recreation plan. Where there is no municipal plan or if the municipal plan does not specify, the minimum size of a recreation site shall be 10,000 square feet or such other size as is acceptable to the municipality.
(b) 
Slope. At least half of any land area proposed for park and recreation purposes shall have a slope of less than 25% and shall be appropriate for active recreation uses. Steep slopes, exceeding 25%, may be accepted if they are suitable for passive recreation. Any steep slopes proposed for park and recreation purposes shall be undisturbed, not graded, slopes.
(c) 
Flood-prone areas. At least half of any land proposed for park and recreation purposes shall be above the one-hundred-year flood elevation and shall be appropriate for active recreation uses. Land below the one-hundred-year flood elevation may be accepted if it is suitable for recreation uses.
(d) 
Accessibility and usability. Land proposed for dedication shall be usable and accessible to the development for which it is required and to the general public for active or passive recreation activities.
(4) 
Ownership. Open space required to be dedicated under this subsection shall be either:
(a) 
Dedicated in fee simple to the municipality, subject to acceptance by the municipality.
(b) 
Deeded in fee simple or by means of a conservation easement or similar conveyance to a nonprofit conservation organization, permanently restricting the open space for recreational use by the public and allowing the public to use and improve the land for open space or recreational purposes.
(5) 
Reservation of land, construction of recreational facilities or fee in lieu of dedication. In lieu of dedicating land, a developer may voluntarily agree to construct recreational facilities, reserve private land as common open space, pay a fee in lieu of land dedication, or combination thereof, in accordance with the standards of this subsection.
(a) 
Reservation of private open space.
[1] 
Dimensions and character. The amount, dimensions, and character of the reserved open space shall meet the standards for dedicated open space, as set forth in Subsection B(2) and (3) above.
[2] 
Accessibility. Private open space shall consist of land or water within the site, designed and intended for the use or enjoyment of residents of the development.
[3] 
Ownership. Private land reserved as open space shall be permanently restricted to recreational use and shall be deeded to a property owners' association or to a nonprofit conservation organization, with authority to own and maintain the land. Provisions for use, ownership and maintenance shall be acceptable to the municipality.
(b) 
Construction of recreational facilities.
[1] 
Character of facilities. A developer may construct any facilities identified in the municipal recreation plan or acceptable to the municipality.
[2] 
Accessibility. Recreation facilities shall be accessible to residents of the development and other members of the general public.
[3] 
Ownership. Recreational facilities constructed under this subsection shall be publicly owned and maintained.
(c) 
Fees in lieu of land dedication.
[1] 
Amount. The amount of the fee in lieu of required open space shall be equal to the pre-development fair market value of the land area required to be dedicated and shall be calculated as follows:
Fee = (number of acres required to be dedicated) x (average pre-development fair market value, per acre of land in development site).
[2] 
Timing of payment. All fees in lieu of required open space shall be paid prior to final approval of the subdivision plat or land development plan unless financial security is provided in accordance with § 780-303F(3).
[3] 
Earmarking. Fees authorized by this subsection shall, upon receipt by the municipality, be deposited in an interest-bearing account, clearly identifying the land or recreation facilities for which the fee was received. Interest earned on such accounts shall become funds of that account.
[4] 
Use of funds. Funds from such accounts shall be expended only for the acquisition of land or the construction of recreational facilities identified in the municipal recreation plan which are accessible to the residents and users of the proposed subdivision or land development.
[5] 
Refunds. If the municipality fails to utilize the fee paid for the park and recreation purposes within three years of the date such fee was paid, the municipality shall refund any fees paid with interest to any person who paid any fee under this subsection who requests a refund.
C. 
Open space amenities for nonresidential development.
(1) 
Purpose. Major nonresidential land uses, such as office buildings and shopping centers, require open spaces to ensure the health, safety and welfare of large numbers of employees and patrons. Outdoor plazas and landscaped open spaces provide safe, pleasant environments for taking breaks, reduce the need to drive to other locations for this purpose, provide a buffer from noise, glare and other adverse effects of high-density development, and increase the attractiveness of new development. The purpose of these standards is to ameliorate the congestion and other adverse impacts on employees, visitors and patrons of major nonresidential developments.
(2) 
Applicability. These standards shall apply to any nonresidential land development which will include at least 25,000 square feet of gross leasable floor area devoted to retail, office, commercial, institutional, public or industrial use.
(3) 
Open space requirements. In all land development which is subject to the requirements of this subsection, land shall be set aside which is equal to at least 5% of the gross leasable floor area of the development as open space. Such open space shall not include driveways, parking or loading areas or refuse or storage areas.
(4) 
Design criteria. Open space areas shall satisfy all of the following criteria:
(a) 
Open areas shall be open to public use for walking, seating and eating.
(b) 
Open areas shall be landscaped or covered with decorative surface treatment. Natural ground cover, such as grass, shrubs, flowerbeds or mulch, are encouraged; however, impervious ground cover may be used, provided that:
[1] 
Deciduous canopy trees having a diameter at breast height of at least 2.5 inches are planted.
[2] 
At least one such tree is planted for every 500 square feet of open area.
[3] 
Tree roots are protected by tree grates or, if tree grates are not possible or practicable, by above-grade planters.
(c) 
Fountains, art or sculpture, seating, protected walkways, linkages to transit or trail systems, bus shelters, streetlights or other streetscape improvements may be installed in lieu of required landscaping with the approval of the Department.
(d) 
All utilities shall be installed underground.
(e) 
Open spaces and improvements to open spaces shall be depicted on the site plan or landscaping plan, which shall be submitted with the application for land development approval.
(5) 
Maintenance agreement. A maintenance agreement for any improvements required under this section shall be submitted by the applicant and approved by the municipality.
D. 
Dedication or reservation of greenways and trails.
(1) 
Purpose. The establishment of greenways provides an important means for the conservation of environmentally sensitive land and natural resources and for the preservation of vegetation and wildlife habitat. The establishment of greenways which are available for public use also provides a variety of recreational and educational benefits. Trails for walking, hiking and biking are important facilities for recreation as well as for nonmotorized transportation. The establishment of greenways and trails improves the quality of life and will help to make municipalities and the County economically competitive with other areas. Both greenways and trails must occupy continuous, linear land corridors and cannot be effectively contained within individual parcels of land. The purpose of this subsection is, therefore, to provide that land which is delineated as a greenway or trail in an adopted plan or on an official map be dedicated or reserved for such use when land is subdivided or developed.
(2) 
Dedication or reservation of proposed trails and greenways. The Department may accept the dedication or reservation of greenways which traverse a proposed subdivision or land development. Any land dedicated or reserved under this subsection shall be credited against the requirements of this chapter for the provision of open space, recreational facilities and open space amenities in residential and nonresidential developments, provided that:
(a) 
The land offered for dedication or reservation is designated as a trail or greenway on an adopted plan or official map of the municipality or County.
(b) 
Land offered for public dedication is approved by the municipality or by the County Council if the offer is to the County.
(c) 
Land for greenways and trails not publicly dedicated is deeded to a conservation organization or land trust or privately reserved for such use, provided that there is an agreement which is acceptable to the municipality or to the County, if the reserved land is part of a County trail or greenway, which ensures the maintenance of land and facilities and which provides for public use at reasonable times.
(d) 
The minimum right-of-way width of an easement containing a trail which crosses private land is 20 feet for a multipurpose trail and 10 feet for a single-purpose trail.
A. 
Purpose. The purpose of this section is to ensure that developers, municipalities and service providers are aware of the potential impacts that proposed development will have upon community services and facilities and to encourage cooperative planning and action to improve or augment facilities and services that are not adequate to meet increased demands created by new development.
B. 
Requirement to inform. An applicant for approval of a major subdivision shall inform the providers of public services and facilities of the proposed development, including sufficient information about the development to enable the service provider to determine whether sufficient capacity, facilities and/or equipment are available to serve the new development.
(1) 
Service providers who must be informed may vary, based on the nature of the proposed development and the community in which it is located, but will normally include police, fire and emergency services and school districts. (Requirements concerning public transportation service and approval of street names by the Postmaster are included in § 780-519.)
(2) 
Documentation that the required information was transmitted to appropriate service providers shall be included with an application for preliminary approval. Responses from service providers indicating their ability to provide service to the proposed development may be required prior to final approval.
C. 
Options when services or facilities are not adequate. If a public service provider indicates an inability to provide service to a proposed new development, the applicant, service provider and municipality should agree upon a course of action or program to remedy the inadequacy and to ensure service to the new development.
A. 
Purpose. The purpose of this section is to ensure that in new subdivisions and land developments streets, driveways, paths (trails) and sidewalks provide safe and convenient access and accommodate the safe and efficient movement of pedestrian, bicycle and vehicular traffic.
B. 
General provisions.
(1) 
Every subdivision shall have access to a public street.
(2) 
All streets shall be named. No new street name shall be permitted which duplicates or which may be confused with an existing street name.
(3) 
All proposed connections to existing streets shall be approved by the jurisdiction owning the existing streets.
(4) 
Where traffic or drainage problems are created by the proposed development, it shall be the responsibility of the applicant to improve both sides of the existing affected road or street or to provide sufficient funds escrowed for use by the municipality for the execution of such public improvements.
(5) 
Where appropriate, land shall be reserved for the development of future streets or to connect with adjacent undeveloped land. Reserve strips shall not be permitted. No subdivision or land development shall be approved that will landlock any adjacent parcel.
(6) 
Where streets continue into abutting municipalities, the applicant shall coordinate the design of the street with both municipalities in order to ensure uniform cartway widths, pavement cross sections and other public improvements.
C. 
General design and arrangement.
(1) 
The arrangement of streets shall conform to the municipal comprehensive plan, official maps, municipal, County and state transportation plans and the requirements of § 780-511.
(2) 
Streets shall provide convenient connections to existing streets and shall not adversely affect circulation patterns or the flow of traffic.
(3) 
Streets shall be designed to preserve the natural features and topography of the development site to the maximum extent feasible.
(4) 
Local access streets shall be arranged to minimize through traffic, discourage excessive speeds, and provide privacy in residential areas. All local streets, residential or nonresidential, shall be arranged to minimize traffic speed and volume, noise, congestion, and hazards to pedestrians and bicyclists.
(5) 
Only residential, outdoor recreation or public service uses may directly access a residential street.
(6) 
Streets in a proposed development shall connect with existing or reserved streets along the boundary of an adjacent tract unless topography or other existing feature prevents a connection.
(7) 
Where a proposed development abuts or encompasses an existing or proposed collector or arterial street, marginal access streets, reverse frontage lots with buffer yards, or deep lots with rear service alleys may be required in order to protect properties and provide separation of through and local traffic.
(8) 
All streets shall be designed to minimize the amount of paved area necessary to safely meet the standards of this chapter.
(9) 
All streets shall be designed as complete streets, as defined in Article II, where feasible.
D. 
Functional classification of streets. The design of a street system shall include the classification of streets based on their functions and projected traffic as shown in Table V-4.
Table V-4
Functional Classification of Streets
Classification
Description
Projected Traffic Volume
Arterial
A public street intended to carry a large volume of local and through traffic, to or from collector streets and expressways; controlled access
3,000+
Collector
Channels traffic from local to arterial or other collector streets; includes main streets within a development
Residential
No direct access to residential lots.
1,000 to 3,000
Nonresidential
Number of access drives limited; may require marginal access drives
800+
Minor collector
Provides direct access to lots, and conveys traffic from local to collector streets
Residential
Not more than 500 trips from direct frontage lots permitted
500 to 1,000
Nonresidential
Nonresidential
0 to 800
Local
Serves primarily to provide direct access to abutting property; should be designed to discourage through traffic
Residential
Provides direct access to residential lots and to other residential streets
0 to 500
(1) 
Each street shall be designed for its entire length to meet the standards for its classification.
(2) 
The classification of each street shall be based upon the projection of traffic volumes 10 years after its completion. Traffic volumes shall be calculated in accordance with trip generation rates published in the most recent edition of the Institute of Traffic Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation Manual or alternate source acceptable to the Department and shall consider all traffic likely to use each street.
E. 
Minimum level of service.
(1) 
All proposed streets and intersections in a subdivision or land development shall be designed to function at Level of Service A or B.
(2) 
The existing level of service on any adjacent street and intersection that will be affected by a proposed subdivision or land development shall not fall below level C if it is currently A, B, or C and shall not be further reduced if it is at level D, E or F.
F. 
Traffic impact study.
(1) 
When required. A traffic impact study shall be required for a subdivision or land development which will generate 100 or more peak-hour trips when fully developed. A traffic impact study may also be required by the Department to assess the impacts of smaller projects if traffic congestion or safety problems already exist.
(2) 
Methodology. The study shall be conducted in accordance with the recommended practice "Traffic Impact Analysis for Site Development," published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers, 2010, or in accordance with an equivalent methodology in PennDOT's "Policies and Procedures for Transportation Impact Studies," 2009.
(a) 
The scope of the study, study area and methodology shall be approved by the Department before the study is initiated. (A preapplication conference should be scheduled for this purpose.)
(b) 
The study shall be performed by, or under the supervision of, a professional engineer with training in traffic and transportation engineering studies and experience in the preparation of traffic studies.
(3) 
Required findings.
(a) 
The traffic impact study must demonstrate that the levels of service specified in Subsection E will be met by the proposed development and that the circulation plan for the development will function safely and efficiently.
(b) 
The study shall describe any measures which have been incorporated into the development plan in order to achieve the required conditions. Such measures may include but are not limited to:
[1] 
A reduction in the density or intensity of the proposed development.
[2] 
Measures to reduce traffic impacts, such as the clustering of buildings for easy access by transit or ridesharing vehicles or the inclusion of transit-related improvements.
[3] 
The phasing of construction to coincide with the completion of transportation improvements which have been programmed by the municipality, County or state.
[4] 
The construction of on-site transportation improvements.
[5] 
The construction of off-site transportation improvements or payment of impact fees, when authorized by a municipal impact fee ordinance.
[6] 
The extension of transit, bicycle or pedestrian services to the site or the sponsorship of a ridesharing program or transit subsidies for employees.
[7] 
Any combination of the above or additional measures.
(c) 
Any traffic impact mitigation measures which are not physical site improvements shall be incorporated into the development agreement executed between the municipality and the applicant and shall be recorded with the land development plan.
G. 
Special-purpose streets.
(1) 
Private streets. Private streets may be permitted by the Department, with the concurrence of the municipality.
(a) 
Private streets shall comply with the design and construction standards for public streets of the same functional class.
(b) 
An agreement for maintenance of private streets shall be recorded with the final plan and shall include, in case of failure to maintain in accordance with the agreement, an offer of dedication to the municipality together with provisions for funds sufficient to restore the private street to the standards required for public streets prior to acceptance of dedication.
(2) 
Cul-de-sac streets shall comply with the following standards:
(a) 
A cul-de-sac street serving residential development shall not provide the sole access for more than 30 dwellings or a maximum of 250 vehicle trips per day.
(b) 
A residential cul-de-sac street shall end in a turnaround which has a paved cartway not less than 20 feet in width, surrounding a landscaped island with a minimum radius of 24 feet, except in the following circumstances:
[1] 
A cul-de-sac head with a radius of 40 feet and a cartway width of 14 feet surrounding a landscaped island shall be acceptable for one-way circulation.
[2] 
Hammerhead turnarounds may be used, if the cul-de-sac street does not provide access for more than eight dwelling units. The long dimension of the turnaround head shall be not less than 50 feet.
[3] 
A temporary turnaround shall be provided at the end of dead-end streets which are intended to be extended as through streets in the future. If the length of a dead-end street exceeds the depth of one lot, the temporary turnaround shall be constructed with an all-weather surface and a minimum cartway radius of 25 feet, and its use shall be guaranteed to the public.
(c) 
The terminus of a nonresidential cul-de-sac street shall be designed so that the largest vehicles expected to use the street can complete the turn without backing. If a cul-de-sac head is proposed, a landscaped island shall be provided.
(d) 
For any cul-de-sac street which is at least 800 feet in length, a traffic calming device, such as a stop sign, intermediate turnaround or traffic circle, shall be provided at the approximate midpoint of the street. For cul-de-sac streets that exceed 800 feet in length, a traffic calming device shall be provided every 350 feet or so. The design and placement of the proposed traffic calming device shall be acceptable to the Department and the municipal engineer.
(e) 
A "no outlet" sign shall be erected at the entrance to every cul-de-sac or dead-end street, which shall comply with the standards and specifications of the jurisdiction owning the intersecting street.
(3) 
Half or partial streets shall not be permitted.
(4) 
Alleys may be permitted, with the concurrence of the municipality, and shall comply with the following standards:
(a) 
Alleys may not be used as the only means of access to a lot.
(b) 
Alleys in residential developments shall have a minimum right-of-way of 16 feet and a minimum cartway of 12 feet.
(c) 
Alleys in nonresidential developments shall have a minimum right-of-way of 20 feet and a minimum cartway of 16 feet. Where necessary, a radius shall be provided at the alley intersection, sufficient to accommodate any large vehicles that may be expected to use the alley.
(d) 
Dead-end alleys shall not be permitted without a turnaround and are subject to the approval of the Department.
H. 
Driveways and access drives.
(1) 
Driveways and access drives shall enter public streets at safe locations. No driveway or access drive shall enter a public street closer to an existing intersection than 50 feet. Distances shall be provided as noted below:
(a) 
For individual residential lots: 50 feet;
(b) 
For multifamily and nonresidential lots: 100 feet; and
(c) 
A reasonable safe sight distance shall be provided based upon the PennDOT guidance provided in Chapter 441, Access to and Occupancy of Highways by Driveways and Local Roads.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: See 67 Pa. Code Chapter 441.
(2) 
The maximum permitted grade on residential driveways shall be 14% and on nonresidential driveways shall be 10%. A leveling area for all driveways and access drives shall be provided for a minimum distance of 12 feet, measured from the edge of the pavement of the intersecting street, at a maximum grade of 5%.
(3) 
Shared driveways for up to four houses shall be permitted. Shared driveways may have a maximum grade of 14%, provided that safe sight stopping distances are provided the length of the driveway. Pavement width may vary but shall be appropriate to the length, width and gradient of the proposed driveway. The Department may require shoulders or guide rail, if deemed necessary for safety.
I. 
Design speeds. Design speeds shall be as follows:
(1) 
Arterial roads: 50 miles per hour.
(2) 
Collector streets: 35 miles per hour.
(3) 
Minor collector streets: 25 miles per hour.
(4) 
Local streets: 15 to 20 miles per hour.
J. 
Street grades.
(1) 
The entire width of the right-of-way of each street in a proposed subdivision shall be graded, except as specified in § 780-504A.
(2) 
Minimum permitted street grade for all streets shall be 1%.
(3) 
Maximum street grades, other than due allowance for vertical curves, shall be as follows:
(a) 
Arterial roads: 6%.
(b) 
Collector streets: 8%.
(c) 
Minor collector streets, nonresidential: 10%.
(d) 
Minor collector and local streets, residential: 12%.
(4) 
Street grades shall be measured along the center line of the street.
(5) 
Center-line grade on the head of a cul-de-sac or hammerhead shall not exceed 5%.
(6) 
Where the grade of the street is six feet or more above the grade of the abutting land, guardrails shall be provided.
K. 
Street alignment.
(1) 
Minimum safe stopping sight distances on all vertical and horizontal curves shall be as follows:
(a) 
Twenty miles per hour: 110 feet.
(b) 
Twenty-five miles per hour: 180 feet.
(c) 
Thirty-five miles per hour: 250 feet.
(2) 
Minimum center-line radii for horizontal curves shall be as follows:
(a) 
Arterial roads: 700 feet.
(b) 
Collector streets: 350 feet.
(c) 
Minor collector streets: 200 feet.
(d) 
Local streets: 100 feet.
(3) 
For other than local streets, a minimum tangent of 100 feet between reverse curves shall be provided. For local streets, a lesser tangent may be acceptable, provided that safe stopping distances are maintained as per Subsection K(1). Broken-back curves shall be avoided; however, when they must be used, a minimum tangent of 150 feet shall be provided.
(4) 
Vertical curves shall be provided for all changes in grade exceeding 1%. For each 1% of algebraic difference between tangent grades over 3%, at least 15 feet of vertical curve length shall be provided. Minimum vertical curve lengths shall be as follows:
(a) 
Arterial roads: 150 feet.
(b) 
Collector streets: 100 feet.
(c) 
Local streets, residential: 50 feet.
L. 
Intersections.
(1) 
The design of intersections shall balance the needs of all street users, including pedestrians and bicyclists. Safe pedestrian crossings shall be included on every arterial and collector. The following design features are required as applicable:
(a) 
Dedicated turning lanes. On-street types with medians, the median shall be narrowed to allow the left-turn lane without disrupting on-street parking and bulb-outs. On-street types without medians and with on-street parking, on-street parking shall cease a safe distance from the intersection, and travel lanes shall shift to allow for a dedicated left-turn lane. At a minimum, parking shall cease 30 feet from the intersection.
(b) 
Bulb-outs. Bulb-outs are encouraged where possible. At a safe distance from the intersection, on-street parking shall cease and the curb shall be extended to the travel lane.
(c) 
Medians. On-street types with medians, a ten-foot median is permitted at intersections after a left-turn lane has been provided. Construction and landscaping of these medians shall provide a midintersection pedestrian refuge.
(d) 
Roundabouts. Roundabout design shall comply with state and federal design guidelines.
(2) 
The angle of intersecting streets shall be as close to 90° as possible. No streets shall intersect at an angle less than 60°.
(3) 
Distance between intersections shall be as follows:
(a) 
Arterial roads: 800 feet.
(b) 
Collector streets: 300 feet.
(c) 
Local streets: 150 feet.
(4) 
Intersections between more than two streets shall be avoided.
(5) 
Where the grade of any street at the approach to an intersection exceeds 5%, a leveling area shall be provided for the secondary intersecting street. The transition grade shall not exceed 3% for the minimum distance of 50 feet measured from the edge of the pavement of the intersecting street.
(6) 
An area of unobstructed vision shall be provided at every intersection. The minimum clear sight triangle shall be measured:
(a) 
Along the center lines of the intersecting streets, where L equals the distance along the center line of the primary through street, measured from its intersection with the center line of the secondary intersecting street, to an approaching vehicle on the primary street.
(b) 
On the secondary intersecting street, from a point at least 20 feet back from the edge of the pavement of the primary through street, which is 3.5 feet above the surface of the pavement. Minimum values for L are as follows:
[1] 
Arterial roads: L = 500 feet.
[2] 
Collector streets: L = 300 feet.
[3] 
Minor collector streets: L = 200 feet.
[4] 
Local streets: L = 200 feet.
(7) 
No plantings or structures exceeding 30 inches in height shall be permitted in the clear sight triangle. A public right-of-entry shall be reserved for the purpose of removing any object that obstructs the clear sight triangle.
(8) 
Deceleration, turning or merging lanes may be required by the municipality along existing and proposed collector or arterial roads.
(9) 
Clearly marked crosswalks and accessible curb ramps shall be provided at intersections where there are sidewalks or pedestrian walkways. The Department may require crosswalks in other locations to ensure pedestrian safety and convenience. Crosswalks shall meet the PennDOT pavement markings standards in TC-8600, Sheet 6 of 11. Crosswalks should be stamped or scored concrete (with approved nonreflective color mixed into the concrete) as shown on Sheet 6, Types D, E or F. PennDOT-approved hot thermoplastic pavement markings with diagonal lines between parallel lines are acceptable (Type B). Painted parallel or perpendicular lines are not acceptable (Types A and C).
(10) 
Curb radii.
(a) 
Curb radii shall be as follows:
[1] 
Arterial roads: 50 feet.
[2] 
Collector streets: 25 feet to 30 feet.
[3] 
Minor collector streets: 25 feet to 30 feet.
[4] 
Local streets: 15 feet to 25 feet.
(b) 
Where two roads of different right-of-way widths intersect, the radii of curvature for the higher-classification road shall apply.
M. 
Rights-of-way and cartways.
(1) 
The right-of-way shall be measured from lot line to lot line and shall be wide enough to contain the cartway, curbs, or shoulders and, when required, parking lanes, sidewalks, street trees and bike lanes.
(2) 
The right-of-way width of a new street that is a continuation of an existing street shall in no case be at a lesser width than that of the existing street.
(3) 
The right-of-way width shall consider future development in accordance with the Comprehensive Plan as well as the plan for the proposed development.
(4) 
Right-of-way widths shall be within the following minimum and maximum ranges; however, the context of the future street (urban, suburban, or rural) should be considered first:
(a) 
Arterial roads: 70 feet to 70 feet.
(b) 
Collector streets: 36 feet to 50 feet.
(c) 
Minor collectors: 24 feet to 40 feet.
(d) 
Local streets: 22 feet to 30 feet.
(5) 
For local and residential minor collector streets, moving lanes shall be nine feet or 10 feet wide. For collector streets, moving lanes shall not be less than 10 feet and not more than 12 feet wide. Where on-street parking is needed, parking lanes shall be eight feet wide.
(6) 
Street paving widths shall be within the following minimum and maximum ranges:
(a) 
Arterial roads: 36 feet to 48 feet.
(b) 
Collector streets: 24 feet to 36 feet.
(c) 
Minor collectors: 20 feet to 28 feet.
(d) 
Local streets: 18 feet to 28 feet.
(7) 
Additional right-of-way and/or cartway widths may be required for the following reasons:
(a) 
To promote public safety and convenience.
(b) 
To provide parking areas in urban districts and in areas of high-density residential development.
(c) 
To provide slopes rights whenever the topography is such that an additional right-of-way is needed to provide adequate earth slopes.
(d) 
To provide for bicycle or pedestrian facilities.
N. 
Curbs.
(1) 
Curbing shall be required for the following purposes:
(a) 
For stormwater management (may be depressed curbs).
(b) 
To stabilize pavement edges.
(c) 
To delineate parking areas.
(d) 
Where on-street parking will occur.
(e) 
At street intersections.
(f) 
Where grades exceed 6%.
(g) 
At tight radii.
(2) 
The type of curb required shall be appropriate to the street classification and use.
(3) 
Where curbing is not required, an edge treatment, such as a thickened edge, shall be provided as needed for safety and to maintain the stability of the pavement.
O. 
Shoulders and embankments.
(1) 
Shoulders and drainage swales shall be used instead of curbs when:
(a) 
Shoulders are required by state or other law.
(b) 
Soil or topographic conditions make the use of shoulders and drainage swales preferable.
(c) 
In order to preserve the rural character of an existing community or a proposed development.
(d) 
Shoulders are needed for bicycle facilities.
(2) 
Shoulders shall be a minimum of four feet in width on both sides of the street and shall be located within the right-of-way. Greater shoulder widths shall be provided as recommended by a registered professional engineer and shall be acceptable to the municipal engineer.
(3) 
Shoulder material and construction shall be as recommended by a registered professional engineer and shall be acceptable to the municipal engineer.
(4) 
The width of swales shall be determined by site-specific conditions.
P. 
Bikeways.
(1) 
All new streets shall be planned and constructed to accommodate bicycle travel safely.
(2) 
For residential developments which will generate 500 or more vehicle trips per day and for all major nonresidential developments, bicycle traffic shall be accommodated in one of two ways:
(a) 
A bikeway master plan, which identifies bike routes that safely connect major traffic origins and destinations, shall be prepared. The plan may propose a combination of existing and proposed bike lanes, bike paths, shared pedestrian sidewalks and pathways and shared vehicular roadways. The plan shall demonstrate how any paths, sidewalks or roadways which are proposed to be shared should be able to accommodate the shared use safely.
(b) 
Bikeways, which shall be provided as follows:
[1] 
For nonresidential developments, bikeways shall be provided along any new collector or arterial road constructed as part of the development.
[2] 
For residential developments, bikeways shall be provided along any new minor collector, collector or arterial road constructed as part of the development.
(3) 
Where a proposed development is within 1,000 feet of an existing bikeway or a proposed bikeway included in a municipal or County bikeway plan or official map, the development plan shall provide for connections to the existing or proposed bikeway.
(4) 
Bikeways can take the form of on-road facilities, such as bike lanes, cycle tracks, or shared lanes ("sharrows"), or off-road bicycle/pedestrian paths.
(a) 
Bicycle lanes shall include the application of pavement striping, markings, and regulatory signage and shall be a minimum of six feet wide. Bicycle lanes may include the application of high-visibility paint to differentiate it from vehicular travel lanes.
(b) 
Cycle tracks are bicycle facilities that are adjacent to roadways but separated by a physical barrier. Cycle tracks shall be a minimum of nine feet wide.
(c) 
Shared lanes shall include pavement markings as required in the latest PennDOT Design Manual and as provided for in the latest edition of the Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
(d) 
Off-road bicycle paths shall be a minimum of eight feet wide, although 12 feet is recommended.
Q. 
Public transportation.
(1) 
Where a proposed development is adjacent to or within 1,000 feet of collector or arterial roads where transit service is currently provided or may be provided in the future, the applicant shall consult with the transit authority regarding street design requirements for buses and passenger waiting areas and shelters.
(2) 
Where a development site is adjacent to or includes a rail transit facility or other exclusive transit right-of-way, the applicant shall consult with the transit authority to determine whether any special design features concerning the rail transit facilities will be required.
R. 
Sidewalks and pathways.
(1) 
Where a proposed development is adjacent to or within 1,000 feet of an existing or future rails-to-trails (or other public trail system) system, access from the proposed development to the rails-to-trails system shall be considered in the design and layout of the plan.
(2) 
Pedestrian pathways and improved sidewalks shall be included in developments in which any of the following conditions are met:
(a) 
Where sidewalks exist in the same block on the same side of the street.
(b) 
Within residential developments where the net density exceeds two dwelling units per acre and new streets are proposed.
(c) 
Within planned business, commercial or industrial developments.
(d) 
Along roads that are served by public transit or may be served by public transit within three years of the expected date of completion of the proposed development.
(e) 
Where blocks exceed 600 feet in length.
(f) 
Within or along the perimeter of any other pedestrian generator, including:
[1] 
Schools, libraries, community centers and places of worship.
[2] 
Parks and other recreation centers.
[3] 
Shopping or commercial centers.
(3) 
Public sidewalks shall in general be parallel to the street and within the right-of-way. However, alternative locations will be considered, provided that safe and convenient pedestrian circulation is maintained.
(4) 
New sidewalks must connect to existing sidewalks where the existing sidewalks are within a right-of-way and within 50 feet of the new sidewalks.
(5) 
Pathways in general shall serve to connect major use areas such as buildings, parking lots, recreational facilities and other accessory uses and to separate the movement of pedestrians from vehicles to the greatest extent possible.
(a) 
The site plan shall minimize potential hazards by using special paving, grade separations, pavement marking, signs, striping, bollards, median refuge islands, traffic calming features, landscaping, lighting or other means to clearly delineate pedestrian areas for both day and night use.
(6) 
Sidewalks and pathways shall have a minimum width of five feet or, if abutting a street curb, shall have a minimum width of eight feet. Wider widths may be required near major pedestrian generators.
(7) 
Sidewalks within street or public rights-of-way shall be concrete, the design and construction of which shall be subject to approval by the municipal engineer. Pathways may be constructed of other materials, including pervious materials, provided that the proposed materials and construction are appropriate to the surrounding land use and expected volume of pedestrian traffic and are approved by the municipal engineer.
(8) 
Curb ramps shall be provided at all intersections consistent with PennDOT Standards for Roadway Construction, Pub. 72, RC-67M (13 Sheets), most recent edition.
(9) 
Public sidewalks shall be constructed in accordance with federal specifications for accessibility.
S. 
Streetlights and site lighting.
(1) 
In residential subdivision where lots are 20,000 square feet or smaller, lighting shall be provided at the following locations:
(a) 
The intersection of the existing public street with the entrance to the proposed development.
(b) 
Intersections of public streets within the proposed development.
(c) 
The apex of the curve of any major thoroughfare (public or private) within the proposed development having a radius of 300 feet or less.
(d) 
Cul-de-sac "bulbs."
(e) 
Terminal ends of median islands having concrete curbing, trees or other fixed objects not having a breakaway design for speeds of 25 miles per hour or greater.
(2) 
In a residential development where there is on-street parking or there are common parking areas of five or more spaces, these parking spaces shall be illuminated.
(3) 
Lights shall be provided in parking areas, along sidewalks and between buildings in multifamily and nonresidential land developments as needed for public safety and convenience. Such lighting shall comply with the standards of § 780-521. The lighting plan required by § 780-402C shall be provided to demonstrate compliance.
(4) 
Street lighting shall be subject to compliance with the standards of § 780-521. The lighting plan required by § 780-402C(13) shall be provided to demonstrate compliance.
(5) 
The quantity, location, style, type and shielding of light standards shall be appropriate to the use, the development, and the municipality and shall be approved by the Department, subject to the recommendation of the municipal engineer.
T. 
Street signs.
(1) 
Street name signs shall be provided at all new street intersections.
(2) 
Street name signs shall be installed under streetlights and shall be free of all visual obstructions.
(3) 
The design of street name signs shall be consistent, uniform, and appropriate to the municipality and to the development and shall be acceptable to the municipal engineer.
(4) 
Traffic control signs shall be provided by the applicant as needed. The design and placement of traffic control signs shall be as specified in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways and shall meet all state and local requirements.
U. 
Traffic calming. Traffic calming measures described in Table V-5 may be used to modify vehicle speeds and other driver behavior. An asterisk (*) means that the device is permitted, while a blank cell means that the device is not permitted.
(1) 
The choice, design and installation of traffic calming measures on any collector or arterial road shall be balanced with its regional vehicle traffic-carrying role.
(2) 
The planning and installation of traffic calming measures shall respect the presence of driveways.
Table V-5
Suitability of Traffic Calming Measures
Traffic Calming Measure
Arterial
Collector
Town Center
Local Road
Midblock bulb-outs
Midblock bulb-outs reduce the width of the roadway for a midblock section. They shorten crossing distances for pedestrians and draw attention to pedestrians via raised peninsulas. Bulb-outs can be built within the marked on-street parking area or on residential roadways over 20 feet in width.
*
*
*
*
Restriping
Streets can be restriped to create lanes that are nine feet to 11 feet wide. The excess space can be used to create bike lanes or marked on-street parking on one or both sides. Bicycle lanes shall be five feet wide minimum, and on-street parking shall be seven feet wide minimum. The parking can be staggered to create a weaving path on the roadway, further informing drivers that caution should be used in the neighborhood.
*
*
*
*
Gateways
Gateways appear to narrow the street, and also serve as highly visible entryways into neighborhoods. Gateway features can also double as transit waiting areas.
*
*
*
Unmarked on-street parking
Allowing on-street parking on streets without designated on-street parking areas will create a series of single-lane yield points wherever parked cars are present. This "informal" single-lane yield point occurs when the street width is narrow enough to prevent simultaneous passing of two moving vehicles past a parked vehicle. For streets up to 30 feet in width, allowing parking on both sides of the street is necessary to create a yield point.
*
*
Textured pavement
Textured pavement is an effective traffic calming measure. The advantages of a textured street are that it is aesthetically pleasing and it calms traffic better as it ages as the surface wears out. Installation costs are higher than those for asphalt roadways, but long-term maintenance costs are lower. However, textured pavement can be loud.
*
*
*
*
Raised intersections
Raised intersections slow cars down throughout an entire intersection, providing an extra level of safety for pedestrians crossing an intersection. This improvement may be most appropriate for commercial areas where both vehicular and pedestrian traffic volumes are high. Textured pavement can also be part of this improvement.
*
*
*
A. 
Application. All land developments shall include parking facilities for the planned uses.
(1) 
If the municipal zoning ordinance includes parking standards, the standards of the municipal ordinance shall apply, except:
(a) 
If the municipal ordinance does not include provisions for accessible parking facilities and/or bicycle parking, the standards for those facilities contained in this chapter shall apply.
(b) 
If the municipal ordinance does not contain standards for the landscaping of parking lots, the requirements of § 780-512E of this chapter shall apply.
(2) 
If the municipal zoning ordinance does not include parking standards, the standards of this chapter shall apply.
B. 
Parking requirements.
(1) 
Residential land developments.
(a) 
In areas where streets are designed and commonly used for on-street parking, at least one off-street parking space shall be provided for every new dwelling unit.
(b) 
In areas where streets are designed without parking lanes, at least two off-street parking spaces shall be provided for every dwelling unit.
(c) 
In apartment developments restricted to occupancy by the elderly, the parking requirement may be reduced to one parking space for every four dwelling units, plus one space for every employee on the largest shift.
(2) 
Nonresidential land developments. Parking for nonresidential uses shall be provided in accordance with Table V-6. The required number of spaces may be increased or reduced by up to 10%. Applicants proposing greater than ten-percent variation must comply with § 780-520E.
Table V-6
Off-Street Parking Requirements for Nonresidential Uses
Nonresidential Land Uses
Required Off-Street Parking Spaces Per Indicated Area
Assembly operations
1 per 800 square feet GFA
Bar
1 per 2 seats
Bowling alley
4 per alley
Car wash
10 per washing lane
Church/synagogue
1 per 3 seats
Fiduciary institutions
1 per 300 square feet GFA
Finishing operations
1 per 800 square feet GFA
Hotel/motel
1 per guest room, plus 10 per 1,000 square feet GFA
Industrial
1 per 800 square feet GFA
Library
1 per 300 square feet GFA
Manufacturing
1 per 800 square feet GFA
Medical center
1 per 250 square feet GFA
Nightclub
1 per 3 seats
Offices
Under 49,999 square feet GFA
4.5 per 1,000 square feet GFA
50,000 to 99,999 square feet GFA
4 per 1,000 square feet GFA
100,000+ square feet GFA
3.5 per 1,000 square feet GFA
Receiving
1 per 5,000 square feet GFA
Research
1 per 1,000 square feet GFA
Restaurant
1 per 3 seats
Quick-food establishments
1 per 30 square feet GFA
Retail store
1 per 200 square feet GFA
Schools
Elementary
2 per classroom, but not less than 1 per teacher and staff
Intermediate
1.5 per classroom, but not less than 1 per teacher and staff
Secondary
2.5 per classroom, but not less than 1 per teacher and staff
Service station
4 per bay and work area
Shipping
1 per 5,000 square feet GFA
Shopping center
Under 400,000 square feet GLA
4 per 1,000 square feet GLA
400,000 to 599,999 square feet GLA
4.5 per 1,000 square feet GLA
600,000+ square feet GLA
5 per 1,000 square feet GLA
Storage areas
1 per 5,000 square feet GLA
Theater
1 per 3 seats
In shopping center
1 per 4 seats
Warehouse
1 per 5,000 square feet GFA
NOTES:
GFA = gross floor area.
GLA = gross leasable area.
SOURCE: Listokin, David and Walker, Carole, The Subdivision and Site Plan Handbook, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Center for Urban Policy Research, 1989.
(3) 
Accessible parking. Accessible parking shall be provided for all nonresidential developments and multifamily developments with more than five units. Accessible parking spaces shall be the closest spaces to the nearest accessible entrance and shall conform with federal standards for accessibility. The minimum number of required spaces shall be as follows:
Total Required Parking Spaces
Accessible Spaces
5 to 100
1 per 25
100 to 1,000
1 per 50
Over 1,000
1 per 100
(4) 
Bicycle parking facilities. Bicycle parking facilities shall be provided for nonresidential land developments in accordance with the following standards:
(a) 
Bicycle parking spaces shall be provided at a rate of one space for the first 10 automobile parking spaces, plus one space for every additional 50 automobile parking spaces thereafter.
(b) 
Each bicycle space shall be equipped with a structure to which a bicycle frame and one wheel can be attached using a chain, cable, or U-lock. There shall be adequate separation between structures to allow bicycles to be attached or removed without moving other bicycles. The structure shall be suitable for use by bicycles not equipped with kickstands.
(c) 
Bicycle parking spaces shall be convenient to the structure or outdoor area for which they are provided. They shall be visible from at least one entrance to the structure and shall be provided with lighting.
(d) 
Bicycle parking structures shall be placed to provide at least two feet of free space between a bicycle and the edge of the curb or sidewalk or three feet between a bicycle and the outside edge of the roadway shoulder.
C. 
Dimensional standards.
(1) 
Stall size. Perpendicular or angled parking spaces for automobiles shall be no less than nine feet in width and 18 feet in length. Parallel spaces shall be no less than eight feet in width and 23 feet in length. Accessible spaces shall be no less than 12 feet in width.
(2) 
Aisle width. The width of aisles providing access to parking stalls shall be in accordance with the chart below. Only one-way traffic shall be permitted in aisles serving parking spaces placed at an angle other than 90°.
Parking Angle
(degrees)
Aisle Width
(feet)
30°
12
45°
13
60°
18
90°
22
D. 
General design standards.
(1) 
Parking areas shall be designed to provide safe ingress and egress from the streets that provide access to the land development. No parking spaces shall enter directly onto streets. All parking areas shall be connected with streets by access drives.
(2) 
Parking areas shall be designed to provide for the safe and convenient movement of people between parking areas and their destinations on the development site.
(a) 
In major developments, pedestrian walkways shall be provided in accordance with § 780-519R and integrated with the landscaping required by § 780-512E.
(b) 
Parking areas, pedestrian walkways and building entrances shall be lighted in accordance with the standards of § 780-519S.
(3) 
Parking areas shall be designed to minimize large expanses of pavement, and provision of parking spaces in excess of demand shall be avoided.
(a) 
In nonresidential areas, shared parking may be provided for uses which have different periods of peak demand, provided that the applicant documents the differing patterns of use and provides for the average peak demand of the combined uses. The documentation must include provisions acceptable to the Department and to the municipality for the continuing use and maintenance of any shared facilities.
(b) 
For nonresidential land developments in areas of municipalities where public parking facilities are available, the applicant may fulfill all or a portion of the requirement for off-street parking facilities generated by the proposed development by contributing funds to the municipality or parking authority in lieu of constructing parking spaces on site. Such funds shall be used for the improvement or expansion of public parking facilities and shall be approved by the Department only if approved by the municipal governing body.
(c) 
In addition to minimization of impervious area, other stormwater BMPs shall be considered such as:
[1] 
Pervious pavement with infiltration bed;
[2] 
Infiltration basin;
[3] 
Subsurface infiltration bed;
[4] 
Infiltration trench;
[5] 
Rain garden/bioretention;
[6] 
Constructed filter; and
[7] 
Vegetated filter strip.
(4) 
In developments of detached and attached single-family homes, off-street parking shall be located on the same lots with the dwellings that they serve.
(5) 
Parking lots shall be designed with a minimum grade of 1% and a maximum grade of 5%. They shall be graded for proper drainage of stormwater.
(6) 
Landscaping. All parking areas shall be landscaped in accordance with the provisions of § 780-512E.
E. 
Parking reductions or increases. Applicants may vary from the off-street parking requirements provided for in Table V-6 by greater than 10% by providing sufficient documentation that demonstrates reduced or increased parking demand.
(1) 
The provision of on-street parking or employee showers, lockers and changing areas will justify a reduction in off-street parking. Employee showers, lockers and changing areas encourage bicycle commuting, thus reducing the strain on parking facilities.
(2) 
In all cases, applicants must provide sufficient documentation to clearly establish that minimum and maximum parking needs shall be accommodated. Where inadequate on-site parking causes a recurring traffic hazard or a nuisance off site, the owner shall be responsible for increasing the number of parking spaces or decreasing the need for parking spaces.
(3) 
Applicants seeking an increase in parking shall provide a parking study consistent with the following standards:
(a) 
The application for reduced parking shall include a description of the use, a development plan, a trip generation report, and a parking study. The parking study shall include the characteristics of each use, peak parking demand, hours of operation, and potential improvements in access, design, and circulation.
A. 
Requirement. Permanent monuments and markers shall be placed in all subdivisions in order to provide survey and property line control.
(1) 
The location and installation of monuments and markers shall be planned to ensure that they will be permanent, accessible and recoverable.
(2) 
All monumentation shall conform to recommended practices of the surveying profession, as contained in the most recent edition of the Manual of Practice for Professional Land Surveyors in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania or equivalent standard of professional practice acceptable to the Department.
B. 
Placement.
(1) 
Intervisible monuments shall be placed sufficiently far apart to ensure accuracy control within survey procedures. They shall be placed with priority consideration for permanence and accessibility. This will require consideration of the ultimate use of the land where the monuments are to be placed, exposure to future roadway maintenance, and lot landscape development. To that end, monuments should be located in the following order of priority:
(a) 
On a five-foot or appropriate survey line only where sidewalks are to be installed.
(b) 
If no sidewalks are to be placed, then the center line of the roadway should be monumented.
(c) 
Other locations along or on the right-of-way line, giving due consideration to the lot owner's use of the land and the likelihood of future changes in elevation or landscape, which would affect the monument's location or its intervisibility.
(2) 
Monuments shall be placed in a sufficient number of locations to define the boundary of a subdivision and the location of all streets. Sufficient monuments shall be placed to locate intersections, culs-de-sac, and curves in horizontal street alignments. Monuments shall be intervisible.
(3) 
Markers shall be placed at the corner of all lots or at such other locations as may be required to locate all lot lines.
(4) 
The location of all monuments and markers shall be shown on the plan for recording, with the distance between them and curve data shown.
(a) 
A notation indicating whether the monuments and markers were found or set and a description of their type, size, material, condition and position shall be included.
(b) 
Monuments shall be identified on the Pennsylvania Plane Coordinate System - NAD 83 or 27, where it is feasible to do so. This requirement may be waived for small projects where the control locations are so distant that the cost of complying would be burdensome in relation to the total survey cost.
(5) 
All monuments and markers shall be placed by a registered surveyor prior to approval of the final plan, or financial security sufficient to cover their cost and placement shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of § 780-303F.
C. 
Materials.
(1) 
Monuments shall be of durable materials of sufficient length and cross-sectional areas to be reliably permanent and shall clearly indicate the survey point. Concrete or stone monuments with a minimum width of four inches and a minimum length of 30 inches shall be acceptable. Other materials may be acceptable, with the approval of the municipal engineer.
(2) 
Markers shall be iron pins or pipes, 30 inches in length, or other material acceptable to the municipal engineer.
(3) 
Monuments and markers shall be detectable with conventional ferrous metal or magnetic locators.
A. 
Luminaire design.
(1) 
For horizontal surfaces (parking lots, merchandising and storage areas, fuel-dispensing facilities, auto sales areas, loading docks, passive recreation, bicycle and pedestrian trails, sidewalks and building entrances), fixtures shall be aimed straight down and shall meet IESNA full cutoff criteria. Fixtures with aggregate output not exceeding 500 lumens (equivalent to a forty-watt incandescent bulb) are exempt. In the case of decorative/period street lighting, full shielding or IES cutoff criteria may be substituted for full cutoff.
(2) 
For nonhorizontal surfaces (facades, landscaping, signs, billboards, fountains, statuary and other exterior displays), fixtures shall be shielded and aimed so to not project light output beyond the object being illuminated into the windows of neighboring residences, adjacent uses, skyward or onto a public roadway. Fixtures with aggregate output not exceeding 500 lumens (equivalent to a forty-watt incandescent bulb or ten-watt compact fluorescent bulb) are exempt.
(3) 
Lighting for recreational uses shall be the minimum necessary for the proposed use and shall be directed and shielded to minimize the impact on adjacent properties. The visual impact plan required by § 780-402C(13)(f) shall be provided to determine compliance.
B. 
Control of glare.
(1) 
All lighting shall be aimed so as not to present a hazard to drivers or pedestrians or create a nuisance by projecting or reflecting objectionable light onto neighboring uses or properties.
(2) 
Directional fixtures shall be shielded, installed and aimed so they do not project output past the object being illuminated into windows of neighboring uses, skyward or onto a public roadway or pedestrianway.
(3) 
Parking and vehicular pedestrianway lighting for commercial, industrial and institutional uses (except for security lighting and all-night business operations) shall be extinguished, using a programmable controller, within 1/2 hour after the close of business. Safety or security lighting for after-hours illumination shall not exceed 25% of the number of fixtures or illuminance permitted for illumination during regular business hours. If there is continued, but reduced, evening activity, the use of dimming circuitry to lower illumination levels by 50% after 11:00 p.m. or after normal business hours shall be permitted.
(4) 
Vegetative screens shall not be used to serve as the primary means for controlling glare. Rather, glare control shall be achieved primarily through the use of such means as cutoff fixtures, shields and baffles and appropriate application of fixture mounting height, wattage, aiming angle and placement.
(5) 
The illumination projected from any property onto a residential use shall at no time exceed 0.1 initial footcandle, measured line of sight from any point on the receiving property.
(6) 
The illumination projected from any property to a nonresidential use shall at no time exceed 1.0 initial footcandle, measured line of sight from any point on the receiving property.
(7) 
Unless otherwise governed by local zoning, externally illuminated billboards and signs shall be lighted by fixtures mounted at the top of the billboard or sign and aimed downward. The fixtures shall be designed, shielded and aimed to shield the source from off-site view and to restrict the light output beyond the sign or billboard. At no point on the face of the sign or billboard shall the illumination exceed 30 initial vertical footcandles, with a maximum-to-minimum uniformity ratio not to exceed 6:1.
(8) 
Under canopy lighting, for such applications as gasoline service stations, hotel and theater marquees, fast-food and drugstore drive-through facilities, shall utilize flat-lens full-cutoff fixtures aimed straight down and shielded in such a manner that the lowest opaque edge of the fixture shall be below the light source at all lateral angles. The illumination of the area directly below the canopy shall not exceed 20 average footcandles, and the maximum shall not exceed 30 footcandles.
(9) 
The use of white strobe lighting for tall structures such as smokestacks, chimneys, and radio/communication/television towers is prohibited during hours of darkness, except as specifically required by the FAA.
C. 
Installation.
(1) 
New electrical feeds shall be run underground.
(2) 
Poles in parking areas shall be protected by being placed on concrete pedestals at least 30 inches high above the pavement and shielded by bollards or placed a minimum of five feet outside the paved area or any wheel stops within landscaped islands or end caps.
(3) 
Except for the lighting authorized by this chapter for certain recreational uses, fixtures not meeting IESNA full-cutoff criteria shall not be mounted in excess of 16 feet above finished grade. Fixtures meeting IESNA full-cutoff criteria shall not be mounted in excess of 20 feet above finished grade. For illumination of areas containing more than 100 contiguous parking spaces, a mounting height of 25 feet may be permitted for fixtures meeting IESNA full-cutoff criteria when it can be demonstrated that light trespass and glare control meets the requirements of this chapter.
(4) 
Pole-mounted fixtures for horizontal illumination shall be aimed straight down and poles shall be plumb.
D. 
Lighting plan. Where lighting of buildings, signs, parking areas, and other site features is proposed under this § 780-522, a photometric plan containing the information required by § 780-402C(13) shall be submitted.