[HISTORY: Adopted by the City Council of the City of Lancaster 7-13-2010 by Ord. No. 10-2010; amended in its entirety 7-12-2016 by Ord. No. 8-2016. Subsequent amendments noted where applicable.]
Building construction and floodplain management — See Ch. 109.
Uniform construction codes — See Ch. 116.
Health standards — See Ch. 150.
Housing — See Ch. 169.
Property maintenance — See Ch. 223.
Rental property — See Ch. 238.
Editor's Note: This ordinance superseded former Ch. 182, Lead Poisoning, adopted as Article 1183 of the Codified Ordinances, as amended.
§ 182-9 Notification for child day-care facilities, child-occupied facilities, and day-care centers.
The purpose of this chapter is to protect and promote public health, safety and welfare through the identification and elimination of lead source hazards in the built environment.
The following words, terms and phrases, when used in this chapter, shall have the meanings ascribed to them in this section, except where the context clearly indicates a different meaning:
- ABATE or ABATEMENT
- Any set of measures designed to permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards in accordance with the standards established by the City, including the removal of lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust, the permanent containment or encapsulation of lead paint; replacement of lead-painted surfaces, or fixtures, and removal, or the covering of lead-contaminated soil and all prep, cleanup, disposal, and post-abatement clearance testing activities associated with such measures.
- APPROVED or APPROVAL
- Satisfactory compliance as determined by the Board of Health, an authorized Health Officer, Housing Inspector, Code Official or other approved or authorized representative or agent of the City of Lancaster.
- Blood lead level.
- BOARD OF HEALTH
- The City of Lancaster Board of Health as defined in and established by the Code of the City of Lancaster addresses conditions that may be detrimental to public health and promotes health practices that enhance the community. The City Board of Health members are appointed by City Council.
- CERTIFIED LEAD SAFE CONTRACTOR
- An individual who has successfully completed an EPA eight-hour class titled "Renovator" under the Renovate Repair and Painting Rule, also known as the RRP Rule. The company that the Renovator owns or works for must also be certified as a "firm" under the RRP Rule.
- Any individual under six years of age.
- CHILD DAY-CARE FACILITY (ALSO KNOWN AS "CHILD CARE FACILITIES")
- Any dwelling unit where child day-care services are provided for less than 24 hours for four to 12 children as approved by the City and licensed by the State Department of Public Welfare.
- CHILD-OCCUPIED FACILITY (EPA)
- A building or portion of a building constructed prior to 1978, visited regularly by the same child, under six years of age, on at least two different days within any week (Sunday through Saturday period), provided that each day's visit lasts at least three hours and the combined weekly visits last at least six hours, and the combined annual visits last at least 60 hours. For commercial facilities, the child-occupied facility only encompasses those areas that are routinely used by children under the age of six. Areas that children under the age of six only pass through, such as hallways, stairways or garages, are not included.
- CITY OF LANCASTER or CITY
- The City of Lancaster Pennsylvania, City Board of Health, City Health Officer, Bureau of Code Compliance and Inspections or a successor bureau or agency or any authorized representative or agent of the City of Lancaster.
- CLEARANCE EXAMINATION
- An activity conducted and documented by a certified and licensed Lead Risk Assessor following lead-based paint hazard reduction activities to determine that the hazard reduction activities are complete and no soil lead hazards or settled dust lead hazards as defined exist inside or on the exterior of the dwelling unit or worksite. EPA protocols are required to be followed for this examination.
- CONDEMNED PROPERTY
- Any property or structure that has been found to be unsafe or dangerous to the life, health or safety of the public or the occupants and deemed to be unfit for habitation and condemned by an authorized employee of the City of Lancaster under City ordinances. Exception: Utility shutoffs and "clean and sanitize" Property Maintenance Code violations or where appliances need to be replaced with no renovations required to any interior surface.
- DAY-CARE CENTER (ALSO KNOWN AS "CHILD-CARE CENTER")
- A building or area within a building licensed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania where child care is provided, which includes the care of those individuals under the age of six, for a fee, for seven or more children and the space where child care is provided is not part of a dwelling, as approved by the City.
- A two-family, multifamily, single-family attached, single-family detached or single-family semidetached dwelling as defined in the City's Zoning Ordinance composed of a building designed for use as a residence.
- DWELLING UNIT
- Two or more habitable rooms designed for or occupied by not more than one family or nonfamily unit (as defined in the City's Zoning Ordinance) as a single housekeeping unit, whether occupied or unoccupied.
- EBLL (ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVEL)
- A blood lead level (BLL) confirmed by venous sample to be equal to or greater than the lead level defined as elevated by the United States Centers for Disease Control.
- Any covering or coating that acts as a barrier between lead-based paint and the environment, the durability of which relies on adhesion and the integrity of the existing bonds between multiple layers of paint and between the paint and the substrate. Encapsulation may be used as a method of abatement if it is designed and performed so as to be permanent (see definition of "permanent").
- Rigid durable construction materials that are mechanically fastened to the substrate to act as a barrier between the lead-based paint and the environment. Enclosure may be used as a method of abatement if it is designed and performed so as to be permanent (see definition of "permanent").
- United States Environmental Protection Agency.
- EXPOSED SURFACE
- All interior surfaces of a dwelling and those exterior surfaces of a dwelling which are readily accessible to children under six years of age, such as stairs, decks, porches, railings, windows, doors and siding. Any yard or other area in the vicinity of a dwelling, including, without limitation, any soil, yard or other area which may be subject to contamination from flaking or peeling lead-based coatings or any other source of lead, is also considered an exposed surface.
- FRICTION SURFACES
- An interior or exterior surface that is subject to abrasion or friction. The term includes window, door, floor and stair surfaces.
- INTERIM CONTROLS
- A set of measures designed to reduce temporary exposure or likely exposure to lead-based paint hazards. Interim controls include, but are not limited to, repairs, painting, temporary containment, specialized cleaning, clearance, ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities, and the establishment and operation of management and resident education programs.
- LEAD (PAINT) FREE
- A building or dwelling found to be free of any lead-based paint or dust by a certified and licensed Lead Risk Assessor, following established guidelines set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Housing and Urban Development.
- LEAD (PAINT) SAFE
- A building or dwelling identified through testing by a Lead Risk Assessor as having lead-based paint surfaces that are intact and free from deterioration. As noted in the clearance by the Lead Risk Assessor, ongoing lead-safe maintenance is necessary to maintain the property lead paint safe.
- LEAD SOURCE HEALTH HAZARD
- An item or condition where exposure to that item or condition could have the potential to create a case of lead poisoning, such as exposure to lead-based paint.
- LEAD-BASED PAINT RISK ASSESSOR
- An individual who is certified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and licensed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to perform on-site investigations to identify the existence, nature, severity and location of lead-based paint hazards and document the findings in order to recommend corrective measures.
- LEAD-BASED PAINT/COATINGS
- Paint, varnish, glaze or other applied liquid surface coatings that contain at least 1 milligram per centimeter square (mg/square cm) of lead (also measured as greater than 0.5% lead by weight or has 5,000 parts per million [ppm] lead by dry weight).
- LICENSED LEAD ABATEMENT CONTRACTOR
- A person, firm, company or institution that has been certified by the Environmental Protection Agency and licensed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to perform lead-based paint activities.
- Any person, firm, corporation, guardian, nonprofit organization, partnership, government, conservator, receiver, trustee, executor or other judicial officer who, alone or jointly or severally with others, owns, holds or controls the whole or any part of the freehold or leasehold title to any property containing a dwelling unit, or commercial space to be occupied and used as a child-care center, with or without occupying actual possession thereof, and shall include, in addition to the holder of legal title, any vendee in possession thereof, but does not include a mortgagee or an owner of a reversionary interest under a ground rent lease.
- An expected design life of at least 20 years.
- A. Any recognized method of lead detection and analysis recognized by the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Environmental Protection Agency which results in measurement of lead in milligrams in a square centimeter of a particular area, including, without limitation, an inspection with a radioisotope x-ray fluorescent analyzer (otherwise referred to as an "XRF machine") or otherwise known as a "paint inspection," or through lead paint dust wipes analyzed by an accredited laboratory using the standards set forth by HUD and EPA. The standards recognize three areas for sampling: floors, windowsills, and window wells or window troughs. The current standards are as follows:
- B. Areas that fail the clearance standards show lead levels in dust that are at or above these thresholds.
- The term "reduction" means measures designed to reduce or eliminate human exposure to lead-based paint hazards through approved methods, including interim controls and abatement.
- The stripping of paint from contaminated surfaces by approved method, or replacement and disposal of contaminated items.
- RENOVATION, REPAIR AND PAINTING RULE
- This EPA rule requires that firms performing renovation, repair and painting projects that disturb lead-based paint in homes, child-care facilities and preschools built before 1978 have their firm certified by the EPA (or an EPA-authorized state), use certified renovators who are trained by EPA-approved.
- RESIDENTIAL CHILD-CARE CENTER (also referenced as child day-care center under the Uniform Construction Code of Pennsylvania and day-care home in the City Zoning Ordinance)
- A residential dwelling used for the care of children, including those under six years of age, as approved by the City and registered with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania if serving four to six children or licensed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania if serving seven to 12 children.
- RISK ASSESSMENT
- An on-site inspection conducted by a Lead Risk Assessor for the purpose of locating and identifying lead poison hazards that could affect humans, especially children. The term "risk assessment" means an on-site investigation to determine and report the existence, nature, severity and location of lead-based paint hazards both on the interior and exterior of the structure, including:
- A. Information gathering regarding the age and history of the housing and occupancy by children under age six;
- B. Visual inspection;
- C. Limited wipe sampling or other environmental sampling techniques;
- D. Other activity as may be appropriate; and
- E. Provision of a report explaining the results of the investigation and options for reducing lead-based paint hazards.
- The outermost layer or superficial area (excluding paint, plaster or putty) of the interior or exterior of a dwelling, including but not limited to the outermost layer or superficial area of walls, ceilings, floors, stairs, windows, windowsills, window frames, window sashes, doors, door frames, baseboards and woodwork.
- The individual named as the lessee in a lease, rental agreement or occupancy agreement for a dwelling unit or any structure with a child-care facility.
- An interior and exterior area where lead-based paint hazard reduction activity takes place. There may be more than one worksite in a dwelling unit or at a residential property.
No person shall use or apply or cause to be used or applied lead-based paint to the interior or exterior surfaces of any dwelling, dwelling unit, rooming house, rooming unit or facility or any structure containing a child-care facility. Such interior surfaces include, but are not limited to, windowsills, window frames, doors, door frames, walls, ceilings, stair rails and spindles or other appurtenances.
Any source or amount of lead, including, without limitation, lead-based paint, shall be considered a lead source health hazard to children under six years of age, to pregnant women or to other persons who have demonstrated an elevated blood lead level as defined by the Centers for Disease Control if:
It exists inside or on the exterior of a dwelling in which the affected person commonly resides or visits;
It exists inside or on the exterior of a structure containing a child day-care facility.
It exists inside or on the exterior of a condemned residential structure or condemned commercial structure containing a child-care facility, regardless of any documented exposure.
It is determined to be on any flaking, peeling, nonintact deteriorated surface or on any exposed surface or in any soil or dust found in or about the dwelling or in any rugs, carpet or other surface coverings in or about the dwelling; and
It contains a quantity of lead in excess of 1.0 milligrams per square centimeter of surface when measured by a recognized method of analysis.
Testing and environmental investigation for lead hazards shall be performed by a public or private agency, entity or firm approved by the City, certified by the EPA and licensed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a Lead-Based Paint Risk Assessor.
The physical determination of the lead content of surface material in a dwelling or of the lead content of any exposed surface shall be made by nondestructive measurements using a recognized method of analysis including x-ray fluorescence analyzer. All instruments used for in-place determinations of lead content shall be operated by a certified operator with proof of the same being submitted to the City.
Any exposed surface which has a lead-based coating which exceeds 1.0 mg/cm2 when tested by x-ray fluorescence or 0.5% by weight shall be considered a violation of this chapter.
A risk assessment shall be conducted on any property that meets one of the following conditions:
A child under six years of age, pregnant woman, or other person who has demonstrated any evidence of an elevated blood lead level greater than 20 micrograms per deciliter of whole blood, or two readings of 15 ug/dl or more within a three-month period, is found to be occupying, visiting more than six hours a week, or visits in the property on a regular basis.
Any property that receives federal or state funding for the purpose of lead remediation.
When two- or three-unit family dwelling units are created by subdividing space within a building built before 1978 or when two or three existing family dwelling units are combined into one or two units in a building built before 1978.
A structure constructed prior to 1978 containing a child-care center or child-care facility regardless of age of the occupants or any documented exposure, prior to being granted approval to operate such day-care center.
Any condemned residential structure, constructed prior to 1978, prior to the issuance of a certificate of habitability or certificate of occupancy.
Risk assessments shall take the following items into consideration to determine the extent of the hazard:
The Lead-Based Paint Risk Assessor will issue a written and signed document, identifying the locations of the lead paint found and the conditions of the leaded surfaces. A risk assessment is based only on conditions observed and recorded at the time of the inspection.
Clearance examination. An activity conducted and documented by a Lead-Based Paint Risk Assessor following lead-based paint hazard reduction activities to determine that the hazard reduction activities are complete and no soil lead hazards or settled dust lead hazards as defined exist inside or on the exterior of the dwelling unit or worksite. EPA protocols are required to be followed for this examination. This applies to any structure undergoing a lead risk assessment or any condemned residential structure, constructed prior to 1978, prior to the issuance of a certificate of habitability or certificate of occupancy.
Upon notification by a licensed medical doctor (physician) or a medical professional that a child under six years of age or other affected individual has an elevated blood lead level, the City Code Compliance and Inspection Office, Health Officer or other authorized personnel shall issue a written notice of violation to the property owner and/or management company ordering the abatement of the lead source hazards with approved methods using the services of a licensed lead abatement contractor.
The owner and/or authorized agent of any dwelling unit in which the affected individual resides or visits is required to submit, within 21 days, a written risk assessment report including the results of testing and an environmental investigation stating whether there exists a health hazard under this chapter. This testing and environmental investigation shall be in accordance with § 182-5.
The results of the investigation will indicate that there exists or may exist in a dwelling in which the child or other affected individual resides or visits that lead-based paint or other source of lead may have contributed to the person's elevated blood lead level.
If the owner fails to provide such risk assessment report, the City can perform or cause the performance of the testing and environmental investigation, at the expense of the owner, to determine whether there exists a health hazard.
When it is determined that there exists a lead source health hazard through the risk assessment, the owner must select a licensed lead abatement contractor that is registered with the Pennsylvania Attorney General's office as a registered home improvement contractor. The owner shall bear the cost of the contractor and abatement and shall submit a copy of the written, signed contract to the City Health Officer or other designated individual for review and approval within 21 days of the notice of violation and prior to initiating such abatement. Failure to provide a copy of a valid contract to the City within 21 days of the notice of violation shall be subject to a fine of not less than $300 and not more than $1,000. Promptly upon receipt of the contract with a licensed lead abatement contractor with plans and schedule, the City Health Officer shall approve or disapprove such plans and schedule. Notice of any disapproval shall be accompanied by specific reasons therefor. Upon receipt of a disapproval notice, the owner shall, within five business days, resubmit the plans and schedule with such revisions as are necessary to remove the objections.
The owner and/or authorized agent shall complete the abatement of the lead hazard within 45 days after receiving notification that the plans and schedule have been approved.
Safe work practices are not required when maintenance or hazard reduction activities do not disturb painted surfaces that do not total more than 20 square feet or less on exterior surfaces, six square feet in any one interior room.
Clearance examination and report.
Once the owner or authorized agent has completed the remediation efforts, a clearance examination and report must be submitted to the City within the forty-five-day schedule.
Failure to obtain and pass a clearance examination within 45 days of approval of the contract is a violation of this chapter. Each day that a violation continues is considered to be a separate offense.
If a residential property is condemned that was built before 1978, the owner and/or authorized agent of any dwelling is required to submit a written clearance examination report to the City Health Officer, stating whether there exists any residual lead health hazard under this chapter. This clearance examination shall be in accordance with EPA regulations.
The owner shall bear the cost of the clearance examination report prior to obtaining a certificate of habitability or a certificate of occupancy.
If the clearance examination indicates any lead hazards remaining, the owner is responsible for obtaining the services of a licensed lead abatement contractor for remediation. A copy of the contract is required to be submitted to the Health Officer for approval prior to beginning any abatement work.
§ 182-9 Notification for child day-care facilities, child-occupied facilities, and day-care centers. 
If a property was built before 1978, the owner and/or tenant of any proposed child day-care, child-occupied facility, or day-care center is required to submit a written risk assessment report to the City Health Officer or other designated individual including the results of testing and an environmental investigation stating whether there exists a health hazard under this chapter prior to receiving a license/approval to operate said facility by the City of Lancaster. This testing and environmental investigation shall be in accordance with § 182-5.
This risk assessment requirement includes any child-care facility that has a child under the age of six years old identified as having an elevated blood lead level.
When it is determined that there exists a lead source health hazard through the risk assessment, the owner/tenant/day-care operator must select a licensed lead abatement contractor that is registered with the Pennsylvania Attorney General's office as a registered home improvement contractor. The owner shall bear the cost of the contractor and abatement work and shall submit a copy of the risk assessment and clearance examination report prior to obtaining a certificate of habitability or certificate of occupancy.
Editor's Note: Section 4 of Ord. No. 8-2016 stated that those child-care facilities or residential child-care centers in operation prior to the effective date of the ordinance shall be grandfathered with regard to required compliance with this § 182-9 unless a child cared for by said facility is shown to have an elevated blood lead level as defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control.
All abatement performed pursuant to this section shall follow the norms set forth in the "Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing" issued by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, June 1995, based on Title X of the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992, and shall follow the following procedures:
Paint removal: Lead-based paint shall be completely removed from any surface that can be chewed or eaten by children. Any cracked, chipped, blistered, or peeling lead-based paint shall be completely removed to the base surface under such safety conditions as may be approved by the City.
Enclosure: The capping over of such surfaces which contain lead at the recognized level, with a permanently affixed covering, which is lead free and which said permanently affixed covering is incapable of being readily chewed through, torn from the surface, pierced or otherwise removed in such manner as to expose the hazardous surface (for example, hardboard, plywood, drywall, plaster).
Encapsulation: Repainting of such surfaces that contain lead at the recognized level with a non-lead-based paint with a manufacturer's warranty of twenty-year rating. This method shall not be deemed to be satisfactory for compliance with this part where evidence has been obtained of children under six years of age chewing the surface.
Replacement: Removing the building component that is painted with lead paint and replacing it with a new lead-free component.
Elimination of friction surfaces.
Disapproved methods of abatement.
The methods used for the removal of lead-based paint shall not present a hazard to health from fumes, dust or vapors by inhalation or absorption through the skin and mucous membranes and shall be in accordance with all applicable laws, ordinances, regulations, safety standards and practices of City, state and federal agencies.
Dry sanding, heat guns capable of producing temperatures in excess of 1,100° F., the use of an open flame torch and chemical strippers containing methylene chloride are prohibited as part of any abatement techniques.
Uncontained power washing or water blasting is prohibited as part of any abatement technique.
The City may, on a case-by-case basis, approve an alternative procedure for abatement of a lead paint violation, provided that the licensed lead abatement contractor submits a written description of an alternative procedure to the City and demonstrates that compliance with standard procedures are not practical or feasible in the individual case and that the proposed alternative procedure provides the equivalent control and removal.
No owner, landlord, agent or person found to be in violation of this part may evict, or cause to be evicted from any apartment or building, occupants or occupants whose children under six years of age have demonstrated evidence of elevated blood lead levels for the purpose of avoiding corrective maintenance which may have been ordered by the City or a court of law.
In the event the dwelling or dwelling unit or premises in which a lead hazard is found is vacated by the occupant voluntarily, who occupied it at the time of the issuance of a corrective notice, such dwelling, dwelling unit or premises shall not be let or occupied by any other person until corrective measures have been taken to bring it into compliance using a licensed lead abatement contractor as approved by the City.
When a Lead-Based Paint Risk Assessor approved by the City determines that pregnant women and children under six years old are present and cannot safely remain in the dwelling while the abatement or remediation efforts are being undertaken, the property owner shall be responsible for the following:
Families with pregnant women and children under the age of six shall not be permitted to remain in the dwelling unit while remediation work by the approved contractor is in progress.
If the tenants noted herein are required to leave the dwelling for more than 12 hours while treatments are performed, the property owner must pay for reasonable expenses for overnight housing and meals for the duration of the remediation process. Payment must be made by the property owner immediately to a new landlord for the furnished dwelling unit or directly to other entities who provide the family with services to accommodate the displaced family members, to include the following temporary relocation costs:
Reasonable meal expenses if the temporary housing does not have food storage/refrigeration and cooking facilities.
Temporary relocation accommodations, if rental dwellings are utilized, shall be known lead-safe properties. The owner is responsible for providing the tenant and City with a valid copy of a certificate or letter from an authorized Lead-Based Paint Risk Assessor indicating that the unit they are to occupy on a temporary basis is lead safe.
The lead-safe certificate or certification letter shall not be dated more than two years prior to the temporary relocation.
The property owner shall be cited for failure to provide temporary relocation when required and shall be a violation of this chapter subject to the fines and penalties set forth herein and restitution of any relocation expenses incurred by the tenant. Each day that a violation continues is considered to be a separate offense.
Temporary relocation is not to last for more than 30 days unless agreed to by both the landlord and the tenant.
If furnishings and personal belongings were relocated to another address as part of the remediation efforts, it shall be the landlord's or property owner's responsibility to pay for moving them back into the remediated unit, unless agreed to by both the landlord and the tenant.
The landlord or property owner shall be responsible for relocation expenses as noted above, including a refund of any security deposit to the tenant, plus any fine amounts which accumulate through legal action taken by the City for failure to correct an unsafe property condition.
The imposition of a penalty herein prescribed shall not preclude the City from instituting appropriate action by injunction or any other legal remedy to prevent or correct any violation of this chapter and collecting such costs by lien or otherwise as may be authorized by law. The City retains the right to enforce these remedies irrespective of any other ordinance or code enforcement efforts.
Any bill or any repairs or corrections to the property pursuant to this chapter shall be paid by the property owner in accordance with Chapter 36, Municipal Claims. Upon failure of the property owner to pay the amounts due the City in accordance with Chapter 36, the City shall be entitled to collect all amounts and pursue any or all of the remedies identified in Chapter 36, Municipal Claims, including attorney's fees.
The City, through its agents or employees, is authorized to make inspections upon display of proper identification to determine compliance with this chapter.
Every occupant of a dwelling shall grant to the owner thereof or his agent or employee or any person with whom the City has contracted free access to it at all reasonable times for the purpose of testing or inspection to effect compliance with this chapter and with any notice or order issued under this chapter.
If a lead violation is known to exist at a dwelling, then upon the sale of said property, the owner shall notify or disclose to the potential buyer/purchaser of the unsafe existing lead condition.
The issuance of a statement by the City to an owner and/or occupant that a violation notice has been abated does not subject the City to any claims for liability if the issuance of the statement was made in good faith.
Any party aggrieved by a decision of any designated and authorized agent of the City regarding lead-based paint shall have the right to file an appeal with the City Board of Health.
Filing of appeal. Any appeal filed shall be filed within 10 days of the date of the notice of violation or letter regarding a lead-based paint violation or notice. Any such appeal shall be in writing and directed to the Lancaster City Board of Health, ATTN: City Health Officer, with a check payable to the City of Lancaster in the amount of $150 for the appeal. Furthermore, the Board may require the party bringing the appeal to pay any costs associated with hearing the appeal, including, but not limited to, attorney's fees in excess of the appeal fee, regardless of other expenses incurred, whether or not the Board partially or fully upholds the City's issuance of the appealed notice of violation.
Any party aggrieved by a decision of the Board of Health may appeal to the Court of Common Pleas of Lancaster County as provided by law, within 30 days of receiving the Board's decision.
In addition to any other sanction or remedial procedure, any owner or occupant or other person who violates any provision of this chapter, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $300 and not more than $1,000, plus costs and/or other charges assessed hereunder, such as but not including tenant relocation costs, be confined in jail not exceeding 30 days, or both, unless otherwise stipulated within this chapter. Each day's continuance of a violation shall constitute a separate offense.