Village of Shorewood, WI
Milwaukee County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted by the Village Board of the Village of Shorewood 9-2-2008 by Ord. No. 1942. Amendments noted where applicable.]
GENERAL REFERENCES
Conservation Committee — See Ch. 16.
Planning and Development Department — See Ch. 44.
Building construction — See Ch. 225.
Construction site erosion and stormwater management — See Ch. 250.
Streets, sidewalks and public areas — See Ch. 466.
Subdivision and land division — See Ch. 470.
Zoning — See Ch. 535.
This chapter is adopted pursuant to the authorization in § 61.35, Wis. Stats., and the requirements in § 87.30, Wis. Stats.
Uncontrolled development and use of the floodplains and rivers of this municipality would impair the public health, safety, convenience, general welfare and tax base.
This chapter is intended to regulate floodplain development to:
A. 
Protect life, health and property;
B. 
Minimize expenditures of public funds for flood-control projects;
C. 
Minimize rescue and relief efforts undertaken at the expense of the taxpayers;
D. 
Minimize business interruptions and other economic disruptions;
E. 
Minimize damage to public facilities in the floodplain;
F. 
Minimize the occurrence of future flood blight areas in the floodplain;
G. 
Discourage the victimization of unwary land and homebuyers;
H. 
Prevent increases in flood heights that could increase flood damage and result in conflicts between property owners; and
I. 
Discourage development in a floodplain if there is any practicable alternative to locate the activity, use or structure outside of the floodplain.
This chapter shall be known as the "Zoning — Floodplain Regulations" for the Village of Shorewood, Wisconsin, and shall be referred to as either "this chapter" or 'this ordinance" throughout this chapter.
A. 
Areas to be regulated. This chapter regulates all areas that would be covered by the regional flood or base flood.
Note: Base flood elevations are derived from the flood profiles in the Flood Insurance Study. Regional flood elevations may be derived from other studies. Areas covered by the base flood are identified as A Zones on the Flood Insurance Rate Map.
B. 
Official maps and revisions. The boundaries of all floodplain districts are designated as floodplains or A Zones on the maps listed below and the revisions in the Village of Shorewood Floodplain Appendix. Any change to the base flood elevations (BFE) in the Flood Insurance Study (FIS) or on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) must be reviewed and approved by the DNR and FEMA before it is effective. No changes to regional flood elevations (RFEs) on non-FEMA maps shall be effective until approved by the DNR. These maps and revisions are on file in the office of the Village Clerk, Village of Shorewood. If more than one map or revision is referenced, the most-restrictive information shall apply.
(1) 
Official maps: based on the Milwaukee County Flood Insurance Study (FIS), dated September 2008, Volume Numbers 55079CV001A, 55079CV002A, 55079CV003A, 55079CV004A, and 55079CV005A.
(2) 
Milwaukee County Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), Panel Numbers 55079C0081E, 55079C0082E, 55079C0084E, 55079C0101E, and 55079C0103E, dated September 26, 2008, with corresponding profiles that are based on the FIS approved by the DNR and FEMA.
C. 
Establishment of districts. The regional floodplain areas are divided into three districts, as follows:
(1) 
The Floodway District (FW) is the channel of a river or stream and those portions of the floodplain adjoining the channel required to carry the regional floodwaters.
(2) 
The Flood Fringe District (FF) is that portion of the floodplain between the regional flood limits and the floodway.
(3) 
The General Floodplain District (GFP) is those areas that have been or may be covered by floodwater during the regional flood.
D. 
Locating floodplain boundaries. Discrepancies between boundaries on the Official Floodplain Zoning Map and actual field conditions shall be resolved using the criteria in Subsection D(1) or (2) below. If a significant difference exists, the map shall be amended according to § 536-12. The Zoning Administrator can rely on a boundary derived from a profile elevation to grant or deny a land use permit, whether or not a map amendment is required. The Zoning Administrator shall be responsible for documenting actual predevelopment field conditions and the basis upon which the district boundary was determined and for initiating any map amendments required under this section. Disputes between the Zoning Administrator and an applicant over the district boundary line shall be settled according to § 536-11D(3) and the criteria in Subsection D(1) and (2) below.
(1) 
If flood profiles exist, the map scale and the profile elevations shall determine the district boundary. The regional or base flood elevations shall govern if there are any discrepancies.
(2) 
Where flood profiles do not exist, the location of the boundary shall be determined by the map scale, visual on-site inspection and any information provided by the Department.
Note: Where the flood profiles are based on established base flood elevations from a FIRM, FEMA must also approve any map amendment pursuant to § 536-12A(6).
E. 
Removal of lands from floodplain. Compliance with the provisions of this chapter shall not be grounds for removing land from the floodplain unless it is filled at least two feet above the regional or base flood elevation, the fill is contiguous to land outside the floodplain, and the map is amended pursuant to § 536-12.
Note: This procedure does not remove the requirements for the mandatory purchase of flood insurance. The property owner must contact FEMA to request a letter of map change (LOMC).
F. 
Compliance. Any development or use within the areas regulated by this chapter shall be in compliance with the terms of this chapter and other applicable local, state, and federal regulations.
G. 
Municipalities and state agencies regulated. Unless specifically exempted by law, all cities, villages, towns, and counties are required to comply with this chapter and obtain all necessary permits. State agencies are required to comply if § 13.48(13), Wis. Stats., applies. The construction, reconstruction, maintenance and repair of state highways and bridges by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation are exempt when § 30.2022, Wis. Stats., applies.
H. 
Abrogation and greater restrictions.
(1) 
This chapter supersedes all the provisions of any municipal zoning ordinance enacted under § 61.35 or § 87.30, Wis. Stats., which relate to floodplains. If another ordinance is more restrictive than this chapter, that ordinance shall continue in full force and effect to the extent of the greater restrictions, but not otherwise.
(2) 
This chapter is not intended to repeal, abrogate or impair any existing deed restrictions, covenants or easements. If this chapter imposes greater restrictions, the provisions of this chapter shall prevail.
I. 
Interpretation. In their interpretation and application, the provisions of this chapter are the minimum requirements liberally construed in favor of the governing body and are not a limitation on or repeal of any other powers granted by the Wisconsin Statutes. If a provision of this chapter, required by Ch. NR 116, Wis. Adm. Code, is unclear, the provision shall be interpreted in light of the standards in effect on the date of the adoption of this chapter or in effect on the date of the most-recent text amendment to this chapter.
J. 
Warning and disclaimer of liability. The flood-protection standards in this chapter are based on engineering experience and scientific research. Larger floods may occur, or the flood height may be increased by man-made or natural causes. This chapter does not imply or guarantee that nonfloodplain areas or permitted floodplain uses will be free from flooding and flood damages; nor does this chapter create liability on the part of, or a cause of action against, the municipality or any officer or employee thereof for any flood damage that may result from reliance on this chapter.
K. 
General development standards. The community shall review all permit applications to determine whether proposed building sites will be reasonably safe from flooding. If a proposed building site is in a flood-prone area, all new construction and substantial improvements shall be designed or modified and adequately anchored to prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement of the structure resulting from hydrodynamic and hydrostatic loads; be constructed with materials resistant to flood damage; be constructed by methods and practices that minimize flood damages; and be constructed with electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, and air-conditioning equipment and other service facilities designed and/or located so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding. Subdivisions shall be reviewed for compliance with the above standards. All subdivision proposals (including manufactured home parks) shall include regional flood elevation and floodway data for any development that meets the subdivision definition of this chapter.
A. 
Hydraulic and hydrologic analyses.
(1) 
Except as allowed in Subsection A(3) below, no floodplain development shall:
(a) 
Obstruct flow, defined as development which blocks the conveyance of floodwaters by itself or with other development, increasing regional flood height; or
(b) 
Increase regional flood height due to floodplain storage area lost, which equals or exceeds 0.01 foot.
(2) 
The Zoning Administrator shall deny permits if it is determined that the proposed development will obstruct flow or increase regional flood heights 0.01 foot or more, based on the officially adopted FIRM or other adopted map, unless the provisions of Subsection A(3) are met.
(3) 
Obstructions or increases equal to or greater than 0.01 foot may only be permitted if amendments are made to this chapter, the Official Floodplain Zoning Maps, floodway lines and water surface profiles, in accordance with § 536-12.
Note: This section refers to obstructions or increases in base flood elevations as shown on the officially adopted FIRM or other adopted map. Any such alterations must be reviewed and approved by FEMA and the DNR.
B. 
Watercourse alterations.
(1) 
No land use permit to alter or relocate a watercourse in a mapped floodplain shall be issued until the local official has notified, in writing, all adjacent municipalities, the Department and FEMA regional offices and required the applicant to secure all necessary state and federal permits. The flood-carrying capacity of any altered or relocated watercourse shall be maintained.
(2) 
As soon as is practicable, but not later than six months after the date of the watercourse alteration or relocation, the Zoning Administrator shall notify FEMA of the changes by submitting appropriate technical or scientific data in accordance with NFIP guidelines that shall be used to revise the FIRM, risk premium rates and floodplain management regulations as required.
C. 
Chapters 30 and 31, Wis. Stats., development. Development which requires a permit from the Department under Chapters 30 and 31, Wis. Stats., such as docks, piers, wharves, bridges, culverts, dams and navigational aids, may be allowed if the necessary permits are obtained and amendments to the floodway lines, water surface profiles, BFEs established in the FIS, or other data from the officially adopted FIRM, or other floodplain zoning maps or this chapter are made according to § 536-12.
A. 
Applicability. This section applies to all floodway areas on the Floodplain Zoning Maps and those identified pursuant to § 536-9D.
B. 
Permitted uses. The following open space uses are allowed in the Floodway District and the floodway areas of the General Floodplain District if they are not prohibited by any other ordinance, they meet the standards in § 536-7C and D, and all permits or certificates have been issued according to § 536-11B:
(1) 
Agricultural uses, such as: farming, outdoor plant nurseries, horticulture, viticulture and wild crop harvesting.
(2) 
Nonstructural industrial and commercial uses, such as loading areas, parking areas and airport landing strips.
(3) 
Nonstructural recreational uses, such as golf courses, tennis courts, archery ranges, picnic grounds, boat ramps, swimming areas, parks, wildlife and nature preserves, game farms, fish hatcheries, shooting, trap and skeet activities, hunting and fishing areas and hiking and horseback riding trails, subject to the fill limitations of § 536-7C(4).
(4) 
Uses or structures accessory to open space uses or classified as historic structures that comply with § 536-7C and D.
(5) 
Extraction of sand, gravel or other materials that complies with § 536-7C(4).
(6) 
Functionally water-dependent uses, such as docks, piers or wharves, dams, flowage areas, culverts, navigational aids and river crossings of transmission lines, and pipelines that comply with Chs. 30 and 31, Wis. Stats.
(7) 
Public utilities, streets and bridges that comply with § 536-7C(3).
C. 
Standards for developments in floodway areas.
(1) 
General.
(a) 
Any development in floodway areas shall comply with § 536-6 and have a low flood damage potential.
(b) 
Applicants shall provide the following data to determine the effects of the proposal according to § 536-6A:
[1] 
A cross-section elevation view of the proposal, perpendicular to the watercourse, showing if the proposed development will obstruct flow; or
[2] 
An analysis calculating the effects of this proposal on regional flood height.
(c) 
The Zoning Administrator shall deny the permit application if the project will increase flood elevations upstream or downstream 0.01 foot or more, based on the data submitted for Subsection C(1)(b) above.
(2) 
Structures. Structures accessory to permanent open space uses or functionally dependent on a waterfront location may be allowed by permit if the structures comply with the following criteria:
(a) 
The structure is not designed for human habitation and does not have a high flood damage potential;
(b) 
It must be anchored to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement;
(c) 
Mechanical and utility equipment must be elevated or floodproofed to or above the flood-protection elevation; and
(d) 
It must not obstruct flow of floodwaters or cause any increase in flood levels during the occurrence of the regional flood.
(3) 
Public utilities, streets and bridges. Public utilities, streets and bridges may be allowed by permit if:
(a) 
Adequate floodproofing measures are provided to the flood-protection elevation; and
(b) 
Construction meets the development standards of § 536-6A.
(4) 
Fills or deposition of materials. Fills or deposition of materials may be allowed by permit if:
(a) 
The requirements of § 536-6A are met;
(b) 
No material is deposited in the navigable channel unless a permit is issued by the Department pursuant to Ch. 30, Wis. Stats., and a permit pursuant to Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Amendments of 1972, 33 U.S.C. § 1344, has been issued, if applicable, and the other requirements of this section are met;
(c) 
The fill or other materials will be protected against erosion by riprap, vegetative cover, sheet piling or bulkheading; and
(d) 
The fill is not classified as a solid or hazardous material.
D. 
Prohibited uses. All uses not listed as permitted uses in § 536-7B are prohibited, including the following uses:
(1) 
Habitable structures, structures with high flood damage potential, or those not associated with permanent open-space uses;
(2) 
Storing materials that are buoyant, flammable, explosive, or injurious to property, water quality, or human, animal, plant, fish or other aquatic life;
(3) 
Uses not in harmony with or detrimental to uses permitted in the adjoining districts;
(4) 
Any private or public sewage systems, except portable latrines that are removed prior to flooding and systems associated with recreational areas and Department-approved campgrounds that meet the applicable provisions of local ordinances and Ch. SPS 383, Wis. Adm. Code.
[Amended 5-15-2017 by Ord. No. 2077]
(5) 
Any public or private wells which are used to obtain potable water, except those for recreational areas that meet the requirements of local ordinances and Chs. NR 811 and NR 812, Wis. Adm. Code;
(6) 
Any solid or hazardous waste-disposal sites;
(7) 
Any wastewater treatment ponds or facilities, except those permitted under § NR 110.15(3)(b), Wis. Adm. Code;
(8) 
Any sanitary sewer or water supply lines, except those to service existing or proposed development located outside the floodway which complies with the regulations for the floodplain area occupied.
A. 
Applicability. This section applies to all flood fringe areas shown on the Floodplain Zoning Maps and those identified pursuant to § 536-9D.
B. 
Permitted uses. Any structure, land use, or development is allowed in the Flood Fringe District if the standards in § 536-8C are met, the use is not prohibited by this chapter or any other ordinance or regulation, and all permits or certificates specified in § 536-11B have been issued.
C. 
Standards for development in flood fringe areas. Section 536-6A shall apply, in addition to the following requirements, according to the use requested.
(1) 
Residential uses. Any habitable structure, including a manufactured home, which is to be erected, constructed, reconstructed, altered, or moved into the flood fringe area shall meet or exceed the following standards:
(a) 
The elevation of the lowest floor, excluding the basement or crawlway, shall be at or above the flood-protection elevation on fill. The fill shall be one foot or more above the regional flood elevation, extending at least 15 feet beyond the limits of the structure. The Department may authorize other floodproofing measures if the elevations of existing streets or sewer lines makes compliance with the fill standards impractical.
(b) 
The basement or crawlway floor may be placed at the regional flood elevation if it is floodproofed to the flood-protection elevation. No basement or crawlway floor is allowed below the regional flood elevation.
(c) 
Contiguous dryland access shall be provided from a structure to land outside of the floodplain, except as provided in Subsection C(1)(d) below.
(d) 
In developments where existing street or sewer line elevations make compliance with Subsection C(1)(c) impractical, the municipality may permit new development and substantial improvements where access roads are at or below the regional flood elevation if:
[1] 
The municipality has written assurance from police, fire and emergency services that rescue and relief will be provided to the structure(s) by wheeled vehicles during a regional flood event; or
[2] 
The municipality has a natural disaster plan approved by Wisconsin Emergency Management and the Department.
(2) 
Accessory structures or uses.
(a) 
Except as provided in Subsection C(2)(b), an accessory structure which is not connected to a principal structure may be constructed with its lowest floor at or above the regional flood elevation.
(b) 
An accessory structure which is not connected to the principal structure and which is less than 600 square feet in size and valued at less than $10,000 may be constructed with its lowest floor no more than two feet below the regional flood elevation if it is subject to flood velocities of no more than two feet per second and it meets all of the provisions of § 536-7C(2)(a), (b), (c) and (d) and § 536-8C(5) below.
(3) 
Commercial uses. Any commercial structure which is erected, altered or moved into the flood fringe area shall meet the requirements of § 536-8C(1). Subject to the requirements of § 536-8C(5), storage yards, surface parking lots and other such uses may be placed at lower elevations if an adequate warning system exists to protect life and property.
(4) 
Manufacturing and industrial uses. Any manufacturing or industrial structure which is erected, altered or moved into the flood fringe area shall be protected to the flood-protection elevation using fill, levees, floodwalls, or other floodproofing measures in § 536-11F. Subject to the requirements of § 536-8C(5), storage yards, surface parking lots and other such uses may be placed at lower elevations if an adequate warning system exists to protect life and property.
(5) 
Storage of materials. Materials that are buoyant, flammable, explosive, or injurious to property, water quality or human, animal, plant, fish or aquatic life shall be stored at or above the flood-protection elevation or be floodproofed in compliance with § 536-11F. Adequate measures shall be taken to ensure that such materials will not enter the water body during flooding.
(6) 
Public utilities, streets and bridges. All utilities, streets and bridges shall be designed to be compatible with comprehensive floodplain development plans and:
(a) 
When failure of public utilities, streets and bridges would endanger public health or safety, or where such facilities are deemed essential, construction of and substantial improvements to such facilities may only be permitted if they are floodproofed in compliance with § 536-11F to the flood-protection elevation.
(b) 
Minor roads or nonessential utilities may be constructed at lower elevations if they are designed to withstand flood forces to the regional flood elevation.
(7) 
Sewage systems. All on-site sewage disposal systems shall be floodproofed, pursuant to § 536-11F, to the flood-protection elevation and shall meet the provisions of all local ordinances and Ch. SPS 383, Wis. Adm. Code.
[Amended 5-15-2017 by Ord. No. 2077]
(8) 
Wells. All wells shall be floodproofed, pursuant to § 536-11F, to the flood-protection elevation and shall meet the provisions of Chs. NR 811 and NR 812, Wis. Adm. Code.
(9) 
Solid waste disposal sites. Disposal of solid or hazardous waste is prohibited in flood fringe areas.
(10) 
Deposition of materials. Any deposited material must meet all the provisions of this chapter.
(11) 
Manufactured homes.
(a) 
Owners or operators of all manufactured home parks and subdivisions shall provide adequate surface drainage to minimize flood damage and prepare, secure approval and file an evacuation plan, indicating vehicular access and escape routes, with local emergency management authorities.
(b) 
In existing manufactured home parks, all new homes, replacement homes on existing pads, and substantially improved homes shall:
[1] 
Have the lowest floor elevated to the flood-protection elevation; and
[2] 
Be anchored so they do not float, collapse or move laterally during a flood.
(c) 
Outside of existing manufactured home parks, including new manufactured home parks and all single units outside of existing parks, all new, replacement and substantially improved manufactured homes shall meet the residential development standards for the flood fringe in § 536-8C(1).
(12) 
Mobile recreational vehicles. All mobile recreational vehicles that are on site for 180 consecutive days or more or are not fully licensed and ready for highway use shall meet the elevation and anchoring requirements in § 536-8C(11)(b) and (c). A mobile recreational vehicle is ready for highway use if it is on its wheels or jacking system, is attached to the site only by quick-disconnect utilities and security devices and has no permanently attached additions.
A. 
Applicability. The provisions for this district shall apply to all floodplains for which flood profiles are not available or where flood profiles are available but floodways have not been delineated. Floodway and Flood Fringe Districts shall be delineated when adequate data is available.
B. 
Permitted uses.
(1) 
Pursuant to § 536-9D, it shall be determined whether the proposed use is located within a floodway or flood fringe area.
(2) 
Those uses permitted in floodway (§ 536-7B) and flood fringe areas (§ 536-8B) are allowed within the general floodplain district, according to the standards of § 536-9C, provided that all permits or certificates required under § 536-11B have been issued.
C. 
Standards for development in the General Floodplain District. Section 536-7 applies to floodway areas; § 536-8 applies to flood fringe areas. The rest of this chapter applies to either district.
D. 
Determining floodway and flood fringe limits. Upon receiving an application for development within the General Floodplain District, the Zoning Administrator shall:
(1) 
Require the applicant to submit two copies of an aerial photograph or a plan which shows the proposed development with respect to the General Floodplain District limits, stream channel, and existing floodplain developments, along with a legal description of the property, fill limits and elevations, building floor elevations and floodproofing measures.
(2) 
Require the applicant to furnish any of the following information deemed necessary by the Department to evaluate the effects of the proposal upon flood height and flood flows, regional flood elevation and to determine floodway boundaries:
(a) 
A typical valley cross-section showing the stream channel, the floodplain adjoining each side of the channel, the cross-sectional area to be occupied by the proposed development, and all historic high-water information.
(b) 
A plan (surface view) showing elevations or contours of the ground; pertinent structure, fill or storage elevations; size, location and layout of all proposed and existing structures on the site; location and elevations of streets, water supply, and sanitary facilities; soil types; and other pertinent information.
(c) 
A profile showing the slope of the bottom of the channel or flow line of the stream.
(d) 
Specifications for building construction and materials, floodproofing, filling, dredging, channel improvement, storage, water supply and sanitary facilities.
(3) 
Transmit one copy of the information described in Subsection D(1) and (2) to the Department's regional office along with a written request for technical assistance to establish regional flood elevations and, where applicable, floodway data. Where the provisions of § 536-11B(2)(c) apply, the applicant shall provide all required information and computations to delineate floodway boundaries and the effects of the project on flood elevations.
A. 
General.
(1) 
Applicability. If these standards conform with § 62.23(7)(h), Wis. Stats., for cities and villages, they shall apply to all modifications or additions to any nonconforming use or structure and to the use of any structure or premises which was lawful before the passage of this chapter or any amendment thereto.
(2) 
The existing lawful use of a structure or its accessory use which is not in conformity with the provisions of this chapter may continue, subject to the following conditions:
(a) 
No modifications or additions to a nonconforming use or structure shall be permitted unless they comply with this chapter. The words "modification" and "addition" include but are not limited to any alteration, addition, modification, structural repair, rebuilding or replacement of any such existing use, structure or accessory structure or use. Ordinary maintenance repairs are not considered an extension, modification or addition; these include painting, decorating, paneling and the replacement of doors, windows and other nonstructural components and the maintenance, repair or replacement of existing private sewage or water supply systems or connections to public utilities. Ordinary maintenance repairs do not include any costs associated with the repair of a damaged structure.
(b) 
The construction of a deck that does not exceed 200 square feet and that is adjacent to the exterior wall of a principal structure is not an extension, modification or addition. The roof of the structure may extend over a portion of the deck in order to provide safe ingress and egress to the principal structure.
(c) 
If a nonconforming use or the use of a nonconforming structure is discontinued for 12 consecutive months, it is no longer permitted and any future use of the property; and any structure or building thereon shall conform to the applicable requirements of this chapter.
(d) 
The municipality shall keep a record which lists all nonconforming uses and nonconforming structures, their present equalized assessed value, the cost of all modifications or additions which have been permitted, and the percentage of the structure's total current value those modifications represent.
(e) 
No modification or addition to any nonconforming structure or any structure with a nonconforming use which, over the life of the structure, would equal or exceed 50% of its present equalized assessed value shall be allowed unless the entire structure is permanently changed to a conforming structure with a conforming use in compliance with the applicable requirements of this chapter. Contiguous dryland access must be provided for residential and commercial uses in compliance with § 536-8C(1). The costs of elevating a nonconforming building or a building with a nonconforming use to the flood-protection elevation are excluded from the 50% provisions of this subsection.
(f) 
Replacement of destroyed structures.
[1] 
Except as provided in Subsection A(2)(f)[2], if any nonconforming structure or any structure with a nonconforming use is destroyed or is substantially damaged, it cannot be replaced, reconstructed or rebuilt unless the use and the structure meet the current ordinance requirements. A structure is considered substantially damaged if the total cost to restore the structure to its predamaged condition equals or exceeds 50% of the structure's present equalized assessed value.
[2] 
For nonconforming buildings that are damaged or destroyed by a nonflood disaster, the repair or reconstruction of any such nonconforming building may be permitted in order to restore it after the nonflood disaster, provided that the nonconforming building will meet all of the minimum requirements under applicable FEMA regulations (44 CFR Part 60) or the regulations promulgated thereunder.
(g) 
A nonconforming historic structure may be altered if the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as an historic structure, the alteration will comply with § 536-7C(1), flood-resistant materials are used, and construction practices and floodproofing methods that comply with § 536-11F are used.
B. 
Floodway areas.
(1) 
No modification or addition shall be allowed to any nonconforming structure or any structure with a nonconforming use in a floodway area, unless:
(a) 
Such modification or addition has been granted a permit or variance which meets all ordinance requirements.
(b) 
Such modification or addition meets the requirements of § 536-10A.
(c) 
Such modification or addition will not increase the obstruction to flood flows or regional flood height;
(d) 
Any addition to the existing structure shall be floodproofed, pursuant to § 536-11F, by means other than the use of fill, to the flood-protection elevation.
(e) 
If any part of the foundation below the flood-protection elevation is enclosed, the following standards shall apply:
[1] 
The enclosed area shall be designed by a registered architect or engineer to allow for the efficient entry and exit of floodwaters without human intervention. A minimum of two openings must be provided, with a minimum net area of at least one square inch for every one square foot of the enclosed area. The lowest part of the opening can be no more than 12 inches above the adjacent grade.
[2] 
The parts of the foundation located below the flood-protection elevation must be constructed of flood-resistant materials.
[3] 
Mechanical and utility equipment must be elevated or floodproofed to or above the flood-protection elevation.
[4] 
The use must be limited to parking or limited storage.
(2) 
No new on-site sewage disposal system or addition to an existing on-site sewage disposal system, except where an addition has been ordered by a government agency to correct a hazard to public health, shall be allowed in a floodway area. Any replacement, repair or maintenance of an existing on-site sewage disposal system in a floodway area shall meet the applicable requirements of all municipal ordinances and Ch. SPS 383, Wis. Adm. Code.
[Amended 5-15-2017 by Ord. No. 2077]
(3) 
No new well or modification to an existing well used to obtain potable water shall be allowed in a floodway area. Any replacement, repair or maintenance of an existing well in a floodway area shall meet the applicable requirements of all municipal ordinances and Chs. NR 811 and NR 812, Wis. Adm. Code.
C. 
Flood fringe areas.
(1) 
No modification or addition shall be allowed to any nonconforming structure or any structure with a nonconforming use unless such modification or addition has been granted a permit or variance by the municipality and the modification or addition shall be placed on fill or floodproofed to the flood-protection elevation in compliance with the standards for that particular use in § 536-8C, except where § 536-10C(2) is applicable.
(2) 
Where compliance with the provisions of Subsection C(1) would result in unnecessary hardship and only where the structure will not be used for human habitation or be associated with a high flood damage potential, the Board of Adjustment/Appeals, using the procedures established in § 536-11D, may grant a variance from those provisions of Subsection C(1) for modifications or additions, using the criteria listed below. Modifications or additions which are protected to elevations lower than the flood-protection elevation may be permitted if:
(a) 
No floor is allowed below the regional flood elevation for residential or commercial structures;
(b) 
Human lives are not endangered;
(c) 
Public facilities, such as water or sewer, will not be installed;
(d) 
Flood depths will not exceed two feet;
(e) 
Flood velocities will not exceed two feet per second; and
(f) 
The structure will not be used for storage of materials as described in § 536-8C(6).
(3) 
If neither the provisions of Subsection C(1) or (2) above can be met, one addition to an existing room in a nonconforming building or a building with a nonconforming use may be allowed in the flood fringe if the addition:
(a) 
Meets all other regulations and will be granted by permit or variance;
(b) 
Does not exceed 60 square feet in area; and
(c) 
In combination with other previous modifications or additions to the building, does not equal or exceed 50% of the present equalized assessed value of the building.
(4) 
All new private sewage disposal systems, or addition to, replacement, repair or maintenance of a private sewage disposal system, shall meet all the applicable provisions of all local ordinances and Ch. COMM 83, Wis. Adm. Code.
(5) 
All new wells, or addition to, replacement, repair or maintenance of a well, shall meet the applicable provisions of this chapter and Ch. NR 811 and NR 812, Wis. Adm. Code.
A. 
Where a zoning administrator, planning agency or a board of adjustment/appeals has already been appointed to administer a zoning ordinance adopted under § 62.23(7), Wis. Stats., these officials shall also administer this chapter.
B. 
Zoning Administrator.
(1) 
The Zoning Administrator is authorized to administer this chapter and shall have the following duties and powers:
(a) 
Advise applicants of the provisions of this chapter, assist in preparing permit applications and appeals, and assure that the regional flood elevation for the proposed development is shown on all permit applications.
(b) 
Issue permits and inspect properties for compliance with provisions of this chapter and issue certificates of code compliance, where appropriate.
(c) 
Inspect all damaged floodplain structures and perform a substantial damage assessment to determine if substantial damage to the structures has occurred.
(d) 
Keep records of all official actions, such as:
[1] 
All permits issued, inspections made, and work approved.
[2] 
Documentation of certified lowest floor and regional flood elevations for floodplain development.
[3] 
Records of water surface profiles, floodplain zoning maps and ordinances, nonconforming uses and structures, including changes, appeals, variances and amendments.
[4] 
All substantial damage assessment reports for floodplain structures.
(e) 
Submit copies of the following items to the Department's regional office:
[1] 
Within 10 days of the decision, a copy of any decisions on variances, appeals for map or text interpretations, and map or text amendments.
[2] 
Copies of any case-by-case analyses and any other information required by the Department, including an annual summary of the number and types of floodplain zoning actions taken.
[3] 
Copies of substantial damage assessments performed and all related correspondence concerning the assessments.
Note: Information on conducting substantial damage assessments is available on the DNR website: http://dnr.wi.gov/org/water/wm/dsfm/flood/title.htm.
(f) 
Investigate, prepare reports, and report violations of this chapter to the municipal zoning agency and attorney for prosecution. Copies of the reports shall also be sent to the Department's regional office.
(g) 
Submit copies of text and map amendments and biennial reports to the FEMA regional office.
(2) 
Land use permit. A land use permit shall be obtained before any new development or any structural repair or change in the use of a building or structure, including sewer and water facilities, may be initiated. Application to the Zoning Administrator shall include:
(a) 
General information:
[1] 
Name and address of the applicant, property owner and contractor.
[2] 
Legal description, proposed use, and whether it is new construction or a modification.
(b) 
Site development plan. A site plan, drawn to scale, shall be submitted with the permit application form and shall contain:
[1] 
Location, dimensions, area and elevation of the lot.
[2] 
Location of the ordinary high-water mark of any abutting navigable waterways.
[3] 
Location of any structures, with distances measured from the lot lines and street center lines.
[4] 
Location of any existing or proposed on-site sewage systems or private water supply systems.
[5] 
Location and elevation of existing or future access roads.
[6] 
Location of floodplain and floodway limits, as determined from the Official Floodplain Zoning Maps.
[7] 
The elevation of the lowest floor of proposed buildings and any fill, using the vertical datum from the adopted study: either National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) or North American Vertical Datum (NAVD).
[8] 
Data sufficient to determine the regional flood elevation in NGVD or NAVD at the location of the development and to determine whether or not the requirements of § 536-7 or 536-8 are met.
[9] 
Data to determine if the proposed development will cause an obstruction to flow or an increase in regional flood height or discharge according to § 536-6A. This may include any of the information noted in § 536-7C(1).
(c) 
Data requirements to analyze developments.
[1] 
The applicant shall provide all survey data and computations required to show the effects of the project on flood heights, velocities and floodplain storage for all subdivision proposals, as "subdivision" is defined in § 536-236, Wis. Stats., and other proposed developments exceeding five acres in area or where the estimated cost exceeds $125,000. The applicant shall provide:
[a] 
An analysis of the effect of the development on the regional flood profile, velocity of flow and floodplain storage capacity;
[b] 
A map showing the location and details of vehicular access to lands outside the floodplain; and
[c] 
A surface drainage plan showing how flood damage will be minimized.
[2] 
The estimated cost of the proposal shall include all structural development, landscaping, access and road development, utilities, and other pertinent items but need not include land costs.
(d) 
Expiration. All permits issued under the authority of this chapter shall expire 120 days after issuance.
(3) 
Certificate of code compliance. No land shall be occupied or used and no building which is hereafter constructed, altered, added to, modified, repaired, rebuilt or replaced shall be occupied until a certificate of code compliance is issued by the Zoning Administrator, except where no permit is required, subject to the following provisions:
(a) 
The certificate of code compliance shall show that the building or premises or part thereof, and the proposed use, conform to the provisions of this chapter.
(b) 
Application for such certificate shall be concurrent with the application for a permit.
(c) 
If all ordinance provisions are met, the certificate of code compliance shall be issued within 10 days after written notification that the permitted work is completed.
(d) 
The applicant shall submit a certification signed by a registered professional engineer, architect or land surveyor that the fill, lowest floor and floodproofing elevations are in compliance with the permit issued. Floodproofing measures also require certification by a registered professional engineer or architect that floodproofing measures meet the requirements of § 536-11F.
(4) 
Other permits. The applicant must secure all necessary permits from federal, state, and local agencies, including those required by the United States Army Corps of Engineers under Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Amendments of 1972, 33 U.S.C. § 1344.
C. 
Zoning agency.
(1) 
The Plan Commission shall:
(a) 
Oversee the functions of the office of the Zoning Administrator.
(b) 
Review and advise the governing body on all proposed amendments to this chapter, maps and text.
(2) 
This zoning agency shall not:
(a) 
Grant variances to the terms of the chapter in place of action by the Board of Appeals.
(b) 
Amend the text or zoning maps in place of official action by the governing body.
D. 
Board of Appeals. The Board of Appeals, created under Article X of Chapter 535 and § 62.23(7)(e), Wis. Stats., is hereby authorized to act for the purposes of this chapter. The Board shall exercise the powers conferred by Wisconsin Statutes and adopt rules for the conduct of business. The Zoning Administrator may not be the Secretary of the Board.
(1) 
Powers and duties. The Board of Appeals shall:
(a) 
Appeals: hear and decide appeals where it is alleged there is an error in any order, requirement, decision or determination made by an administrative official in the enforcement or administration of this chapter.
(b) 
Boundary disputes: hear and decide disputes concerning the district boundaries shown on the Official Floodplain Zoning Map.
(c) 
Variances: hear and decide, upon appeal, variances from the standards of this chapter.
(2) 
Appeals to the Board.
(a) 
Appeals to the Board may be taken by any person aggrieved or by any officer or department of the municipality affected by any decision of the Zoning Administrator or other administrative officer. Such appeal shall be taken within 30 days, unless otherwise provided by the rules of the Board, by filing with the official whose decision is in question and with the Board, a notice of appeal, specifying the reasons for the appeal. The official whose decision is in question shall transmit to the Board all records regarding the matter appealed.
(b) 
Notice and hearing for appeals, including variances.
[1] 
Notice. The Board shall:
[a] 
Fix a reasonable time for the hearing.
[b] 
Publish adequate notice pursuant to Wisconsin Statutes, specifying the date, time, place and subject of the hearing.
[c] 
Assure that notice shall be mailed to the parties in interest and the Department's regional office at least 10 days in advance of the hearing.
[2] 
Hearing. Any party may appear in person or by agent. The Board shall:
[a] 
Resolve boundary disputes according to § 536-11D(3).
[b] 
Decide variance applications according to § 536-11D(4).
[c] 
Decide appeals of permit denials according to § 536-11E.
(c) 
Decision. The final decision regarding the appeal or variance application shall:
[1] 
Be made within a reasonable time.
[2] 
Be sent to the Department's regional office within 10 days of the decision.
[3] 
Be a written determination signed by the Chairman or Secretary of the Board.
[4] 
State the specific facts which are the basis for the Board's decision.
[5] 
Either affirm, reverse, vary or modify the order, requirement, decision or determination appealed, in whole or in part, dismiss the appeal for lack of jurisdiction or grant or deny the variance application.
[6] 
Include the reasons for granting an appeal, describing the hardship demonstrated by the applicant in the case of a variance, clearly stated in the recorded minutes of the Board proceedings.
(3) 
Boundary disputes. The following procedure shall be used by the Board in hearing disputes concerning floodplain district boundaries:
(a) 
If a floodplain district boundary is established by approximate or detailed floodplain studies, the flood elevations or profiles shall prevail in locating the boundary. If none exist, other evidence may be examined.
(b) 
In all cases, the person contesting the boundary location shall be given a reasonable opportunity to present arguments and technical evidence to the Board.
(c) 
If the boundary is incorrectly mapped, the Board should inform the Zoning Committee or the person contesting the boundary location to petition the governing body for a map amendment according to § 536-12.
(4) 
Variances.
(a) 
The Board may, upon appeal, grant a variance from the standards of this chapter if an applicant convincingly demonstrates that:
[1] 
Literal enforcement of the chapter provisions will cause unnecessary hardship;
[2] 
The hardship is due to adoption of this chapter and unique property conditions not common to adjacent lots or premises; in such case, the chapter or map must be amended;
[3] 
The variance is not contrary to the public interest; and
[4] 
The variance is consistent with the purpose of this chapter in § 536-3.
(b) 
In addition to the criteria in Subsection C(4)(a), to qualify for a variance under FEMA regulations, the following criteria must be met:
[1] 
The variance may not cause any increase in the regional flood elevation;
[2] 
Variances can only be granted for lots that are less than 1/2 acre and are contiguous to existing structures constructed below the RFE;
[3] 
Variances shall only be granted upon a showing of good and sufficient cause, shall be the minimum relief necessary, shall not cause increased risks to public safety or nuisances, shall not increase costs for rescue and relief efforts and shall not be contrary to the purpose of this chapter.
(c) 
A variance shall not:
[1] 
Grant, extend or increase any use prohibited in the zoning district.
[2] 
Be granted for a hardship based solely on an economic gain or loss.
[3] 
Be granted for a hardship which is self-created.
[4] 
Damage the rights or property values of other persons in the area.
[5] 
Allow actions without the amendments to this chapter or map(s) required in § 536-12A.
[6] 
Allow any alteration of an historic structure, including its use, which would preclude its continued designation as an historic structure.
(d) 
When a floodplain variance is granted, the Board shall notify the applicant, in writing, that it may increase flood insurance premiums and risks to life and property. A copy shall be maintained with the variance record.
E. 
To review appeals of permit denials.
(1) 
The zoning agency (§ 536-11C) or Board shall review all data related to the appeal. This may include:
(a) 
Permit application data listed in § 536-11B(2).
(b) 
Floodway/flood fringe determination data in § 536-9D.
(c) 
Data listed in § 536-7C(1)(b) where the applicant has not submitted this information to the Zoning Administrator.
(d) 
Other data submitted with the application or submitted to the Board with the appeal.
(2) 
For appeals of all denied permits, the Board shall:
(a) 
Follow the procedures of § 536-11D;
(b) 
Consider zoning agency recommendations; and
(c) 
Either uphold the denial or grant the appeal.
(3) 
For appeals concerning increases in regional flood elevation, the Board shall:
(a) 
Uphold the denial where the Board agrees with the data showing an increase in flood elevation. Increases equal to or greater than 0.01 foot may only be allowed after amending the flood profile and map and all appropriate legal arrangements are made with all adversely affected property owners.
(b) 
Grant the appeal where the Board agrees that the data properly demonstrates that the project does not cause an increase equal to or greater than 0.01 foot, provided that no other reasons for denial exist.
F. 
Floodproofing.
(1) 
No permit or variance shall be issued until the applicant submits a plan, certified by a registered professional engineer or architect that the floodproofing measures will protect the structure or development to the flood-protection elevation.
(2) 
Floodproofing measures shall be designed to:
(a) 
Withstand flood pressures, depths, velocities, uplift and impact forces and other regional flood factors;
(b) 
Protect structures to the flood-protection elevation;
(c) 
Anchor structures to foundations to resist flotation and lateral movement; and
(d) 
Ensure that structural walls and floors are watertight to the flood-protection elevation and the interior remains completely dry during flooding without human intervention.
(3) 
Floodproofing measures could include:
(a) 
Reinforcing walls and floors to resist rupture or collapse caused by water pressure.
(b) 
Adding mass or weight to prevent flotation.
(c) 
Placing essential utilities above the flood-protection elevation.
(d) 
Installing surface or subsurface drainage systems to relieve foundation wall and basement floor pressures.
(e) 
Constructing water supply wells and waste treatment systems to prevent the entry of floodwaters.
(f) 
Putting cutoff valves on sewer lines or eliminating gravity-flow basement drains.
G. 
Public information.
(1) 
Place marks on structures to show the depth of inundation during the regional flood.
(2) 
All maps, engineering data and regulations shall be available and widely distributed.
(3) 
All real estate transfers should show what floodplain zoning district any real property is in.
A. 
General. The governing body may change or supplement the Floodplain Zoning District boundaries and this chapter in the manner provided by law. Actions which require an amendment include but are not limited to the following:
(1) 
Any change to the Official Floodplain Zoning Map, including the floodway line or boundary of any floodplain area.
(2) 
Correction of discrepancies between the water surface profiles and Floodplain Zoning Maps.
(3) 
Any fill in the floodplain which raises the elevation of the filled area to a height at or above the flood-protection elevation and is contiguous to land lying outside the floodplain.
(4) 
Any fill or floodplain encroachment that obstructs flow, increasing the regional flood height 0.01 foot or more.
(5) 
Any upgrade to a Floodplain Zoning Ordinance text required by § NR 116.05, Wis. Adm. Code, or otherwise required by law, or for changes by the municipality.
(6) 
All channel relocations and changes to the maps to alter floodway lines or to remove an area from the floodway or the flood fringe that is based on a base flood elevation from a FIRM requires prior approval by FEMA.
Note: Consult the FEMA web site - www.fema.gov - for the map change fee schedule.
B. 
Procedures. Ordinance amendments may be made upon petition of any interested party according to the provisions of § 62.23, Wis. Stats., and § 535-63 of the Shorewood Code. Such petitions shall include all necessary data required by §§ 536-9D and 536-11B(2).
(1) 
The proposed amendment shall be referred to the Plan Commission for a recommendation to the governing body and a public hearing before the Village Board. The amendment and notice of public hearing shall be submitted to the Department's regional office for review prior to the hearing. The amendment procedure shall comply with the provisions of § 62.23, Wis. Stats.
(2) 
No amendments shall become effective until reviewed and approved by the Department.
(3) 
All persons petitioning for a map amendment that obstructs flow, increasing regional flood height 0.01 foot or more, shall obtain flooding easements or other appropriate legal arrangements from all adversely affected property owners and notify local units of government before the amendment can be approved by the governing body.
(4) 
For amendments in areas with no water surface profiles, the zoning agency or Board shall consider data submitted by the Department, the Zoning Administrator's visual on-site inspections and other available information. (See § 536-5D.)
Any violation of the provisions of this chapter by any person shall be unlawful and may be prosecuted by issuance of municipal citations pursuant to § 535-8C or may be referred to the Municipal Attorney for prosecution. A violator shall, upon conviction, forfeit to the municipality a penalty of not less than $10 and not more than $2,000, together with the taxable costs of such action. Each day of continued violation shall constitute a separate offense. Every violation of this chapter is a public nuisance, and the creation may be enjoined and the maintenance may be abated by action at suit of the municipality, the state, or any citizen thereof pursuant to § 87.30, Wis. Stats.
A. 
Unless specifically defined, words and phrases in this chapter shall have their common law meaning and shall be applied in accordance with their common usage. Words used in the present tense include the future, the singular number includes the plural, and the plural number includes the singular. The word "may" is permissive; "shall" is mandatory and is not discretionary.
B. 
As used in this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
ACCESSORY STRUCTURE OR USE
A facility, structure, building or use which is accessory or incidental to the principal use of a property, structure or building.
A ZONES
Those areas shown on the Official Floodplain Zoning Map which would be inundated by the regional flood. These areas may be numbered or unnumbered A Zones. The A Zones may or may not be reflective of flood profiles, depending on the availability of data for a given area.
BASE FLOOD
The flood having a one-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year, as published by FEMA as part of an FIS and depicted on a FIRM.
BASEMENT
Any enclosed area of a building having its floor subgrade, i.e., below ground level, on all sides.
BUILDING
See "structure."
BULKHEAD LINE
A geographic line along a reach of navigable water that has been adopted by a municipal ordinance and approved by the Department pursuant to § 30.11, Wis. Stats., and which allows limited filling between this bulkhead line and the original ordinary high-water mark, except where such filling is prohibited by the floodway provisions of this chapter.
CAMPGROUND
Any parcel of land which is designed, maintained, intended or used for the purpose of providing sites for nonpermanent overnight use by four or more camping units or which is advertised or represented as a camping area.
CAMPING UNIT
Any portable device, no more than 400 square feet in area, used as a temporary shelter, including but not limited to a camping trailer, motor home, bus, van, pickup truck, tent or other mobile recreational vehicle.
CERTIFICATE OF CODE COMPLIANCE
A certification that the construction and the use of land or a building, the elevation of fill or the lowest floor of a structure is in compliance with all of the provisions of this chapter.
CHANNEL
A natural or artificial watercourse with a definite bed and banks to confine and conduct the normal flow of water.
CRAWLWAY or CRAWL SPACE
An enclosed area below the first usable floor of a building, generally less than five feet in height, used for access to plumbing and electrical utilities.
DECK
An unenclosed exterior structure that has no roof or sides but has a permeable floor which allows the infiltration of precipitation.
DEPARTMENT
The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
DEVELOPMENT
Any artificial change to improved or unimproved real estate, including but not limited to the construction of buildings, structures or accessory structures; the construction of additions or alterations to buildings, structures or accessory structures; the repair of any damaged structure or the improvement or renovation of any structure, regardless of the percentage of damage or improvement; the placement of buildings or structures; subdivision layout and site preparation; mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations; the storage, deposition or extraction of materials or equipment; and the installation, repair or removal of public or private sewage disposal systems or water supply facilities.
DRYLAND ACCESS
A vehicular access route which is above the regional flood elevation and which connects land located in the floodplain to land outside the floodplain, such as a road with its surface above the regional flood elevation and wide enough for wheeled rescue and relief vehicles.
ENCROACHMENT
Any fill, structure, equipment, building, use or development in the floodway.
EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
A parcel of land, divided into two or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale, on which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots is completed before the effective date of this chapter. At a minimum, this would include the installation of utilities, the construction of streets and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads
EXPANSION TO EXISTING MOBILE/MANUFACTURED HOME PARK
The preparation of additional sites by the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed. This includes installation of utilities, construction of streets and either final site grading or the pouring if concrete pads.
FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA)
The federal agency that administers the National Flood Insurance Program.
FLOOD or FLOODING
A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas caused by one of the following conditions:
(1) 
The overflow or rise of inland waters;
(2) 
The rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source;
(3) 
The inundation caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels along the shore of Lake Michigan or Lake Superior; or
(4) 
The sudden increase caused by an unusually high water level in a natural body of water, accompanied by a severe storm, or by an unanticipated force of nature, such as a seiche, or by some similarly unusual event.
FLOOD FREQUENCY
The probability of a flood occurrence which is determined from statistical analyses. The frequency of a particular flood event is usually expressed as occurring, on the average, once in a specified number of years or as a percent (%) chance of occurring in any given year.
FLOOD FRINGE
That portion of the floodplain outside of the floodway which is covered by floodwaters during the regional flood and associated with standing water rather than flowing water.
FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP
A map designating approximate flood hazard areas. Flood hazard areas are designated as unnumbered A Zones and do not contain floodway lines or regional flood elevations. This map forms the basis for both the regulatory and insurance aspects of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) until superseded by a Flood Insurance Study and a Flood Insurance Rate Map.
FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM)
A map of a community on which the Federal Insurance Administration has delineated both special flood hazard areas (the floodplain) and the risk premium zones applicable to the community. This map can only be amended by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY
A technical engineering examination, evaluation, and determination of the local flood hazard areas. It provides maps designating those areas affected by the regional flood and provides both flood insurance rate zones and base flood elevations and may provide floodway lines. The flood hazard areas are designated as numbered and unnumbered A Zones. Flood Insurance Rate Maps that accompany the Flood Insurance Study form the basis for both the regulatory and the insurance aspects of the National Flood Insurance Program.
FLOODPLAIN
Land which has been or may be covered by floodwater during the regional flood. It includes the floodway and the flood fringe and may include other designated floodplain areas for regulatory purposes.
FLOODPLAIN ISLAND
A natural geologic land formation within the floodplain that is surrounded, but not covered, by floodwater during the regional flood.
FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT
Policies and procedures to ensure wise use of floodplains, including mapping and engineering, mitigation, education, and administration and enforcement of floodplain regulations.
FLOOD PROFILE
A graph or a longitudinal profile line showing the relationship of the water surface elevation of a flood event to locations of land surface elevations along a stream or river.
FLOODPROOFING
Any combination of structural provisions, changes or adjustments to properties and structures, water and sanitary facilities and contents of buildings subject to flooding, for the purpose of reducing or eliminating flood damage.
FLOOD-PROTECTION ELEVATION
An elevation of two feet of freeboard above the water surface profile elevation designated for the regional flood. (Also see "freeboard.")
FLOOD STORAGE
Those floodplain areas where storage of floodwaters has been taken into account during analysis in reducing the regional flood discharge.
FLOODWAY
The channel of a river or stream and those portions of the floodplain adjoining the channel required to carry the regional flood discharge.
FREEBOARD
A safety factor expressed in terms of a specified number of feet above a calculated flood level. Freeboard compensates for any factors that cause flood heights greater than those calculated, including ice jams, debris accumulation, wave action, obstruction of bridge openings and floodways, the effects of watershed urbanization, loss of flood storage areas due to development and aggregation of the river or stream bed.
HABITABLE STRUCTURE
Any structure or portion thereof used or designed for human habitation.
HEARING NOTICE
Publication or posting meeting the requirements of Ch. 985, Wis. Stats. For appeals, a Class 1 notice, published once at least one week (seven days) before the hearing, is required. For all zoning ordinances and amendments, a Class 2 notice, published twice, once each week consecutively, the last at least a week (seven days) before the hearing. Local ordinances or bylaws may require additional notice exceeding these minimums.
HIGH FLOOD DAMAGE POTENTIAL
Damage that could result from flooding that includes any danger to life or health or any significant economic loss to a structure or building and its contents.
HISTORIC STRUCTURE
Any structure that is either:
(1) 
Listed individually on the National Register of Historic Places or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;
(2) 
Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary to qualify as a registered historic district;
(3) 
Individually listed on a state inventory of historic places in states with historic preservation programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or
(4) 
Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either by an approved state program, as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or by the Secretary of the Interior in states without approved programs.
INCREASE IN REGIONAL FLOOD HEIGHT
A calculated upward rise in the regional flood elevation, equal to or greater than 0.01 foot, based on a comparison of existing conditions and proposed conditions which is directly attributable to development in the floodplain but not attributable to manipulation of mathematical variables such as roughness factors, expansion and contraction coefficients and discharge.
LAND USE
Any nonstructural use made of unimproved or improved real estate. (Also see "development.")
MANUFACTURED HOME
A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed to be used with or without a permanent foundation when connected to required utilities. The term "manufactured home" includes a mobile home but does not include a mobile recreational vehicle.
MOBILE RECREATIONAL VEHICLE
A vehicle which is built on a single chassis, 400 square feet or less when measured at the largest horizontal projection, designed to be self-propelled, carried or permanently towable by a licensed, light-duty vehicle, is licensed for highway use if registration is required, and is designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel or seasonal use. Manufactured homes that are towed or carried onto a parcel of land, but do not remain capable of being towed or carried, including park model homes, do not fall within the definition of "mobile recreational vehicles."
MUNICIPALITY or MUNICIPAL
The county, city or village governmental units enacting, administering and enforcing this chapter.
NAVD or NORTH AMERICAN VERTICAL DATUM
Elevations referenced to mean sea level datum, 1988 adjustment.
NEW CONSTRUCTION
For floodplain management purposes, structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of floodplain zoning regulations adopted by this community and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures. For the purpose of determining flood insurance rates, it includes any structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of an initial FIRM or after December 31, 1974, whichever is later, and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures.
NGVD or NATIONAL GEODETIC VERTICAL DATUM
Elevations referenced to mean sea level datum, 1929 adjustment.
NONCONFORMING STRUCTURE
An existing lawful structure or building which is not in conformity with the dimensional or structural requirements of this chapter for the area of the floodplain which it occupies. (For example, an existing residential structure in the Flood Fringe District is a conforming use. However, if the lowest floor is lower than the flood-protection elevation, the structure is nonconforming.)
NONCONFORMING USE
An existing lawful use or accessory use of a structure or building which is not in conformity with the provisions of this chapter for the area of the floodplain which it occupies (such as a residence in the floodway).
OBSTRUCTION TO FLOW
Any development which blocks the conveyance of floodwaters such that this development, alone or together with any future development, will cause an increase in regional flood height.
OFFICIAL FLOODPLAIN ZONING MAP
That map, adopted and made part of this chapter, as described in § 536-5B, which has been approved by the Department and FEMA.
OPEN SPACE USE
Those uses having a relatively low flood damage potential and not involving structures.
ORDINARY HIGH-WATER MARK
The point on the bank or shore up to which the presence and action of surface water is so continuous as to leave a distinctive mark such as by erosion, destruction or prevention of terrestrial vegetation, predominance of aquatic vegetation, or other easily recognized characteristic.
PERSON
An individual or group of individuals, corporation, partnership, association, municipality or state agency.
PRIVATE SEWAGE SYSTEM
A sewage treatment and disposal system serving one structure with a septic tank and soil absorption field located on the same parcel as the structure. It also means an alternative sewage system approved by the Department of Commerce, including a substitute for the septic tank or soil absorption field, a holding tank, a system serving more than one structure or a system located on a different parcel than the structure.
PUBLIC UTILITIES
Those utilities using underground or overhead transmission lines, such as electric, telephone and telegraph, and distribution and collection systems, such as water, sanitary sewer and storm sewer.
REASONABLY SAFE FROM FLOODING
Base floodwaters will not inundate the land or damage structures to be removed from the special flood hazard area and any subsurface waters related to the base flood will not damage existing or proposed buildings.
REGIONAL FLOOD
A flood determined to be representative of large floods known to have occurred in Wisconsin. A regional flood is a flood with a one-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year; and if depicted on the FIRM, the RFE is equivalent to the BFE.
START OF CONSTRUCTION
The date the building permit was issued, provided that the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, placement, or other improvement was within 180 days of the permit date. The "actual start" means either the first placement of permanent construction on a site, such as the pouring of slab or footings, the installation of piles, the construction of columns, or any work beyond initial excavation, or the placement of a manufactured home on a foundation. Permanent construction does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading and filling; nor does it include the installation of streets and/or walkways; nor does it include excavation for a basement, footings, piers or foundations or the erection of temporary forms; nor does it include the installation on the property of accessory buildings, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure. For an alteration, the "actual start of construction" means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building.
STRUCTURE
Any man-made object with form, shape and utility, either permanently or temporarily attached to, placed upon or set into the ground, stream bed or lake bed, including but not limited to roofed and walled buildings, gas or liquid storage tanks, bridges, dams and culverts.
SUBDIVISION
Has the meaning given in § 236.02(12), Wis. Stats.
SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE
Damage of any origin sustained by a structure, whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its predamaged condition would equal or exceed 50% of the equalized assessed value of the structure before the damage occurred.
UNNECESSARY HARDSHIP
Where special conditions affecting a particular property, which were not self-created, have made strict conformity with restrictions governing areas, setbacks, frontage, height or density unnecessarily burdensome or unreasonable in light of the purposes of this chapter.
VARIANCE
An authorization by the Board of Adjustment or Appeals for the construction or maintenance of a building or structure in a manner which is inconsistent with dimensional standards (not uses) contained in this chapter.
VIOLATION
The failure of a structure or other development to be fully compliant with this chapter. A structure or other development without required permits, lowest floor elevation documentation, floodproofing certificates or required floodway encroachment calculations is presumed to be in violation until such time as that documentation is provided.
WATERSHED
The entire region contributing runoff or surface water to a watercourse or body of water.
WATER SURFACE PROFILE
A graphical representation showing the elevation of the water surface of a watercourse for each position along a reach of river or stream at a certain flood flow. A water surface profile of the regional flood is used in regulating floodplain areas.
WELL
An excavation opening in the ground, made by digging, boring, drilling, driving or other methods, to obtain groundwater, regardless of its intended use.