Borough of Ephrata, PA
Lancaster County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Notes
Curb and Sidewalk Drawings
Created: 2016-08-22
The drawings can be found under Misc. Documents.
[HISTORY: Adopted by the Borough Council of the Borough of Ephrata 5-10-2010 by Res. No. 2010-15.[1] Amendments noted where applicable.]
GENERAL REFERENCES
Streets and sidewalks — See Ch. 277.
Subdivision and land development — See Ch. 281.
[1]
Editor's Note: This resolution also repealed former Ch. A333, Curb and Sidewalk Construction Specifications, adopted 10-8-1990 by Res. No. 90-16.

§ A333-1 Purpose.

The purpose of these specifications is to aid the property owner, or contractor acting for the property owner, in constructing new or reconstructing existing curb and sidewalk.

§ A333-2 Notification.

A. 
A permit, issued by Ephrata Borough, must be obtained prior to any curb and/or sidewalk construction within a street, alley or public right-of-way. Approval of the permit is only an indicator of meeting these specifications and no other requirements as may be applicable.
B. 
The Borough of Ephrata must be notified [(717) 738-9202, extension 131]:
(1) 
At least 24 hours prior to starting any work.
(2) 
After setting of forms and placement of stone subbase and before placing of concrete.
(3) 
After forms have been removed and before backfilling takes place.
C. 
The Borough Engineer or his or her authorized designee may, at any time during the course of work of construction, reconstruction or repair of any sidewalks or curbing, visit the site of such work to determine whether or not such work is being done according to the requirements of the Curb and Sidewalk Construction Specifications of the Borough of Ephrata.

§ A333-3 Line and grade.

A. 
Line and grade must be approved by the Borough prior to pouring concrete.
B. 
Curbs and sidewalks shall be constructed in accordance with approved development and/or Borough plans and specifications and lines and grades approved by the Borough.

§ A333-4 General requirements.

A. 
The current, applicable PennDOT Specifications, based upon permit application date, shall prevail unless otherwise required by the Borough.
B. 
The work area must be clean and neat at the end of each day. All excess excavated material shall be removed from the site daily, or as directed by the Borough. All work started must be completed within seven consecutive calendar days, unless otherwise approved by the Borough.
C. 
Appropriate barricades shall be placed around the work area in such a manner as to protect both pedestrian and vehicular traffic while potential hazards to both pedestrian and vehicular traffic exist or as directed by the Borough. Such barricades shall be placed and properly lighted during night hours or as directed by the Borough. All work zone traffic control shall be per the current edition of PennDOT Publication 213, Temporary Traffic Control Guidelines, or as approved by the Borough. Any road closure and subsequent detour route(s) must be submitted to the Borough Engineer or his designee for approval at least 48 hours in advance of the proposed construction. All traffic control devices required for road closure and detour routes will be the responsibility of the contractor.
D. 
Street excavation for curb construction shall be parallel to the finished curb a minimum of twelve inches and a maximum of 18 inches from the face of the curb and shall be saw cut in a straight line. All material excavated from the street shall be replaced with PennDOT 2A stone, or its equivalent, and mechanically compacted to within five inches of the finish street surface, or as directed by the Borough.
E. 
Downspouts.
(1) 
All downspout roof leaders must go under the sidewalk in three-inch diameter, minimum, schedule 40 PVC pipe, or as approved by the Borough. Construct in accordance with the detail shown on Drawing Sheet No. 4 of 6.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Said Drawing Sheet is on file in the Borough offices.
(2) 
A one-inch curb reveal shall remain between the downspout invert and the finished street surface unless otherwise approved by the Borough.
F. 
Street signs.
(1) 
Reinstall all existing street signs and sign posts (Borough will supply new signs and/or posts, as necessary). The property owner, or contractor acting for the property owner, must install a four-inch schedule 40 PVC pipe sleeve through the sidewalk to accommodate the sign post. All sign posts must be reinstalled, straight and plumb, at their original location(s) to the satisfaction of the Borough. Fill in the area around the sign post, within the PVC pipe, with sand or stone dust or as approved by the Borough.
(2) 
Post shall be 18 inches from face of curb and installed sign should not overhang the face of the curb encroaching into the street.
(3) 
Bottom of sign must be seven feet above finished sidewalk surface.
(4) 
If sidewalk is less than five feet wide, sign post may be moved to within 12 inches of the face of curb as approved by the Borough.
(5) 
Stop signs are to be erect and visible to traffic at all times.
G. 
Utility grade adjustment. All water boxes, sewer vents, etc., must be adjusted to finish grade of new sidewalk and shall be installed straight and plumb to allow access to the shut- off valve. Lids must be free of any concrete to allow easy access without chipping away concrete. Adequately cover lids with plastic bag or duct tape prior to pouring concrete and remove and properly dispose of the protective covering material immediately after job is completed.
H. 
Expansion joints.
(1) 
Where a sidewalk abuts concrete curbing, building, concrete wall or other permanent structure, including existing sidewalk, a premolded expansion joint one-half inch in thickness shall be placed between the existing curb or structure and sidewalk for the full length and depth of such permanent structure. The slabs shall be constructed in forty-foot maximum lengths with pre-molded expansion material having a minimum thickness of one-half inch separating slabs transversely. Radii expansion joints shall be at tangent points and intermediate points not exceeding twenty-foot lengths, or as approved by the Borough.
(2) 
For sidewalks, scoring shall be done transversely at evenly spaced intervals of five feet. The depth shall be 1/5 the thickness of the concrete and in no case less than 3/4 inch deep.
(3) 
For curbs, scoring shall be done at not greater than twenty-foot intervals. The scoring shall be done transversely and extend continuously down the face of the curb 10 inches. The score shall be two inches deep. Expansion joints may be substituted for scoring.
(4) 
Where existing structures such as light standards, poles, fire hydrants and similar structures are within the limits of construction, prior to pouring the concrete around such structures, a premolded expansion joint 1/2 inch in thickness shall be placed directly around the structure for the full depth of the concrete, or as directed by the Borough.
I. 
Monuments. No monuments or property corners shall be covered or disturbed by the construction of permanent sidewalk or curb. Whenever monuments are either above or below the finished grade of a sidewalk, the Borough shall be given sufficient notice to permit resetting or removal, if necessary, of the monument prior to pouring concrete.
J. 
Sidewalk width. The minimum width of a sidewalk shall be five feet and, when curb and sidewalk are combined, the minimum width shall be five feet six inches. Sidewalks shall slope toward the street 1/4 inch per foot of width. Exceptions due to existing conditions may be granted by the Borough Engineer or his designee.
K. 
Adjacent curb and/or sidewalk. Care should be taken during the curb and/or sidewalk construction process to prevent damage to adjacent or adjoining curb and/or sidewalk. Also, smoothly transition into adjacent or adjoining, existing curbs and/or sidewalk to prevent tripping hazards. Always provide an expansion joint at property lines and between curb and sidewalk if not poured monolithically.
L. 
Tree cutouts. Where trees exist or are planned in the sidewalk area, a minimum, clear concrete sidewalk width of three feet must be maintained. If three feet of clear concrete sidewalk width cannot be maintained the tree must be removed or planned elsewhere.
M. 
Sidewalk leveling. When permitted by the Borough Engineer or his designee, leveling of an existing block or blocks of sidewalk may be performed to bring that block or blocks of sidewalk to level grade with adjacent concrete curb and/or sidewalk. The existing block or blocks of concrete sidewalk designated for leveling must be in good, solid condition and free of cracking or defects of any kind. Although achieving level grade with adjacent concrete curb and/or sidewalk after leveling is the goal, all leveled blocks of sidewalk must be within 1/2 inch, vertically, of all adjacent curb and sidewalk, no exceptions. If grade requirements cannot be met or the block cracks during leveling operations it must be replaced.
N. 
Modifications to Existing concrete curb and/or sidewalk.
(1) 
When straight curb exists where a driveway depression or ADA ramp is planned, the entire depth of existing curb must be replaced in accordance with these specifications. No modifications or alterations, such as saw-cutting, jack-hammering, etc., may be made to the existing straight curb to accommodate a driveway depression or ADA ramp.
(2) 
Street excavation, per § A333-4, General requirements, Subsection D, of these specifications, to accommodate full-depth concrete curb forms must occur for all concrete curb construction. No concrete curb construction shall be permitted without the use of appropriate full-depth concrete curb forms.
(3) 
Where uneven curb sections exist, an appropriate length section of curb must be replaced as necessary to eliminate the uneven existing condition(s). No modifications or alterations may be made to remedy the uneven condition. The existing uneven conditions can be horizontal or vertical.
(4) 
No modifications or alterations of any kind may be made to existing concrete sidewalk to accommodate a driveway depression or ADA ramp or to correct an uneven condition. The affected block or blocks of sidewalk must be replaced or leveled in accordance with these specifications.

§ A333-5 Materials and mix.

All materials shall conform to PennDOT Construction Specifications, Publication 408, current edition. The use of calcium chloride will not be permitted in concrete used in repair or construction. No material such as asphalt, macadam or blacktop shall be substituted for these specifications. Submit a copy of concrete batch slips to the Borough upon request.
Concrete Requirements
Item
Minimum
Maximum
Compressive strength (28 days) (psi)
4,000
---
Air entrainment
3 1/2%
7 1/2%
Slump (regular forming) (inches)
1
4
Slump (slip forming) (inches)
---
1 1/2*
Temperature
60º F.
100° F.
* NOTE: High early strength (HES) concrete may be used for construction of driveway depressions and when slip forming, as applicable.

§ A333-6 Dimensions.

A. 
Curbs and sidewalks.
(1) 
Curbs and sidewalks shall be constructed to the dimensions shown on approved subdivision plans or as shown on attached Drawing Sheets Nos. 1, 2 and 3 of 6[1] or as approved by the Borough.
[1]
Editor's Note: Said Drawing Sheet is on file in the Borough offices.
(2) 
The top of vertical curb shall slope towards the street 1/4 inch per foot.
B. 
Driveways.
(1) 
At curb depressions for driveway entrances crossing any sidewalk, the curb shall be depressed across the driveway by providing a sloping section at either side with a slope of two inches per foot depressing the curb a minimum distance required to maintain a depressed curb reveal of one inch, maximum, above the finish grade of the street at the face of curb, and carrying the approach slope to the sidewalk grade at a minimum point of three feet six inches from the street face of the curb to a maximum of the full width of the sidewalk, or as approved by the Borough. In any event, the minimum slope of the driveway depression from the back of the sidewalk towards the street must be 1/4 inch per foot.
(2) 
Curb and sidewalk depressions for residential driveway entrances crossing any sidewalk shall have a minimum thickness of six inches and must include six-inch-by-six-inch, No. 10 gauge, welded wire fabric reinforcement in the sidewalk and 2 No. 5 rebar in the curb (see Drawing Sheets Nos. 1 and 2 of 6).[2] All other types of driveway entrances shall be designed by the property owner to withstand its anticipated loading, but shall not be less than the minimum requirements of the residential driveway entrance. The design must be approved by the Borough.
[2]
Editor's Note: Said Drawing Sheet is on file in the Borough offices.
(3) 
All other driveway requirements and design standards shall be in accordance with the Code of the Borough of Ephrata, Chapter 281, Subdivision and Land Development, as currently revised; and Chapter 319, Zoning, as currently revised. Curb returns are not permitted. Exceptions due to conditions must be approved by Borough Council or as otherwise required and approved by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) along and/or adjacent to state roads or highways.

§ A333-7 Foundations.

A. 
Curb. Excavation shall be made to the required depth and the material upon which the curb is to be constructed shall be compacted to 90% of proctor density of material. A mechanically compacted layer of AASHTO No. 57 (PennDOT 2B) stone not less than four inches thick shall be provided under the curb prior to pouring concrete for the curb.
B. 
Sidewalk. Excavation shall be made to the required depth and a layer of AASHTO No. 57 (PennDOT 2B) stone not less than four inches thick shall be placed and mechanically compacted prior to the laying of sidewalk. [Note: All topsoil and all other vegetation shall be removed prior to placement of the stone.]

§ A333-8 Forms.

Forms shall be of wood or metal, straight, free from warp and of sufficient strength to withstand the pressure of the concrete without springing. If of wood, they shall be two-inch planks, minimum, surfaced on the inside and the top. Forms shall be of a depth equal to the depth of the concrete. A front and back form shall be used for curb except where a good concrete sidewalk, which is not to be removed, abuts the new curb. Expansion material must be provided per § A333-4H. Forms shall be accurately set to line and grade in such a manner as to prevent settlement or displacement. Forms shall be coated with a form release agent just prior to the placement of concrete. Use forms that will not discolor the concrete.

§ A333-9 Finishing.

A. 
Curb. All forms must be removed within 24 hours after the concrete has been placed, and minor defects shall be filled with mortar composed of one part portland cement and two parts fine aggregate. The top and face of the curb from the top to 10 inches below or to the top of the street surface shall be finished while the concrete is still green by rubbing the surface with a carborundum stone, soft brick or wood block and water until a smooth, even surface is produced. All joints in the curb shall be promptly opened from top to bottom and edges adjacent to the joints shall be sharp and clean cut.
B. 
Sidewalk. Trowel or brush-finished surfaces only. Provide a finish sidewalk surface that is non-slip.
Note: Water is to be used sparingly when finishing all concrete surfaces. Do not overwork the surface.

§ A333-10 Curing.

Concrete curbs and sidewalks shall be protected from adverse weather conditions with plastic, burlap, canvas or similar materials. Curing compound may be applied to retain moisture in concrete to allow complete hydration of the cement. Two applications of curing compound should be used, the second coat to be applied after the first coat has dried. Use a nonyellowing type compound. Plastic, burlap, straw or other types of moisture barrier must be used to maintain concrete wetness during the curing process for at least seven days after pouring, if curing compound is not used. No concrete shall be placed when the temperature is below 32° F. To help prevent spalling and deterioration of concrete surface from winter damage, a concrete hardener may be applied 28 days after concrete is poured.

§ A333-11 Backfilling and sealing.

A. 
After the concrete has cured sufficiently, spaces adjacent to the curb and/or sidewalks will be refilled with acceptable material in layers of not more than four inches in depth. Each layer shall be thoroughly compacted to the required elevation. Final layer of backfill shall consist of topsoil previously stripped, or new topsoil, and shall be properly seeded.
B. 
On the roadway side of all curbs, backfill shall be made with PennDOT 2A stone and mechanically compacted to within five inches of the street surface. Note: The Borough shall be contacted one working day prior to backfill of roadway so proper arrangements can be made for macadam restoration of the street surface.

§ A333-12 Curb ramps.

All curb and sidewalk areas in the Borough being newly constructed or reconstructed shall provide curb cut ramps for the physically disabled as required in accordance with current PennDOT specifications and as shown on Roadway Construction Standards RC-67M, current revision.

§ A333-13 Slant curb.

A. 
If approved by Ephrata Borough Council, slant curbs shall be constructed as shown on attached Drawing Sheet No. 3 of 6.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Said Drawing Sheet is on file in the Borough offices.
B. 
Excavation shall be made to the required depth and the material upon which the slant curb is to be constructed shall be compacted to 90% of proctor density of material. A mechanically compacted layer of AASHTO No. 57 (PennDOT 2B) stone not less than four inches thick shall be placed under the curb prior to pouring of concrete.
C. 
All other previously stated standards and specifications in § A333-2 through § A333-11 shall apply to slant curb construction.

§ A333-14 Detail drawings.

Drawing Sheets Nos. 1 through 6 of 6, as attached, are to be considered a part of these Curb and Sidewalk Construction Specifications.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Said Drawing Sheet is on file in the Borough offices.