Township of Plumstead, PA
Bucks County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-1; as amended by Ord. 2004-07, 12/7/2004, § 1]
1. 
All standards and requirements outlined herein shall be considered minimum standards and requirements for the promotion of the public health, safety and general welfare.
2. 
All improvements shall be constructed in accordance with the specifications as provided herein or other specifications of the Township, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Delaware River Basin Commission, Bucks County Water and Sewer Authority, or the Authority having jurisdiction over said improvements.
3. 
When changes from the accepted drawings and specifications become necessary during construction, the engineer responsible for preparation of the original plans shall prepare and submit plans detailing all such changes to the Township Engineer for review and approval. Written acceptance by the Township Engineer shall be secured before the execution of such changes.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-2; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § VI]
1. 
All portions of a tract being subdivided shall be included in lots, streets, public lands or other proposed uses so that remnants and landlocked areas shall not be created.
2. 
Reserve strips controlling access to lots, public rights-of-way, public lands and adjacent private lands are not permitted.
3. 
Proposed lot lines shall follow Township boundary lines rather than cross them.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
4. 
Subdivisions and land developments shall be laid out so as to avoid the necessity for excessive cut or fill. No cuts or fills greater than five feet in height shall be permitted.
5. 
Land subject to flooding (in accordance with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM), and the Soil Survey of Bucks and Philadelphia Counties) or other hazards to life, health or property and land deemed to be topographically unsuitable shall not be developed for residential occupancy or for such other uses as may increase danger to health, life, property, or aggravate erosion or flood hazard unless adequate safeguards against such hazards are provided by the subdivision or land development plans. Such land within the subdivision or land development shall be set aside on the plan for uses which shall not be endangered by periodic or occasional inundation and shall not produce unsatisfactory living conditions.
6. 
No plan for subdivision or land development shall be approved which would result in the creation of a new lot or lots which are not able to be built upon or developed under the terms of this Chapter and other Township ordinances, unless such lots or land areas are to be restricted from development for open space, recreation, farmland or other open land purposes.
7. 
All discarded materials, including but not limited to: waste paper, rags, metal, bottles, cans, building materials, house furnishings, machinery and vehicles or parts thereof, shall be removed from land proposed to be subdivided or developed, and disposed of properly.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-3]
1. 
The length, width, and shape of blocks shall be determined with due regard to the following:
A. 
Provision of adequate sites for type of buildings proposed.
B. 
Zoning requirements as to lot sizes, dimensions, and minimum lot areas per dwelling unit.
C. 
The limitations and opportunities of the topography.
D. 
Safe, convenient vehicular and pedestrian circulation and access.
E. 
In the design of blocks, special consideration shall be given to the requirements of satisfactory fire protection.
2. 
Blocks shall not exceed 1,600 feet in length, nor be less than 500 feet in length. Block length shall be measured along the centerline of a street between centerlines of intersecting streets.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
3. 
Blocks shall be of sufficient depth to accommodate two tiers of lots, except where reverse frontage lots contain frontage on a local street and either an arterial or collector street.
[Added by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-4; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, §§ VII — IX; by Ord. 2005-02, 4/28/2005; and by Ord. 2008-03, 2/28/2008]
1. 
Lot dimensions and areas shall be not less than specified by provisions of the Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27]. Lot areas may include the area of easements, except for stormwater facility easements, which may not be used to meet minimum lot area or dimensional requirements.
2. 
Corner lots shall provide for minimum front yard setbacks on both streets. There shall be two front yards, one side yard and one rear yard, and plans shall note which yard is side and which is rear.
3. 
Lots shall front on a paved public street, or on a street which the Township will accept dedication of in connection with approval of the final plan.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
4. 
Reverse frontage lots are prohibited, except where reverse frontage lots contain frontage on a local street and either an arterial or a collector street. Vehicular access for reverse frontage lots is restricted to local streets. Screening through the use of appropriate plant materials, and berms subject to site plan review, shall be provided along the property line of lots with reverse frontage to buffer the lot from the higher order street. Plantings and berm grading shall be contained within a buffer yard having a minimum width of 75 feet, measured from the ultimate right-of-way of the higher order street. Berm shall undulate with a height varying from three feet to six feet. A minimum of 12 inches of topsoil shall be placed on the berm. Plant material shall consist of a mixture of shrubs, evergreen trees, and deciduous trees. A minimum of 12 shrubs, 12 evergreen trees, and four deciduous trees per 100 lineal feet of frontage shall be planted in an informal arrangement. Plantings shall conform to genius, species, caliper, and height requirements of § 22-920 of this Chapter. A yard area with a minimum depth of 25 feet shall be provided between the principal structure and edge of the reverse frontage buffer yard. Required street trees shall not be counted toward the minimum number of screening plants.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
5. 
Lot lines intersecting street lines shall be substantially at right angles or radial to street lines from the street line to the rear lot line. "Substantially at right angles" shall mean an intersection angle of not less than 80°.
6. 
Residential lot depth shall not be less than one nor more than three times the lot width. Lot depth shall be measured as the average distance from the ultimate right-of-way line to the rear property line. Lot width is the distance between the side property lines measured at the required minimum building setback line.
7. 
Setbacks from Resource-Protected Lands. On lots which include lands with resource restrictions that require protection under terms of the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27], the minimum building setbacks shall be measured from the limit of the resource-protected lands rather than from the lot lines so that the required minimum yard is free from resource-restricted lands.
8. 
At least two trees shall be planted in the energy conservation zone on all residential lots. The energy conservation zone is an area located no more than 22 feet from a structure in a one-hundred-eighty-degree band commencing due east of the northeast point of the structure, through due south, ending due west of the northwest point of the structure. All exterior air-conditioning units, except for air-conditioning units placed on the roof, shall be shaded by trees and/or shrubs. These on-lot trees shall be selected from the trees listed under § 22-920, Subsection 1I, Deciduous Tree List, of this Chapter and shall have a minimum trunk diameter of 2.5 inches measured six inches above finished grade at the time of installation.
9. 
Minimum lot width required by the Zoning Ordinance (Chapter 27) shall be continuous along an existing or proposed street upon which the lot abuts.
[Added by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-5; as amended by Ord. 2004-07, 12/7/2004, § 1]
1. 
Lane lots may be permitted as an exception to the minimum lot width requirements at the building setback line. A lane lot is a parcel of land which does not have the required minimum lot width at the minimum front yard line but has direct access to a public street through a narrow strip of land which is part of the same lot. The lot lines of the narrow portion of the lot (the lane) are parallel or nearly parallel.
2. 
Lane lots will be permitted under the following conditions:
A. 
A lane lot may serve single-family detached dwellings only.
B. 
Each lot must have a separate lane.
C. 
Lane lots may not be used in a subdivision of lots containing any new streets.
D. 
If the proposed lane lot is not large enough to further subdivide under the zoning requirements at the time the subdivision is proposed, then the lane shall have a minimum width of 25 feet at the street line of a public street and shall not narrow to a lesser dimension. However, if the proposed lot is large enough to further subdivide under the zoning requirements at the time the subdivision is proposed, then the minimum lane width shall be 50 feet at the street line and shall not narrow to a lesser dimension. Should the property owner agree by plan notation and recorded document that the lot will not be further subdivided, then a lane of 25 feet in width shall be sufficient.
E. 
The area of the lane shall not be included in the calculation of the minimum lot area.
F. 
Only one tier of lane lots will be permitted.
022 One Tier Lane Lots.tif
G. 
The front yard setback for a lane lot shall be a distance equal to the front yard requirements for the district in which the lot is located and shall be measured from the point where the lot first obtains the minimum lot width measurement. The front yard line shall be that which is most nearly parallel to the street from which the lot takes access.
H. 
The length of the lane shall be limited to a maximum length of 1,000 feet. If the lane is over 1,000 feet in length, a public road shall be required to service said lot.
I. 
Lane lots shall have a minimum size of four acres, exclusive of the area of the lane.
J. 
No more than two lane lots shall be permitted if a public street could feasibly be constructed.
K. 
Design Standards
(1) 
Each lane lot shall be at least 25 feet wide for the entire length of the lane. Shared driveways are permitted where the driveway has a double width at the point at which it meets the public road and for a total distance from the road of 50 feet.
(2) 
Each lane shall provide a ten-foot wide travel lane constructed with coarse aggregate, PennDOT No. 2A, to a compacted depth of six inches.
(3) 
Each lane shall be cleared (brush and trees) to a minimum width of 15 feet to allow for emergency vehicles. Lanes shall be limited to a maximum slope of 10%.
(4) 
Each lane shall be paved 25 feet from the edge of the existing street using the standards as set forth for residential driveways. Shared driveways are permitted provided that each lot has a fee simple lane in which a driveway could be constructed if needed.
(5) 
Any lane crossing a stream or swale shall meet the requirements of this Chapter and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection for stormwater conveyance and wetland or stream disturbance, whichever are more stringent. The applicant shall secure permits for the crossing or disturbance prior to recording of the plan.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-5; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, §§ X, XI]
1. 
Utility easements shall be provided as necessary. Joint utilization of easements by two or more utilities is encouraged.
2. 
Easements shall be centered on or adjacent to rear and side lot lines, where possible.
3. 
Easements shall have a minimum width of 20 feet and shall be provided for all utilities. Easements having more than one utility shall have a minimum width of 30 feet.
4. 
Nothing shall be permitted to be constructed, placed, planted, set or put within the area of any easement that will interfere with the intended use of the easement, the facilities for which the easement was established, or maintenance of the easement and/or facilities.
5. 
Where a subdivision or land development is traversed by a natural watercourse, there shall be provided a drainage easement or right-of-way conforming substantially with the line of such watercourse. The width of the easement shall be adequate to provide for unimpeded flow of stormwater runoff for the one-hundred-year return storm event and as otherwise required by the Plumstead Township Stormwater Management Ordinance (Chapter 26). Terms of the easement shall prohibit excavation, the placing of fill or structures, and any alterations which may adversely affect the flow of stormwater runoff within any portion of the easement. Additionally, periodic maintenance of the easement to ensure proper runoff conveyance shall be required by the landowner.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
6. 
No right-of-way or easement for any purpose shall be created, recited or described in any deed unless the same has been shown on the approved plan.
7. 
Metes and bounds descriptions shall be provided for all easements. All easements shall be monumented on one side at the beginning, end, and at all changes in direction.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-2; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, §§ XII — XVIII; and by Ord. 01-09-18-2, 9/18/2001, §§ VII, VIII]
1. 
General.
A. 
At the time any application, petition, or request is filed by any person, partnership, association, or corporation for the approval of the construction, opening or dedication of any proposed road or street, the Township shall be assured that said proposed street or road shall be completed, and said assurances shall be governed by the provisions of § 509 of the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code and this Chapter.
B. 
Any person, partnership, association, or corporation making application or request for the approval of the construction, opening, or dedication of any proposed road shall bear all costs of inspection of such roads, sanitary sewer facilities, water mains, and any drainage facilities connected therewith, all engineering costs, all costs incidental to construction, approval, and dedication of such street or road for public use, including legal fees.
C. 
Proposed streets shall conform to such Township, County and State street and highway plans as have been prepared, adopted and filed as prescribed by law.
D. 
If lots are large enough to permit re-subdivision, or if a portion of the tract is not subdivided, adequate street right-of-way shall be provided to accommodate the subdivision as if it were subdivided to its ultimate potential.
E. 
Street names shall be coordinated with existing or platted street names, and shall be reviewed by the servicing Postmaster and Township emergency services. If a new street is a continuation of, or is aligned with, an existing or platted street, it shall bear the same name as the existing or platted street. All street names shall be of historical, geographic, topographic, or other local significance. Street names shall be subject to approval of the Board of Supervisors. All street regulatory signage shall be in accordance with PA Title 67, PennDOT Publications 236 and 68 (Chapter 211) and shall be installed on standard PennDOT approved breakaway posts. Street name signs shall have six-inch high white lettering with green background conforming to design utilized by the Township Road Department. All signs shall be high intensity or diamond grade.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
F. 
Dead-end streets shall be prohibited, except as cul-de-sacs.
G. 
All lots, public lands, open space, remnants of land or other proposed uses within subdivisions shall be served by, and have frontage on, a paved public street.
H. 
Half or partial streets will not be permitted in new subdivisions or land developments.
I. 
Wherever a tract to be subdivided or developed borders on an existing half or partial street, the other portion of the street shall be platted within such tract.
J. 
Any applicant whose property encroaches within the legal right-of-way of a State Highway is required to obtain a highway occupancy permit from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. No plan which will require access to a highway under the jurisdiction of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation shall be finally approved unless the plan contains a notice that a highway occupancy permit is required pursuant to § 420 of the Act of June 1, 1945 (P.L. 1242, No. 428), known as the State Highway Law, before driveway access to a state highway is permitted. The plan shall be marked to indicate that access to the State highway shall be only as authorized by a highway occupancy permit. The Township shall not be held liable for damages to persons or property arising out of the issuance or denial of a driveway permit by PennDOT. The applicant shall obtain a letter from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation indicating that the plan has been reviewed and approved in concept and that traffic considerations, driveways, and the discharge of water on the road right-of-way have been approved.
K. 
All streets shall be logically related to topography so to produce reasonable grades, satisfactory drainage and suitable building sites and shall avoid excessive cut and fill. Streets shall be laid out to avoid hazardous areas such as floodplains, steep slopes and other hazardous natural features.
L. 
Development streets shall be laid out to connect to streets in adjacent development sites and to allow for future street connections to sites abutting.
M. 
Where a subdivision or land development abuts an existing street, drainage improvements shall be made to the existing street. Required improvements must be extended as necessary to provide positive drainage to existing storm drainage facilities or drainage channels. Additionally, existing cartways shall be reconstructed where necessary to establish minimum construction standards of this Section. Where reconstruction is not required, leveling with Superpave binder (19 mm) and Superpave wearing (9.5 mm) course material and overlay with Superpave wearing (9.5 mm) course material is required to improve the cartway surface. When leveling is required, structural paving fabric designed for use as an interlayer must be installed between the leveling and wearing course.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
N. 
One-way streets (except for alleys) shall be prohibited within new residential developments.
O. 
No new street will be permitted which will cause an existing principal structure to become nonconforming to front yard requirements of the Township Zoning Ordinance (Chapter 27).
[Added by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
2. 
Classification.
A. 
All new residential streets shall be classified as local streets unless they are extensions of arterial, major collectors, or minor collectors, in which case they shall be classified according to the existing street which they extend or unless they serve the function of arterial or collector street in the opinion of the Township Engineer and Board of Supervisors.
B. 
The official streets hierarchy and classification is in the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27].
3. 
Standards.
A. 
Minimum right-of-way widths for existing streets shall be as follows:
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
Type of Street
Right-of-Way Width
(feet)
Arterial
120
Major Collector
80
Minor Collector
60
Local
56 or greater depending on development type/on-street parking requirements as determined by the Board of Supervisors
B. 
Cartway width.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
(1) 
Minimum width of cartway on existing streets shall not be less than the following:
Type of Street
Cartway Width
(feet)
Arterial
34 (or as required by PennDOT)
Major/Minor Collector
28 (or as required by PennDOT)
Local
24 (28 if curb required)
(2) 
Residential Streets. Proposed residential streets shall be constructed in accordance with the following requirements:
Minimum Requirements1
Right-of-Way
(feet)
Cartway
(feet)
No on-street parking2
56
24 (28 where curb required)
Parking permitted on one side2
56
32
Parking permitted on both sides2
60
36
Notes:
1
The Township reserves the right to require additional cartway width.
2
On-street parking requirements determined by the Board of Supervisors.
(3) 
Industrial/commercial streets. Industrial/commercial streets shall have a minimum right-of-way of 56 feet. Minimum cartway width shall be 28 feet with curb. No on-street parking shall be permitted.
C. 
Additional width may be required to accommodate sidewalks, utilities, drainage facilities, landscaping and grading. Layout of residential areas should be planned so no future need to widen residential streets will arise.
D. 
Additional rights-of-way and cartway widths may be required by the Board of Supervisors because of density, dwelling arrangement, increased usage of existing roadway, on-street parking requirements, or topographical conditions. The Board of Supervisors may also require a Traffic Impact Study be made to determine whether or not these requirements are applicable. The Board, upon conclusion of such a study, has the discretion to change these standards accordingly in order to lessen traffic congestion, to secure safety from fire, panic and other dangers, to facilitate the adequate provision of transportation and other public requirements, and to promote the general welfare.
E. 
Extensions of existing streets with lesser right-of-way and/or cartway widths will not be permitted.
F. 
Where a subdivision or land development abuts or contains an existing street of inadequate right-of-way width, additional right-of-way width shall be dedicated to the Township to conform to the standards set by this Chapter.
G. 
Where a subdivision or land development abuts or contains an existing street or receives access from a street of inadequate width or substandard construction, the developer shall be required to widen and/or reconstruct the roadway to meet current Township standards.
H. 
(Reserved)[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Former § 22-907.3H was repealed 5/3/2011 by Ord. 2011-02.
4. 
Cul-de-Sac Streets.
A. 
Cul-de-sac streets shall not be permitted unless the applicant can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Township that construction of a through street is not feasible. Applicant shall submit for review by the Township aerial mapping with tax map parcels identified which indicate the viability of potential future street construction to establish a through street.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
B. 
Cul-de-sac streets shall be designed to permit future extension into adjacent undeveloped property. Unless future extension is clearly impractical or undesirable, the turnaround right-of-way shall be placed adjacent to a property line and contained within an easement area. A right-of-way of the same width as the street shall be carried to the property line in such a way as to permit future extension of the street into the adjoining tract. At such time as such a street is extended, the overage created by the turnaround outside the boundaries of the extended street shall revert in ownership to the property owners fronting on the cul-de-sac turnaround.
C. 
Permanent cul-de-sac streets shall be kept to a minimum and shall not exceed 500 feet in length or serve as access to more than 12 dwelling units, whichever is more restrictive, unless specifically authorized by the Board of Supervisors. The minimum length of a cul-de-sac shall be 250 feet. For the purposes of this Chapter, cul-de-sac length is measured from the intersection of the proposed right-of-way lines of the intersecting streets, or in the case of a proposed cul-de-sac intersecting an existing street, from the intersection of the proposed right-of-way line and ultimate right-of-way line of the existing street, to the center of the turnaround area.
D. 
Cul-de-sac streets shall be provided with a turnaround at the closed end designed with a landscaped island in accordance with Appendices 8 and 9.[2] The landscaping/planting plan for the island area is subject to approval by the Township, but shall consist of deciduous and/or evergreen trees and shrubs; and berms/boulders and/or walls/planting beds. The outside three feet shall be planted as lawn with four inches of topsoil placed on eight inches of 3A modified stone base.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
[2]
Editor's Note: Appendices 8 and 9 are included at the end of this chapter.
E. 
Maintenance of the landscape island shall be the responsibility of a lot owner or a Homeowner's Association or other private entity approved by the Township. A maintenance guarantee agreement shall be executed between the Township and the maintaining entity to ensure that the landscape island is maintained in accordance with the approved plan.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
F. 
Commercial and industrial cul-de-sac streets shall be reviewed for adequacy by the Township Engineer. When deemed necessary by the Township Engineer, additional cartway and/or right-of-way radius may be required.
G. 
A snow storage area shall be provided along the right-of-way of the turnaround. The snow storage area shall be contained within an easement not less than 15 feet measured from the right-of-way line and of sufficient length as deemed necessary by the Township to provide adequate snow storage area.
5. 
Street Alignments.
A. 
Whenever street lines are deflected in excess of one degree, connection shall be made in horizontal curves.
B. 
To ensure adequate sight distance, minimum centerline radii for horizontal curves shall be as listed below. The centerline radii shall be increased based on the speed limit and design parameters set forth by AASHTO.
(1) 
Local Streets: 150 feet.
(2) 
Minor Collectors: 300 feet.
(3) 
Major Collectors and Arterials: 500 feet.
C. 
On local streets, a minimum tangent length of 100 feet shall be required between horizontal curves. On streets other than local streets, a minimum tangent length of 150 feet shall be required between curves.
D. 
A long radius curve shall be preferred in all cases to a series of curves and tangents.
E. 
Side streets approaching an intersection shall follow a straight course for a minimum of 50 feet.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-8]
1. 
Centerline grades shall not be less than 1% on streets with curbs and 0.5% on streets without curbs. A minimum slope of 1% shall be provided along the gutter line.
2. 
The maximum street grades shall be as follows:
A. 
Culs-de-Sac or Loop Streets (closed end streets): 10%.
B. 
Arterials, Collectors and Local Streets (through streets): 7%.
3. 
Vertical curves shall be used at changes of grade exceeding 1% and shall be designed in relation to the extent of the grade change and to provide the following minimum sight distances:
A. 
For crests, each 4% difference in gradient, use one-hundred-twenty-five-foot length of curve.
B. 
For sags, each 4% difference in gradient, use one-hundred-foot length of curve.
C. 
Where the grade of any side street at the approach to an intersection exceeds 4%, a leveling area shall be provided having a grade not greater than 4% for a minimum length of 50 feet from the edge of the cartway.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-9; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, §§ XIX — XXIII]
1. 
Streets shall be laid out to intersect at right angles.
2. 
Multiple intersections involving junction of more than two streets shall be prohibited.
3. 
Clear Sight Triangle. On any corner lot, no wall, fence or other structure shall be erected or altered and no hedge, trees, shrubs or other growth shall be maintained which may impair visibility on a street or public road by obscuring the view. A clear sight triangle of 25 feet, measured along the curb or edge-of-cartway lines of intersecting streets, shall be maintained, within which such structures or planting shall be limited to a height of not more than two feet above the street grade.
4. 
Streets shall not intersect on the same side of an arterial or collector street at an interval of less than 800 feet between their centerlines.
5. 
Streets shall not intersect an arterial or collector street on opposite sides of the street unless they are laid out directly opposite each other or at an interval of 300 feet between their centerlines.
6. 
Minimum curb or edge of paving radii at local street intersections shall be 25 feet. At intersections of arterial or collector streets, minimum curb or edge of paving radii shall be 35 feet. A minimum of 10 feet shall be provided between the edge of paving and the future right-of-way line.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
7. 
Streets shall not access another street or a thoroughfare directly opposite an existing residence and cause glare from headlights.
8. 
Driveways to corner lots shall gain access from the street of lower classification when a corner lot is bounded by streets of two different classifications as described herein. A corner lot created by a proposed street and an existing street shall gain access to the proposed street.
9. 
All new residential subdivisions or land developments containing 13 dwelling units or more shall have a minimum of two public street accesses to/from existing public roadways so that it is possible to enter the development and drive through on a continuous road to a second entrance/exit to a public street. This requirement shall not be satisfied by a divided, boulevard type entrance; nor shall it be satisfied with an emergency access unless such access is paved and constructed to public street standards and is open continuously.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
10. 
When two adjacent lots front on an arterial or collector road, shared access shall be provided unless it is determined by the Township to be infeasible due to existing conditions such as topography and location of natural resources.
11. 
When three or more adjacent lots front on an arterial road, the applicant shall be required to provide a marginal access street for common ingress and egress. Provisions shall be made for the eventual continuation of the street to adjacent properties.
12. 
Minimum horizontal and vertical sight distances shall be established in accordance with PennDOT Chapter 441, as amended.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-10; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XXIV; and by Ord. 01-09-18-2, 9/18/2001, § VI]
1. 
No private residential driveways shall take access to an arterial or major collector street.
2. 
Lots along an arterial or major collector street shall be provided with access by means of a new street or through joint access with neighboring property already having access to the arterial or major collector street.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
3. 
Where there is no alternate access, access to arterial or major collector streets shall be permitted for nonresidential uses in accordance with the following regulations:
A. 
No tract shall be provided with more than one point of access to the arterial.
B. 
There shall be a separation distance of 350 feet between any driveway and existing driveways on abutting properties and from intersecting streets.
C. 
Design of driveway shall conform to the requirements of § 22-916 of this Part.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-11; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XV; and by Ord. 01-09-18-2, 9/18/2000, § IX]
1. 
General. Traffic calming measures are mainly used to address speeding and high cut-through traffic volumes on neighborhood streets. These issues can create an atmosphere in which nonmotorists are intimidated, or even endangered, by motorized traffic. Additionally, high cut-through volumes become an increased concern when larger commercial vehicles are involved. Along with the additional amount of traffic generated within the neighborhood, cut-through motorists are often perceived as driving faster than local motorists. By addressing high speeds and cut-through volumes, traffic calming can increase both the real and perceived safety of pedestrians and bicyclists and improve the quality of life within the neighborhood.
2. 
Implementation. Traffic calming techniques shall be incorporated into design of new residential streets and all frontage streets unless, upon review of the design plan and proposed calming, it determined by the Board of Supervisors that traffic calming is not warranted.
3. 
Design. Traffic calming measures and design guidelines shall be in accordance with Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Publication 383, dated January 2001. In particular, consideration should be given to the following traffic calming techniques:
A. 
Textured crosswalks.
B. 
Raised crosswalks.
C. 
Speed bumps.
D. 
Gateways.
E. 
Curb extensions/bulb outs.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-12; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, §§ XXVI, XXVII]
1. 
All work and material involved in the construction of roadways covered by these specifications shall be, in every particular, in accordance with those requirements set forth in applicable sections of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Form 408, "Specifications," latest revised and amendments thereto.
2. 
The entire right-of-way shall be graded in accordance with the typical road sections contained in Appendices 1, 2, 3, and 4,[1] and as shown on the final plan approved by the Township. The finished surface of the roadway shall have a minimum cross slope of 3/8 inch per foot, and shall be uniform and conform to the lines, grades, and widths shown on the approved plan.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
[1]
Editor's Note: The Appendices are included at the end of this Chapter.
3. 
All roadways shall be constructed in accordance with the following standards:
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
A. 
Subbase: This work consists of construction of compacted aggregate (PennDOT No. 3A) to a depth of six inches on a prepared subgrade.
B. 
Base Course: 25 mm Superpave base course to a compacted depth of five inches.
C. 
Binder Course: 19 mm Superpave binder course to a compacted depth of two inches shall be provided for all arterial and collector streets, and all commercial/industrial streets.
D. 
Wearing Course: 9.5 mm Superpave wearing course to a compacted depth of 1 1/2 inches. Prior to placement of the final wearing course, a bituminous tack coat shall be applied to the base course or binder course.
4. 
Roadbed subgrade shall be prepared to the established subgrade elevation and compacted to not less than 100% of the determined dry weight density as set forth in ASTM D698. Preparation of the subgrade shall conform to PennDOT Form 408, latest revision.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
5. 
Subgrade drains shall be installed along all proposed roadways to drain wet areas. Subgrade drains shall be constructed in accordance with PennDOT Form 408, latest revision.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
6. 
Utility trenches (storm sewer, sanitary sewer, water, gas, electric, etc.) within existing streets shall be backfilled with PennDOT No. 2A modified stone placed and compacted in eight-inch lifts. The trench shall be paved with five inches compacted depth of 25 mm Superpave base course, two inches compacted depth of 19 mm Superpave binder course, and the entire roadway shall be paved with a full width overlayment (edge of road to edge of road) of one-inch compacted depth of 9.5 mm Superpave wearing course. Full width overlay shall extend a minimum of 25 lineal feet from either side of the limit of disturbance of the utility trench. Trench backfill within proposed streets or within easements shall utilize clean, dry, select material compacted in eight-inch lifts to not less than 100% of the determined dry weight density, as set forth in ASTM D698.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
7. 
During construction of roads, the contractor shall provide maintenance and protection of traffic meeting PennDOT standards.
8. 
Roadside Barriers. Roadside barriers and guide rail shall be required in accordance with PennDOT Design manual, Part 2, Highway Design, Chapter 12 (PDT Pub. 13). Construction and materials shall be in accordance with applicable PennDOT RC standards.
9. 
Traffic Control. Vehicular traffic control in work zone areas on and along streets open to the public shall be in strict accordance to requirements of PennDOT Publication 203, Work Zone Traffic Control (67 PA Code, Chapter 203).
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-13]
Special purpose streets are internal streets which are intended to serve commercial or industrial areas:
1. 
Cartway Width, Right-of-Way, and Curb. A minimum paved cartway width of 28 feet with curb and a fifty-six-foot right-of-way is required. On-street parking shall be prohibited.
2. 
Engineering Criteria. Industrial/commercial streets shall be designed with the following minimum/maximum grades:
Minimum Grade: 1.0%.
Maximum Grade: 5.0%.
3. 
Dedication. The Township reserves the right to refuse dedication of a special purpose street. An appropriate legal mechanism for ownership and maintenance will be required where the streets are not accepted for dedication.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-14; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XXVIII]
1. 
The developer shall erect at every street intersection street signs and stop signs meeting Township approval, having thereon the names of the intersecting streets. At intersections where streets cross, there shall be at least two such street signs; and at the intersections where one street ends or joins with another street, there shall be at least one such street sign.
2. 
Regulation street and stop signs are to be erected prior to the first dwelling on the street being occupied. Temporary street signs may be erected upon the approval of the Township but shall be made permanent before final offer for the dedication of the roads is made.
3. 
Speed limit, no parking, and advisory signs shall be installed along new development streets in accordance with PennDOT regulations, and as required by the Township. All signs shall be high density or diamond grade.
4. 
All street regulatory and advisory signage shall be in accordance with PA Title 67, PennDOT Publications 236 and 68 (Chapter 211), and shall be installed on standard PennDOT approved breakaway posts.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-15; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XXIX]
1. 
Street lights shall be provided at all intersections within a development and at the entrance to a development. The owner shall install or cause to be installed, at the owner's expense, streetlights serviced by underground conduit in accordance with a plan prepared by the owner's engineer and approved by the Board of Supervisors and PECO Energy Company. Design of light standards shall be approved by the Township prior to installation. Shop drawings (four copies) of lighting facilities shall be submitted and approved by the Township prior to installation. Provision shall be made for energizing the lighting facility(s) servicing the streets and/or building unit(s) prior to the building units being occupied after 50% of the dwellings in a given subdivision or land development are occupied. The owner shall be responsible for all utility costs involved in lighting the streets until such time that the streets are accepted as public streets by the Township.
2. 
All street lights installed within areas zoned Village Residential or Village Commercial shall have Victorian style fixtures and posts.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-16; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, §§ XXX, XXXI; and by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
1. 
General.
A. 
Driveways shall be located no less than 60 feet from any street intersection, which shall be measured from the intersection of the ultimate right-of-way lines to the nearest edge of the driveway.
B. 
Driveways to corner lots shall gain access from the street of lower classification when a corner lot is bounded by streets of two different classifications. A corner lot created by a proposed street and an existing street shall gain access to the proposed street.
C. 
Sight distance requirements for all driveways shall be in accordance with PennDOT Chapter 441, as amended.
D. 
All driveways, except shared driveways, shall be located at least five feet from any side or rear lot line.
E. 
Driveways shall be designed and constructed to provide a stopping area not exceeding a 4% grade, 20 feet behind the future right-of-way. Driveways shall not exceed a grade of 15%. Maximum change in grade at any location on the driveway shall not exceed 8%.
F. 
There shall be a driveway turnaround space on each lot so that no vehicle need back out onto a collector or arterial street to leave the lot, or back into the lot in order to enter the lot.
G. 
All residential driveways shall be a minimum of 10 feet in width.
H. 
All residential driveways shall be paved 25 feet from the edge of the cartway using the following minimum standards:
(1) 
Course aggregate (PennDOT No. 2A) having a compacted depth of six inches.
(2) 
A bituminous binder course (19 mm Superpave) having a compacted depth of two inches.
(3) 
A bituminous wearing course (9.5 mm Superpave) having a compacted depth of one inch.
I. 
All nonresidential driveways shall be a minimum of 14 feet in width for one-way traffic, and a minimum of 20 feet in width for two-way traffic.
J. 
All nonresidential driveways shall be constructed in accordance with the standards as set forth for street construction found in § 22-912 of this Chapter.
K. 
Design of driveways shall include adequate drainage facilities to convey stormwater runoff across the driveway intersection. The following minimum standards shall be met:
(1) 
Driveway culverts and all other drainage structures shall be designed to adequately convey the twenty-five-year storm event.
(2) 
Driveway pipe shall have a minimum inside diameter of 15 inches (or hydraulically equivalent arch size) and be constructed of reinforced concrete, unless an alternate pipe material is approved by the Township.
(3) 
Where an existing roadside swale is too shallow to permit installation of a driveway pipe, a concrete trench box with structural steel grate shall be installed. Grates shall be recessed below the edge of cartway to establish a minimum 2% slope from the cartway to the grate. Design of the inlet box shall incorporate a method to prevent grates from being displaced by vehicular traffic.
(4) 
Paved swales shall not be permitted as the sole means to convey stormwater runoff across the driveway, unless it can be demonstrated that the depth of flow across the driveway is less than 1/2 inch during the twenty-five-year storm event.
(5) 
All trench drains and driveway pipes shall extend a minimum of five feet beyond the edge of the driveway to the end of the culvert.
(6) 
Ends of driveway pipes must include concrete endwalls or flared end sections.
L. 
Minimum radii for driveways at intersections with cartways shall be 10 feet.
2. 
Shared Driveways.
A. 
Shared driveways may be proposed to minimize the number of new access points along public street. The area of the shared driveway shall be encompassed by a shared access easement described by metes and bounds on the record plan, and which is recorded, or intended to be recorded, at Bucks County Courthouse. Terms of the access easement shall identify the property owner(s) responsible for maintaining the shared driveway in perpetuity.
B. 
Minimum shared driveway width shall be 18 feet within the street ultimate right-of-way.
C. 
Shared driveways must be paved in accordance with driveway construction standards contained elsewhere in this Section within the ultimate right-of-way, or for a minimum length of 25 feet, whichever is greater.
D. 
Shared driveways must be centered on property lines.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-17; as amended by Ord. 2008-03, 2/28/2008]
1. 
Design Standards. The design standards specified below shall be required for all off-street parking facilities built after the effective date of the Chapter with a capacity of three or more vehicles.
A. 
The following are minimum standards to be used for parking stall dimensions and aisle widths:
Driveway Width
Angle of Parking
Parking Stall Width
Stall Depth
One-Way
Two-Way
90°
10 feet
20 feet
20 feet
24 feet
60°
10 feet
22 feet
18 feet
24 feet
45°
10 feet
21 feet
14 feet
24 feet
Parallel
9 feet
22 feet
12 feet
24 feet
The length of spaces shall be measured perpendicular to the curb for ninety-degree spaces and parallel to the space for angle parking.
B. 
All parking facilities for multifamily and nonresidential uses shall be constructed in accordance with the standards set forth in § 22-912, Street Construction.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
C. 
Parking areas shall be designed to permit each motor vehicle to proceed to and from the parking space provided for it without requiring the moving of any other motor vehicle.
D. 
All parking spaces shall be marked so as to provide for orderly and safe parking.
E. 
At no time shall angle or perpendicular parking be permitted along public streets.
F. 
All parking areas shall be setback from the future right-of-way line and all property lines at least 15 feet. The distance between this required setback and the future right-of-way line shall be maintained as a planting strip or planting strip and sidewalk.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
G. 
Handicapped accessible spaces shall be provided in all parking lots as close and convenient to building entrances as possible. At least one accessible space shall be provided for every 25 spaces for the first 100 spaces, then one additional accessible space for every 50 spaces thereafter. Handicapped accessible spaces shall be nine feet wide and 20 feet deep, with an adjacent striped aisle five feet wide. One in every eight accessible spaces shall have an access aisle of eight feet wide and shall be designated as "Van Accessible." Handicapped accessible space design shall meet requirements and guidelines of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), as amended.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
H. 
No more than 15 parking spaces shall be permitted in a continuous row without being interrupted by a ten-foot-wide curbed landscape island.
I. 
No one area for off-street parking of motor vehicles shall exceed 36 cars in capacity. Separate areas on a parcel shall be physically separated from one another by curbed ten-foot planting strips.
J. 
Parking areas with 24 spaces or less shall not have a grade exceeding 6%. Parking areas with more than 24 spaces shall not have a grade exceeding 4%. The minimum slope of parking areas shall be 0.5% for parking areas without curb and 1% for parking areas with curb. No grade, cut, fill, or height difference between terraced parking areas shall exceed four feet unless separated by landscaped areas with slopes no greater than 3:1.
K. 
Parking areas shall be designed so that cars will not back onto a public street,
L. 
Concrete tire bumpers shall be installed so as to prevent vehicle overhang on any sidewalk area where curb is not required.
M. 
No less than five-foot radius of curvature shall be permitted for all curb lines in all parking areas.
N. 
All dead-end parking areas shall be designed to provide sufficient backup area for the end stalls of the parking area.
O. 
Raised pedestrian crosswalks and refuge islands shall be provided at intervals not exceeding 200 feet along the length of each parking area and designed so that pedestrians will be out of the direct flow of traffic, or in general provide a safe means of travel for the pedestrian.
P. 
All parking areas shall be adequately lighted and conform to requirements of § 27-2320, Lighting, of the Plumstead Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27]. All light standards shall be located on raised parking islands or pedestals and not on the parking surface.
Q. 
Outdoor garbage collection facilities shall be screened from view by landscaping and/or solid fencing as approved by the Township.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
2. 
Landscaping of Parking Facilities. Any subdivision or land development application that includes an off-street parking facility shall propose landscaping of all such facilities in accordance with § 22-920 of this Chapter.
3. 
Loading Facilities Design.
A. 
Off-street loading facilities shall be designed to conform to the following specifications:
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
(1) 
Each required space shall be no less than 14 feet wide, 60 feet long, and 17 feet high, exclusive of drives and maneuvering space and located entirely on the lot being served.
(2) 
There shall be adequate maneuvering space for all delivery vehicles. The Township may require the plan to include vehicle turning template data to verify that delivery vehicles can adequately maneuver within the site.
(3) 
Such facilities shall be designed and used in such a manner as to at no time constitute a nuisance, a hazard, or an unreasonable impediment to traffic.
(4) 
All lighting shall conform to requirements of § 27-2320, Lighting, of the Plumstead Township Zoning Ordinance (Chapter 27).
B. 
All required loading facilities shall be provided and maintained in accordance with the following requirements:
(1) 
They shall be provided and maintained as long as the use exists which the facilities were designed to serve.
(2) 
They shall not be reduced in total extent after their provision, except when such reduction is in conformity with the requirements of this Part.
(3) 
Reasonable precautions shall be taken by the owner or sponsor of particular uses to assure the availability of required facilities to the delivery and pick-up vehicles they are designed to serve.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-18; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XXXII, XXXIII; by Ord. 01-09-18-2, 9/18/2001, § X; and by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
1. 
Curb and sidewalk shall be provided along all streets (existing and proposed) within a site, and along all perimeter roads within the frontage of the site. If the site's location is identified to contain a proposed trail pursuant to the Plumstead Township Master Trail Plan dated February, 2017 ("Master Trail Plan"), as may be amended from time to time by the Plumstead Township Board of Supervisors, sidewalks, bicycle paths, crosswalks, and pedestrian access shall be shown on the subdivision and land development plan in the same location as reflected on the Master Trail Plan and shall align with the proposed location of sidewalks, bicycle paths, crosswalks, and pedestrian access on the adjacent parcels. The Master Trail Plan is incorporated herein by reference thereto.
[Amended by Ord. 2017-03, 8/22/2017]
2. 
Curbs.
A. 
Curbs shall be plain cement concrete curb, 18 inches in depth, placed and finished in accordance with requirements set forth in the latest edition of PennDOT Specifications, Form 408. Concrete shall conform to specifications contained in Appendix 10.[1] After completion of bituminous paving, Class BM-1 asphalt shall be applied to the joint between the curb and bituminous paving for a distance of one foot from the curb toward the center of the road to seal the joint between the curb and bituminous paving.
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix 10 is included as an attachment to this Chapter.
B. 
As an alternative to concrete curb, Belgian block curb may be used where authorized by the Township. Belgian block curb must be installed in accordance with the construction details included in Appendix 5.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: Appendix 5 is included as an attachment to this Chapter.
3. 
Driveway curb depressions shall be a maximum of two inches above the roadway surface and shall have two No. 4 rebar (1/2 inch nominal diameter) placed for the full length of the curb depression, plus 18 inches on either side.
4. 
The minimum width for all sidewalk and pedestrian paths shall be four feet for residential development and six feet for nonresidential areas, unless a greater width is required by PennDOT along State highways. Sidewalk shall have a minimum width of four inches and be placed on a four-inch-thick bed of PennDOT 2B stone base, mechanically compacted. Concrete driveways, driveway aprons, and sidewalks that will provide access for vehicles shall have a minimum depth of six inches and be placed on a six-inch bed of PennDOT 2B stone base, mechanically compacted. Concrete shall conform to specifications contained in Appendix 10.[3]
[3]
Editor's Note: Appendix 10 is included as an attachment to this Chapter.
5. 
Sidewalks and public paths required along streets shall be located within the street right-of-way. Where additional public sidewalks or paths are constructed outside the right-of-way, the sidewalk shall be located within a pedestrian access easement area of sufficient width to encompass the entire area of the sidewalk/public path, and which is offered for dedication to the Township.
6. 
Curb depressions and pedestrian access ramps shall be provided at all street intersections and other crossing locations, and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the latest PennDOT and Americans with Disability Act (ADA) standards.
7. 
Lighting for sidewalks and pedestrian paths shall conform to requirements of § 27-2320, Lighting, of the Plumstead Township Zoning Ordinance (Chapter 27).
8. 
Grades and paving of sidewalks and pedestrian paths shall be continuous across driveways.
9. 
Sidewalk and pedestrian paths shall be laterally pitched at a slope of not less than 1/4 inch per foot to provide for adequate surface drainage of stormwater runoff.
10. 
Sidewalks and pedestrian paths shall not exceed a 5% grade; however, if the sidewalk or pedestrian path is located within public right-of-way, the longitudinal slope may match the adjacent roadway profile slope. Where sidewalk grade exceeds 5%, a nonslip surface texture shall be utilized.
11. 
Pedestrian paths shall be constructed of a hard surface composition, but in any case, must conform to latest ADA (Americans with Disability Act) standards.
12. 
Sidewalks adjacent to angled parking areas shall be setback a minimum of five feet to prevent car overhang from restricting pedestrian movement along the sidewalk, unless concrete wheel stops are utilized to prevent car overhang.
13. 
Crosswalk markings shall be installed (where sidewalk exists or is proposed) at all intersections of proposed public streets with an arterial and major/minor collector street, and at other intersections of local streets where determined necessary by the Township. Crosswalk markings shall be delineated utilizing thermoplastic material.
14. 
Patterned concrete crosswalks shall be installed on major pedestrian routes and internally on new residential streets where determined necessary by the Township due to anticipated pedestrian traffic volumes and for traffic calming. Patterned concrete crosswalks shall conform to requirements of Appendix 11 and general concrete specifications of Appendix 10.[4]
[4]
Editor's Note: The Appendices are included at the end of this Chapter.
15. 
Bicycle Path Requirements.
A. 
All subdivisions and land developments in any residential, commercial, or industrial district shall be required to establish bicycle paths. Bicycle paths may be installed in place of required sidewalk along an arterial or collector road.
B. 
All bicycle paths shall be constructed or installed in accordance with the following standards:
(1) 
The near edge of the path shall not be less than five feet from the face of the curb along any street.
(2) 
The minimum width of the bicycle path shall be eight feet, unless a greater width is required by the Township with consideration to the amount of anticipated bicycle and pedestrian traffic and/or the classification of roadway along which the bike path is proposed.
(3) 
Bicycle paths shall follow the existing grade of the surrounding area where the path is to be installed as near as possible.
(4) 
Access ramp and curb depressions shall be installed at intersections of the bicycle path and streets. Design of access ramps shall conform to minimum requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
(5) 
The vertical clearance from the bicycle path surface to overhead obstructions shall not be less than 10 feet.
(6) 
The bicycle path shall be constructed of compacted aggregate (PennDOT No. 2A) to depth of six inches on a prepared subgrade, with a minimum bituminous paving surface course installed utilizing 9.5 mm Superpave wearing course to a compacted depth of 2 1/2 inches.
(7) 
All bicycle paths shall be constructed in such a manner to ensure adequate and proper drainage and to prevent the bicycle path from being inundated by surface drainage by having a cross slope of 1/4 inch per foot.
(8) 
Design and construction of the bicycle path shall be in accordance with good engineering practice and shall be subject to the approval of the Township Engineer. Removable bollards/barriers to motorized vehicles subject to approval by the Township may be required where there exists the possibility of motor vehicles accessing the path.
C. 
Signs and Markings. All signs and markings required pursuant to the terms of this Chapter shall conform to the standard set forth in the manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, US Government Printing Office (1971), or subsequent amendments.
16. 
All spalled curb and sidewalk shall be replaced in a manner determined by the Township Engineer.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-19; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XXXIV]
1. 
Any existing monument, iron pipe, pin or marker determined and identified to be existing found property corners are to remain undisturbed.
2. 
Permanent stone or concrete monuments shall be accurately placed by a registered surveyor at the intersection of all lines forming angles and at changes in directions of lines in the boundary (perimeter) of the property subdivided and at all corners of lots and open areas within the subdivision. Monuments shall be pre-manufactured and not field constructed.
A. 
Monuments shall be a minimum 24 inches in length.
B. 
Monuments less than 24 inches in length may only be utilized when obstructions are encountered and use is approved by the Township.
3. 
All streets shall be monumented on the ultimate right-of-way lines, at the following locations:
A. 
At least two monuments at each intersection.
B. 
At changes in direction of street lines, excluding curb arcs at intersections.
C. 
At each end of each curved street line, excluding curb arcs at intersections.
D. 
At intermediate points, wherever topographical or other conditions make it impossible to sight between two otherwise required monuments.
E. 
At such other places along the lines of streets as may be determined by the Township Engineer to be necessary so that any street may be readily defined in the future.
4. 
Utility and stormwater management easements shall be monumented on one side at the beginning and end of the easement and at all changes in direction.
5. 
All monuments shall be placed so that the scored point shall coincide exactly with the point of intersection of the lines being monumented.
6. 
Monuments shall be set with their top one inch above finished grade of the surrounding ground, except as follows:
A. 
Monuments which are placed within the lines of existing or proposed sidewalks shall be so located that their tops will not be affected by lateral movement of the sidewalks.
B. 
Where sidewalks are existing, a stone point, a four-inch square chisel cut in the sidewalk with a drill hole in the center, may be substituted for a monument. Where bituminous paving is existing, a railroad spike may be substituted for a monument or iron pin where required.
7. 
Permanent reference marker pins of 3/4 inch O.D. solid iron rod, at least 30 inches long, shall be set with their top one inch above finished grade at the following points:
A. 
At all points where easements intersect property lines.
B. 
At all other changes in direction of easement boundaries not located within future lawns where concrete monuments are not required to be installed.
8. 
All outboundary (site perimeter) monuments shall be installed and certified in writing as to their accuracy and conformance to plan information by the responsible surveyor prior to plan recordation.
9. 
All property pins and monuments shall be installed and certified as to their accuracy and conformance to plan information by the responsible surveyor prior to issuance of a building permit for the subject lot. In the event it is determined by the Township that installation prior to construction start is not practical due to future grading operations, temporary wood stakes corners shall be set by a licensed surveyor to permit stakeout inspection of proposed construction activities relative to required setbacks. Permanent property pins and monuments shall then be required to be installed prior to issuance of a use and occupancy permit for the parcel unless otherwise approved by the Township.
10. 
After installation, all monuments/iron pins shall be flagged with wood stakes and survey ribbon.
11. 
All monuments along rights-of-way being dedicated to the Township, and pins delineating easements being granted to the Township, shall be installed and certified as to their accuracy and conformance to plan information by the responsible surveyor. Installation and written certification shall be provided prior to execution and acceptance of public improvements.
12. 
Any pre-existing or new property markers/monuments of a property under construction, or properties surrounding the subject property under construction, which are disturbed by construction activity are required to be reset and recertified by a licensed surveyor. Property owner and/or developer for the property under construction resulting in the disturbance shall be held responsible for proper placement and recertification of disturbed property markers/monuments.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-20; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XXXV; and by Ord. 2008-03, 2/28/2008]
1. 
Street Trees and Landscaping
A. 
Street trees shall be planted along all existing and proposed streets within any land development or major subdivision where suitable street trees do not exist.
B. 
Medium to large street trees shall be planted at intervals of not more than 40 feet. Small street trees shall be planted at an average interval of not more than 30 feet. Street trees must be selected and coordinated to provide adequate separation from overhead and underground utilities. Refer to § 22-920, Subsection 1I, of this Chapter.
C. 
Street trees shall not be planted opposite each other but shall alternate.
D. 
Street trees shall be planted within the street right-of-way unless otherwise approved by the Township.
E. 
At the time of installation, the minimum trunk diameter of canopy trees, measured at a height of six inches above finished grade, shall be two and one-half inches. The minimum height of evergreen trees shall be six feet.
F. 
Any plant material which does not survive, exhibits poor growth habits, is diseased, is missing, or is damaged by deer or natural causes within 18 months from the date of acceptance by the Township, or 18 months following installation of replacement landscape material, whichever is greater, shall be replaced by the developer.
G. 
Financial security shall be posted with the Township in an amount equal to the estimated cost of the trees and plantings, to be released 18 months from Township acceptance of the installation or installation of replacement trees pursuant to Subsection 1F above.
H. 
Prior to acceptance of street tree installation/replacement and prior to acceptance of the eighteen-month maintenance period, all trees must be "elevated" to provide a clear zone seven feet above the sidewalk (if existing) and curb. Tree branches shall be pruned in accordance with the standards of the Tree Care Industry Association (formerly the National Arborist Association).
I. 
The following plant material may be utilized for landscaping required by this Chapter. Trees permitted for street tree use are identified within the Medium to Large Deciduous Trees and Small Deciduous Trees Lists.
(1) 
Medium to Large Deciduous Trees(1):
Scientific Name
Common Name
Mature Height
(feet)
Street Tree Use(2)
Acer nigrum
Black maple
50-60
Y
Acer rubrum
Red maple
40-60
Y
Acer saccharum
Sugar maple
60-75
N
Aesculus hippocastanum
Horse chestnut
60-70
N
Aesculus x carnea
Red horse chestnut
35-50
N
Betula alleghaniensis
Yellow birch
60-80
N
Betula lenta
River birch
60-80
N
Betula nigra
Black birch
45-55
N
Fagus grandifolia
American beech
50-70
N
Fraxinus americana
White ash
50-80
N
Liquidambar styraciflua(3)
Sweet gum
50-75
Y
Lirodendron tulipfera
Tulip poplar
75-100
N
Magnolia acuminata
Cucumber tree
50-70
N
Metasequoia glyptostroboides
Dawn redwood
65-85
N
Nyssa sylvatica
Black gum
40-70
N
Ostrya virginiana
American hophornbeam
30-40
Y
Platanus acerifolia
London planetree
70-80
N
Platanus occidentalis
American sycamore
75-100
N
Quercus alba
White oak
50-100
N
Quercus acutissima
Sawtooth oak
40-50
N
Quercus imbricaria
Shingle oak
40-65
N
Quercus macrocarpa
Bur oak
70-90
N
Quercus Montana
Chestnut oak
40-75
N
Quercus palustris(4)
Pin oak
60-75
N
Quercus phellos
Willow oak
55-75
N
Quercus robur
English oak
60-80
Y
Quercus rubra
Red oak
60-80
Y
Quercus shumardii
Shumard oak
60-80
Y
Sassafras albidum
Sassafras
30-50
N
Taxodium distichum
Bald cypress
60-80
N
Tilia americana
Basswood (American linden)
50-70
Y
Tilia cordata
Littleleaf linden
60-80
N
Ulmus Americana
(disease-resistant varieties)
American elm
70-90
Y
Zelkova serrata
Japanese zelkova
60-70
Y
NOTES:
(1) Medium to large deciduous trees shall not be utilized where potential conflict will exist with overhead electric facilities.
(2) Trees identified with "Y" may be utilized as street trees where there is no potential conflict with overhead electric facilities.
(3) Use limited to seedless cultivars when planted adjacent to streets, parking lots, sidewalks, pedestrian paths, and drainage structures. Recommended cultivars are Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum) - Rotundiloba, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash) - Patmore, Summit, Newport, Urbanite and Cimmaron.
(4) Querous palustris (pin oak) has drooping branches and should also not be installed adjacent to parking lots, sidewalks, or pedestrian paths unless the cultivar Green Pillar is planted.
(2) 
Small Deciduous Trees(1):
Scientific Name
Common Name
Mature Height
(feet)
Street Tree Use(2)
Acer buergeranum
Trident maple
20-30
N
Acer campestre
Hedge maple
25-40
Y
Acer ginnala
Amur maple
15-20
Y
Acer griseum
Paperbark maple
25-35
Y
Acer tataricum
Tatarian maple
15-25
Y
Amelanchier (tree form species)
Serviceberry
15-30
N
Carpinus betulus
European hornbeam
35-40
Y
Carpinus caroliniana
American hornbeam
20-35
Y
Cercis canadensis
Eastern redbud
25-30
N
Chionanthur virginicus
Fringe tree
15-25
N
Cornus florida(3)
Flowering dogwood
20-30
N
Cornus kousa(3)
Kousa dogwood
20-30
N
Cornus mas
Cornelian dogwood
20-30
Y
Cornus racemosa
Gray dogwood
20-30
Y
Crataegus crus-galli
Cockspur hawthorn (thornless)
15-20
N
Crataegus laevigata
English hawthorn
15-20
N
Crataegus phaenopyrum
Washington hawthorn (thornless)
20-30
N
Crataegus punctata
Dotted hawthorn
20-25
N
Crataegus viridis
Winter king hawthorn
25-30
N
Halesia carolina
Carolina silverbell
Koelreuteria paniculata
Goldenrain tree
25-40
Y
Maackia amurensis
Maackia
25-30
N
Magnolia (hybrids)
Hybrid magnolia
20-30
N
Magnolia stellata
Star magnolia
10-20
N
Malus (species and hybrids)
Flowering crabapple
15-30
N
Prunus okame
Okame cherry
20-25
Y
Prunus virginiana
Choke cherry
20-30
Y
Prunus serrulata
Oriental cherry
20-25
Y
Sorbus (species and varieties)(4)
Mountain ash
15-35
N
Syringa (species and varieties)
Ivory silk/lilacs
20-30
Y
NOTES:
(1) Small deciduous trees may be utilized for street tree installation only where medium to large deciduous trees may conflict with overhead electric facilities.
(2) Trees identified with "Y" may be utilized as street trees.
(3) Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and Cornus kousa (Kousa dogwood) have low horizontal spreading branches and should also not be installed adjacent to parking lots, sidewalks, or pedestrian paths.
(4) Sorbus (mountain ash) has fruit and should also not be installed adjacent to parking lots, sidewalks, pedestrian paths, or drainage structures.
Evergreen Trees
Abies balsamea – Balsam fir
Ilex opaca – American holly
Picea abies – Norway spruce
Picea omorika – Serbian spruce
Picea pungens – Colorado spruce
Picea rubens – Red spruce
Pinus echinata – Short-leaf pine
Pinus nigra – Austrian pine
Pinus strobus – White pine
Pinus virginiana – Virginia pine
Pseudotsuga menziesli – Douglas fir
Tsuga canadensis – Eastern hemlock
Hedge (4 feet High Minimum)
Crataegus intricata – Thicket hawthorn
Forsythia intermedia – Border forsythia
Syringa chinensis – Chinese lilac
Syringa vulgaris – Common lilac
Hedgerow (4 Feet High Minimum)
Crataegus crus-galli – Cockspur thorn
Crataegus phaenopyrum – Washington hawthorn
Viburnum (native species and varieties) – Viburnum
Shrubs (3 Feet High Minimum)
Juniperus virginiana – Upright juniper
Phracantha Ialandi – Laland firethorn
Taxus capitita – Upright yew
Taxus hicksi – Hicks yew
Thuja occidentalis – American arborvitae
Shrubs (4 Feet High Minimum)
Hamamelis vernalia – Vernal witch hazel
Hamamelis virginiana – Common witch hazel
Ilex verticillata – Winterberry
Rhamnus frangula – Glossy buckthorn
Viburnum (native species and varieties) – Viburnum
NOTE: Additional trees and other plant material and cultivars may be utilized when approved by the Township.
J. 
Plant Material Specifications.
(1) 
Names of plants shall agree with the nomenclature of Standard Plant Names, as adopted by the American Joint Committee on Horticulture Nomenclature, 1942 edition, as amended; size and grading standards shall conform to those specified by the American Association of Nurserymen in the latest edition of the USDA Standards for Nursery Stock. No substitutions shall be permitted except by written permission of the Township.
(2) 
Quality. All plants shall be typical of their species or variety and shall have normal, well-developed branches and vigorous fibrous root systems. All plants shall be nursery-grown unless otherwise stated and shall have been growing under the same climate conditions as the municipality for at least two years prior to the date of planting. Written verification of nursery/location shall be provided to the Township for approval prior to installation. All plants which are found unsuitable in growth or condition or which are not true to name shall be removed and replaced with acceptable plants. No plants with trunk damage or scarring shall be permitted to be installed. All trunk wrapping must be removed at the time of installation to permit inspection of the trunk condition.
(3) 
Preparation of Plants. All precautions customary in good trade practice shall be taken in preparing plants for moving. All balled and burlapped plants shall be dug to meet or exceed the USDA Standards for Nursery Stock.
(4) 
Delivery. Plants shall be packed, transported and handled with the utmost care to ensure adequate protection against injury.
2. 
Landscaping of Parking Areas. Any subdivision or land development application that includes an off-street parking facility shall propose landscaping of all such facilities. An off-street parking facility includes the designated parking areas and any appurtenant surfaced areas upon which a vehicle is designed to maneuver, including but not limited to all parking stalls, loading areas, drives within the property lines, and areas for maneuvering. Every off-street parking facility shall be landscaped so that 50% of each facility will be shaded with trees based upon the anticipated tree crowns at maturity. Development of such canopy shall be in accordance with the following:
A. 
The amount of the facility that will be shaded at maturity shall be determined by using the appropriate percentage of the crown based upon whether the tree is medium to large tree or a small tree, as included in the deciduous tree list (§ 22-920, Subsection 1I, of this Chapter), and on their location relative to the parking facility. A thirty-five-foot diameter crown shall be utilized for trees included on the medium to large deciduous tree list; a twenty-five-foot diameter crown shall be utilized for trees included on the small tree deciduous tree list.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
B. 
Trees not included on the Medium to Large Deciduous Tree List or the Small Deciduous Tree List may be used as parking lot shade trees if approved by the Township. The species of trees should be varied throughout the parking facilities.
C. 
Trees shall receive 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% shading credit based upon their location relative to the parking area. Areas where canopies overlap shall not be counted twice. Where the actual tree crown, based upon species/location, is less than one of the established percentage increments, the credit shall be rounded down to the next increment. [For example: If a crown will result in a large tree having an eight-hundred-square-foot shading, the shading credit is reduced to 75% (722 square feet) based upon the shading credit chart.] If the site has two or more separate parking areas, the amount of shading shall be calculated separately for each facility.
Shading Credit Chart
100%
75%
50%
25%
Medium to Large Tree
962 SF
722 SF
481 SF
240 SF
Small Tree
491 SF
368 SF
246 SF
123 SF
D. 
A parking facilities shading plan shall be submitted with any subdivision or land development application including an off-street parking facility. The plan shall clearly show (graphically) all surfaced areas included in the calculation of the amount of the facility to be shaded. Trees shall be drawn to scale representing the canopy size at maturity as listed in the Deciduous Tree List.
(1) 
The shading plan shall also include a table identifying the quantity and type of trees used, the percentage of shade credited to each, and their corresponding canopy size.
(2) 
All off-street parking facilities shall be indicated on the shading plan, and the total area calculated shall be noted in the shade calculation table. Parking facilities include all parking stalls, loading areas, drives within the property lines, and areas for maneuvering. Surfaced areas for automobile dealerships, lumberyards, and similar facilities that are used for display, sales, service, and vehicle storage may be relieved of the 50% shading requirement as follows:
(a) 
The Township may accept a fee in lieu of the 50% shading requirement, which shall be calculated in accordance with § 22-921, Subsection 6, of this Chapter; or
(b) 
The Township may accept an applicant's offer to plant the required number/size of trees on riparian areas or other Township-owned property as designated by the Township.
(c) 
All required parking facilities for these uses are still subject to the 50% shading requirement.
(3) 
Sample Shade Calculation Table
Tree Label
Botanical Name/ Common Name
100% Shading Credit
(SF)
75% Shading Credit
(SF)
50% Shading Credit
(SF)
25% Shading Credit
(SF)
Total Credit
(SF)
T1
T2
T3
Total Tree Shade
Total Paved Area
Percent of Shade Coverage
E. 
A minimum six-foot-by-six-foot planting area shall be provided for each tree planted in a tree well or planter strip. A minimum four-foot-by-eight-foot planting area shall be provided for each tree planted in an island planter. Planter dimensions are measured from the interior side of the curb. Centerlines of trees must be planted at a minimum of 24 inches from the face of the curb or paved surface (where curb is not utilized). A two-foot overhang for vehicles into the planter area is allowed as long as trees are installed a minimum of four feet from the edge of the parking area.
F. 
Planting areas shall contain soil, shrubs, and/or living groundcover with two inches of natural bark or root mulch. Dyed mulch may not be utilized. Interlocking pavers and decomposed granite may also be utilized in heavily used areas.
G. 
Proper planting is essential to achieve the best growth of the tree. This includes but is not limited to tree handling, tree spacing, tree well size, soil composition, irrigation, and maintenance. The entire tree planting area (tree well, island or strip) shall be excavated to a depth of three feet. The planter area shall be backfilled with native soil and necessary amendment prior to tree planting. All planting areas shall have a minimum of 12 inches, and a maximum of 18 inches, of topsoil.
H. 
The perimeter of all parking facilities shall be landscaped with one or any combination of the following buffers in order to visually screen the vehicles:
(1) 
One eighteen-inch-tall to twenty-four-inch-tall shrub per each three feet of buffer.
(2) 
One four- to four-and-one-half-foot-high berm.
(3) 
One five-foot-high wooden or stockade-type fence.
I. 
All plantings shall be able to survive soot, gas fumes and salt. Trees which have low-growing branches, gum or moisture which may drop on vehicles, or blossoms, thorns, seeds or pods which may clog drainage facilities, shall not be installed adjacent to streets, parking lots, sidewalks, pedestrian paths, and drainage facilities.
3. 
Open Space Plantings.
A. 
The applicant shall provide a method of physically delineating open space areas from private lots. Such methods shall include shrubbery, trees, markers, fencing, or other methods acceptable to the Township. Trees, shrubs, markers, or fencing shall be placed on the linked open space at its boundary. Where hedge plant material is provided as screening or a barrier between private lots and open space, additional markers or plant material for delineation are not necessary.
B. 
A plan for control of noxious weeds, as defined by the Noxious Weed Control Law (Act 72 of 1994, as amended), shall be submitted for approval by the Township for all open space areas. The control plan may include periodic cutting, grubbing, foliar spray, basal bark herbicide application, soil application, or a combination of methods. A control plan shall be determined based upon the extent of infestation, quality of native vegetation, existing natural resources (floodplains, wetlands, steep slopes), natural habitat disturbance, etc. Noxious weeds include the following:
(1) 
Cannabis sativa, commonly known as marijuana.
(2) 
The Lythrum salicaria complex: any nonnative Lythrum, including Lythrum salicaria and Lythrum virgatum, their cultivars and any combination thereof.
(3) 
Cirsium arvense, commonly known as Canadian thistle.
(4) 
Rosa multiflora, commonly known as multiflora rose.
(5) 
Sorghum halepense, commonly known as Johnson grass.
(6) 
Carduus nutans, commonly known as musk thistle.
(7) 
Cirsium vulgare, commonly known as bull thistle.
(8) 
Datura stramonium, commonly known as jimson weed.
(9) 
Polygonum perfoliatum, commonly known as mile-a-minute.
(10) 
Puerria lobata, commonly known as kudzuvine.
(11) 
Sorghum bicolor cv. Drummondii, commonly known as shattercane.
(12) 
Heracleum mantegazzianum, commonly known as giant hogweed.
(13) 
Galega officinalis, commonly known as goatsrue.
C. 
Open space areas not existing as forest or proposed as natural areas (i.e., wetland) shall be established in meadow, turf grass, or lawn, or established as forest. Open space areas to be dedicated to the Township and to remain "natural," which are fallow field/meadow, shall be planted with native tree species to establish forest.
(1) 
A planting plan which identifies tree species, genus, size, and spacing and ground cover/preparation shall be submitted with the preliminary plan application and is subject to approval by the Township.
(2) 
The planting plan shall, at a minimum, provide for the installation of one tree per 100 square feet of reforestation area. Trees shall have a minimum height of two feet at the time of installation. Bare-root plants shall be planted between October 15 and December 1. Potted plants shall be planted between March 15 and May 1. Trees shall be fertilized, mulched, and staked and, if necessary, protected from deer browsing. Species shall be native hardwoods.
(3) 
Township-owned open space may be designated and remain in agricultural use pursuant to Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27] requirements where permitted by the Board of Supervisors.
D. 
Prior to seeding open space areas, a soil test must be conducted by a soil-testing laboratory and the soils amended to achieve pH and NPK levels as recommended for the proposed seeding. At the time of dedication, all open land areas must have at least 90% cover with appropriate grasses or other species and be free of noxious weeds as defined by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
4. 
Existing Vegetation. In cases where natural features existing on the site duplicate or essentially duplicate the requirements of the street tree, buffering, or landscaping provisions of this Chapter, these requirements may be waived by the Board of Supervisors.
5. 
Protection of Existing Plant Materials.
A. 
All subdivisions and land developments shall be laid out in such a manner so as to preserve healthy trees and shrubs on the site.
B. 
During the construction of any site, trees and shrubs to be protected shall be protected by snow fencing, safety fencing or silt fencing, to ensure that there is no encroachment within the area of their dripline by changing grade, trenching, stockpiling of building materials or topsoil, or the compaction of the soil and roots by any motor vehicle. Heritage trees (trees with a dbh of 48 inches or greater) shall be protected with chain-link fence installed five feet outside of the dripline of the tree to be preserved during construction activity.
C. 
If any plant material is to be moved, it must be done in accordance with specifications set forth by the American Association of Nurserymen.
D. 
All diseased or dead trees shall be promptly removed from the site. All trees to be preserved shall be pruned when necessary to remove dead limbs.
E. 
No grading, construction activity, or storage of topsoil or materials shall occur within a tree protection zone (TPZ), measured 15 feet from the trunk of a tree to be retained or the distance from the trunk to the dripline, whichever is greater. No equipment may be driven over this area and no building materials are to be stacked against the trees or within the area of this buffer. Prior to construction, the TPZ shall be delineated by the following methods:
(1) 
The TPZ that is delineated on the site prior to construction shall conform to the approved development plans.
(2) 
All trees scheduled to remain shall be marked; where groups of trees exist, only the trees on the edge need to be marked.
(3) 
A forty-eight-inch-high wooden snow fence mounted on steel posts, located eight feet on center, or other delineation approved by the Township, shall be placed along the boundary of the TPZ.
(4) 
When the tree protection fence has been installed, it shall be inspected and approved by the Township prior to clearing and further construction.
(5) 
Fencing along the tree protection zone shall be maintained until all work/construction has been completed; any damaged protective fence shall be replaced and repaired immediately.
(6) 
Trees being removed shall not be felled, pushed, or pulled into a TPZ or into trees that are to be retained.
F. 
No tree is to support any scaffolding, signs, temporary utilities, surveying spikes, or any other device.
G. 
Those trees whose removal will damage other trees which are to remain must be removed by hand. The resulting stumps must be carefully removed to minimize damage to roots and trunks of other trees.
H. 
Trees Damaged During Construction.
(1) 
Tree trunks and exposed roots damaged during construction shall be protected from further damage. Damaged branches shall be pruned according to Tree Care Industry Association (formally National Arborist Association) standards. All cuts shall be made sufficiently close to the trunk or parent limb but without cutting into the branch collar or leaving a protruding stub. All necessary pruning cuts must be made to prevent bark from being torn from the tree and to facilitate rapid healing.
(2) 
All trees which have been disturbed or have experienced damage to their roots or branches shall be fertilized in early fall or mid-spring. Fertilizer grade shall have approximately three parts nitrogen to one part phosphorus and potassium (3:1:1 ratio). Fertilizer shall be broadcast over the soil surface in an area twice the size of the tree protection zone at a rate of one pound of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet.
(3) 
Trees proposed to remain on a subdivision and/or land development plan which die or are so severely damaged during construction to require removal as determined by the Township shall be replaced pursuant to § 22-290, Subsection 6, of this Chapter.
I. 
Stumps, branches and other wood debris shall not be buried on site. Where trees are removed outside of an area to be excavated, it is preferred that stumps be removed by grinding to a point six inches below existing grade.
6. 
(Reserved)[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Former § 22-920.6, Replacement Trees/Reforestation, was repealed 5/3/2011 by Ord. 2011-02.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-21; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XXXVI; and by Ord. 2008-03, 2/28/2008]
1. 
All proposed major subdivisions or land developments shall comply with the following:
A. 
Conduct afforestation on the site in accordance with the following:
(1) 
A site located in the RP, RO, R-1, R-2, or R-3 Zoning District and having less than 25% of its base site area covered by forest shall be afforested a minimum of 25% of the base site area.
(2) 
A site located in the C-1, C-2, C-3, R-4, R-5, VR, VC, MHP, LI, or Q Zoning District and having less than 20% of its base site area covered by forest shall be afforested to a minimum of 20% of the base site area.
B. 
Conduct reforestation of the site in accordance with the following:
(1) 
When the forest cover on a site is currently below the afforestation percentages described in Subsection 1A(1) and (2) above, any existing forest removed by the applicant shall be reforested on the site on a 2:1 ratio based upon area of removal (i.e., if 1,000 square feet of forest is cut, it must be reforested with 2,000 square feet of forest). Any reforestation of removed preexisting forest shall be in addition to any forest planted to meet the afforestation requirements of Subsection 1A above.
(2) 
When the forest cover on a site is currently above the afforestation percentages described in Subsection 1A(1) and (2) of this section, any existing forest removed by the applicant shall be reforested on the site on a 1:1 ratio based upon area of removal (i.e., if 1,000 square feet of forest is cut down, it must be replaced with 1,000 square feet of forest).
C. 
The trees used in the afforestation or reforestation shall be native to the Township and included under § 22-920, Subsection 1G, H or I, of this Chapter or other trees approved by the Township. Where appropriate, preference should be given to replacement trees of the same species as the trees removed from the site.
D. 
Afforestation and reforestation shall be accomplished pursuant to a planting plan subject to approval by the Township:
(1) 
The planting plan shall identify tree species, genus, size, and spacing, and ground cover/preparation and shall be submitted with the preliminary plan application.
(2) 
The planting plan shall, at a minimum, provide for the installation of one tree per 100 square feet of afforestation/reforestation area. Trees shall have a minimum height of two feet at the time of installation. Bare-root plants shall be planted between October 15 and December 1. Potted plants shall be planted between March 15 and May 1. Trees shall be fertilized, mulched and staked and, if necessary, protected from deer browsing. Species shall be a mix of native hardwoods with varying canopies and mature heights.
2. 
The following are considered a priority for afforestation and/or reforestation:
A. 
To establish or enhance forests within or adjacent to riparian buffers.
B. 
To establish or enhance forests on one-hundred-year floodplains, when appropriate.
C. 
To establish or enhance forest corridors to connect existing forests within or adjacent to the site; and, where practical, forest corridors should be a minimum of 300 feet in width to facilitate wildlife movement.
D. 
To establish or enhance forest buffers adjacent to critical habitats where appropriate.
E. 
To establish or enhance forests on slopes of 25% or greater.
F. 
To establish or enhance forests on slopes of 15% or greater.
G. 
To establish or enhance forests on slopes of 8% or greater.
H. 
To establish forest areas adjacent to existing forests to increase the overall area of contiguous forest cover.
I. 
To establish or enhance forest buffers adjacent to areas of differing land use or adjacent to highways or utility rights-of-way.
3. 
All afforestation and reforestation shall be conducted in conformance with State and Federal best management practices.
4. 
All afforestation and reforestation shall be completed prior to the recordation of the approved subdivision or land development plan or be guaranteed to be completed pursuant to the development/financial security agreements required under Part 12 of this Chapter. All afforestation and reforestation areas shall be maintained until 18 months after completion of construction upon the site and acceptance of the public improvements by the Township.
5. 
All afforestation and reforestation shall occur upon nonbuildable areas of the site, including open space, recreation lands, buffers (but shall be in addition to any buffer requirements), stormwater management BMPs, and other such areas. No afforestation/reforestation shall occur upon residential building lots.
6. 
Forest Conservation Fund. If an applicant subject to this Section demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Board of Supervisors that the requirements for reforestation or afforestation cannot be reasonably accomplished on site, the applicant shall contribute a fee-in-lieu-of, at a rate to be established by resolution of the Board of Supervisors, into the Township's Forest Conservation Fund. At its discretion, the Board of Supervisors may permit an applicant to meet all or part of this fee-in-lieu-of requirement by enhancing existing forest or other natural areas on the site or other Township-owned property through the removal of noxious and nonnative plants, the planting of native plants, or other means.
7. 
Retention. The following trees, shrubs, plants, and specific areas shall be granted priority for retention and protection and shall be left in an undisturbed condition unless the applicant has demonstrated, to the satisfaction of the Board of Supervisors, that reasonable efforts have been made to protect them and the plan cannot be reasonably altered:
A. 
Trees, shrubs, and plants located in the following sensitive ecological areas: steep slopes, riparian buffers, one-hundred-year floodplain, floodplain soils, streams, watercourses, waters of the Commonwealth, waters of the Unites States, lakes, ponds, wetland margins, and critical habitats.
B. 
Any part of a contiguous forest that is 10 acres or larger.
C. 
Trees, shrubs or plants determined to be rare, threatened or endangered under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973 in 16 U.S.C. §§ 1531 thru 1544 and in 50 CFR Part 17 or placed upon the Pennsylvania Threatened Species List or the Pennsylvania Endangered Species List (34 Pa.C.S.A. § 2101 et seq.).
D. 
Trees that are part of a historic site, associated with a historic structure, or have been designated as a National, State, or County champion tree.
E. 
Any tree having a caliper of 24 inches or more, or at least 75% of the diameter, or a designated National, State, or County champion tree of that species.
8. 
Exemptions.
A. 
The following shall be exempt from the requirements of this Article:
(1) 
Commercial nurseries and fruit orchards.
(2) 
Christmas tree farms.
(3) 
Properties devoted to the practice of silviculture.
(4) 
Clearing of land for agricultural purposes.
(5) 
Cutting/removal of trees on tracts of land one acre or less in the area upon which a single-family dwelling has been erected or is to be erected, provided that the natural resource protection standards of the Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27] are met. This exception does not apply to lots within proposed subdivisions or land developments.
(6) 
Removal of trees that are dead, dying or diseased, trees that have suffered severe damage, or any tree whose angle or growth makes it a hazard to structures or human life.
(7) 
Pruning and removal of trees by utility companies to provide for line clearance of utility wires in accordance with State and Federal regulations.
B. 
If any forest or trees are removed from a parcel of land under one of the above exemptions and said parcel is subsequently used for a purpose not falling under one of the above exemptions within 10 years of the removal, the requirements of this Section shall apply as if the forest or trees were never removed.
9. 
An afforestation/reforestation plan shall be submitted with all major subdivision and land developments. This plan shall be prepared by a registered landscape architect or forester and shall address the following:
A. 
Location of existing forests, steep slopes equal to or greater than 8%, riparian buffers, one-hundred-year floodplains, floodplain soils, streams, watercourses, waters of the Commonwealth, waters of the United States, lakes, ponds, wetlands, wetland margins, and critical habitats on the site or within 200 feet of the property boundaries of the site.
B. 
Location(s) where forest/tree removal is to take place, as well as the genus, species, size, location, and number of trees proposed to be removed.
C. 
Total acreage (net) of the site and the total amount of forest land permitted to be developed on the site.
D. 
Total amount of afforestation and/or reforestation required and proposed.
E. 
Location(s) of afforestation and/or reforestation, as well as the genus, species, size, and location, and number of trees proposed to be planted.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-22; as amended by Ord. 01-09-18-2, 9/18/2001, § XI]
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-23; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XXXVII; and by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
1. 
All subdivisions and land developments shall comply with the Plumstead Township Stormwater Management Ordinance, Ordinance No. 00-7-18-1, adopted on July 18, 2000, as amended. Requirements of the Stormwater Management Ordinance shall be in addition to, and not in-lieu-of, requirements set forth in this Section.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: See Part 1 of Chapter 26.
2. 
General Requirements.
A. 
Lots shall be laid out and graded with a minimum slope of 2% to provide positive drainage away from buildings, and within yard areas.
B. 
On-lot drainage swales shall be designed to provide positive conveyance of surface water from the individual lot. Each swale shall convey stormwater runoff from the lot to a storm sewer system, street, open space area, or stormwater management easement without crossing or combining with stormwater from more than the adjacent lot.
C. 
Drainage swales necessary to control surface drainage between lots shall be centered about the common property line.
3. 
All subdivisions and land development applications shall comply with the Low Impact Development Practices as outlined in the Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual, December 2006, as amended, where consistent with design requirements of this Chapter.
4. 
The developer shall construct and/or install such drainage structures as necessary to provide a fully functioning stormwater collection and control system meeting the requirements of the Stormwater Management Ordinance (Chapter 26). The design shall utilize Nonstructural BMPs to the maximum extent possible and consistent with design requirements of this Chapter.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-24; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XXXVIII, and by Ord. 01-09-18-2, § XII and by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
All construction wherein excavation, placement of fill, and/or grading activities are performed shall conform with the Plumstead Township Stormwater Management Ordinance (Chapter 26), and the following general requirements:
1. 
The top or bottom edges of slopes shall be a minimum of five feet from property lines or right-of-way lines of streets in order to permit the normal rounding of the edge without encroachment on abutting property.
2. 
Concentration of surface water runoff shall be permitted only in swales, watercourses, or stormwater management facilities.
3. 
Earth disturbance/staging shall be in strict conformance with the approved grading and erosion/sedimentation control plan.
4. 
Areas of the site to remain undisturbed shall be protected from encroachment by construction equipment/vehicles to maintain the existing infiltration characteristics of the soil.
5. 
The minimum depth of topsoil to be replaced shall be eight inches, or the existing depth of topsoil encountered on the site, whichever is greater.
6. 
Topsoil shall not be removed from the development site. Topsoil shall be stripped, stockpiled, and redistributed on the site. Prior to plan approval, the applicant/designer shall provide the Township with calculations to determine the volume of topsoil anticipated to be stripped, stockpiled, and replaced on the site, to verify that excess topsoil will not be generated as a result of construction activity.
7. 
Burning or burying of trees, stumps, or construction materials/debris is prohibited. Trees and stumps may be chipped or ground and spread onsite.
8. 
Preliminary cut and fill calculations shall be submitted with all nonresidential developments, all residential developments where new streets are proposed, and other developments as determined by the Township to evaluate grading balance of the site. The site should be designed to avoid an unbalance of cut and fill material.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-25; as amended by Ord. 2004-07, 12/7/2004, § 1]
1. 
These regulations are promulgated in an effort to insure that each dwelling unit, commercial or industrial building, hereafter constructed within the Township, will have an adequate supply of potable water. A hydrogeologic study for all potential public or central community water systems shall be submitted along with the subdivision or preliminary plans.
2. 
Public water or central community water systems, as herein defined, shall be required for the following uses:
A. 
Twenty-five or more single family residences, unless a hydrogeologic study indicates that a central system is required for a fewer number of residences.
B. 
All cluster developments.
C. 
All multifamily developments.
D. 
Mobile or manufactured home parks.
E. 
Life care facilities, retirement villages, hospitals, schools.
F. 
Two or more industrial buildings.
G. 
Two or more office buildings.
H. 
Any use which requires over 5,000 gpd water usage.
3. 
The developer shall construct water mains in such a manner as to make adequate water service available to each lot or dwelling unit within the subdivision or land development and shall extend the water mains to the perimeter of the property at a public street and shall terminate in an accessible gate valve. The water supply must comply with the regulations and the standards of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Delaware River Basin Commission and with the construction standards of Plumstead Township and any other authority which manages or maintains a public water system.
4. 
The system shall also be designed with adequate capacity, storage facility and appropriately spaced fire hydrants for fire-fighting purposes pursuant to the latest addition of the "Rating Schedule For Municipal Fire Protection" by Insurance Services Office. All water systems shall be designed in accordance with the Plumstead Township Standard Specifications for Design and Construction of Water Distribution Systems and Appurtenances and approved by the Township Engineer and the Township Fire Marshal.
5. 
All public or community water systems shall be offered for dedication to the Township.
6. 
If water is to be provided by means other than by private wells owned and maintained by the individual owners of lots within the subdivision or development, applicants shall present evidence to the Board of Supervisors that the subdivision or land development is to be supplied by a certified public utility, a bona fide cooperative association of lot owners, or by a municipal corporation, authority or utility. A copy of a certificate of public convenience from the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission or an application for such certification, a cooperative agreement or a commitment or agreement to serve the area in question, whichever is appropriate, shall be acceptable evidence.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-26]
Where no public water is accessible, water shall be furnished by the owner on an individual lot basis. If wells are installed on each lot and the lot also contains its own sewage disposal facility, the well shall be of the drilled type, cased and grout-sealed into the bedrock. The well shall meet all standards and requirements of the Township's Well Ordinance [Chapter 26, Part 2]. Before being placed in consumer use, it shall be disinfected by the use of sodium hypochlorite or other acceptable solution. A sample bacteriological examination shall be collected by a licensed water analyst and analyzed for use as drinking water. A copy of the water analysis shall be submitted to the Township Building Inspector.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-27; as amended by Ord. 2004-07, 12/7/2004, § 1; and by Ord. 2008-13, 10/7/2008]
1. 
General. This Section shall be applicable to all subdivisions and land developments. In the case of a subdivision or land development utilizing private streets, the applicant shall execute a recordable covenant with the Township that, for the purpose of sewer connections, assessments and rentals, and the rights and liabilities on himself, his grantees, heirs, successors, and assigns, shall be the same as if his property abutted a public street.
2. 
Sanitary Sewer; Standards and Requirements.
A. 
Sanitary collection and conveyance sewers may only be installed within the Sanitary Sewer Service Area of the Bucks County Water and Sewer Authority (BCW&SA) as identified within the Plumstead Township Sewage Facilities Plan.
B. 
Prior to approval to connect to Bucks County Water and Sewer Authority (BCW&SA), all applicants for new residential housing units within the BCW&SA sanitary sewer service district shall be required to demonstrate to the Township the lack of feasibility of use of individual on-lot sewage disposal systems. Lack of feasibility does not include the inability to maximize density under the Zoning Ordinance (Chapter 27) due to the availability of public sewer.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
C. 
Sanitary sewers shall be connected to the Bucks County Water and Sewer Authority system, following review of the plan and approval by Plumstead Township, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the BCW&SA.
D. 
When consistent with the Township Sewage Facilities Plan, sanitary sewer systems, with connections to each building in a subdivision or land development, shall be installed at the expense of the applicant or subdivider and connected to the Bucks County Water and Sewer Authority system.
E. 
Laterals. Lateral connections to each lot shown on the final plan shall be installed to the right-of-way line of the street prior to paving. Each building shall have a separate connection to the sanitary sewer system.
F. 
Pumping Station. Installation of a pumping station shall be permitted if approved by the Board of Supervisors. Design, plans and specifications for the installation of a pumping station shall be approved by the Township and Bucks County Water and Sewer Authority prior to the approval of the subdivision or land development plans.
G. 
The sanitary sewer system shall be tested and approved in accordance with the standards of the Bucks County Water and Sewer Authority before buildings are permitted to be connected to the laterals.
H. 
All public sanitary sewers shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the Sewerage Manual issued by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and shall meet all regulations and standards as adopted by the Township and the Bucks County Water and Sewer Authority and shall be constructed to extend to the outer limits of the property along public streets.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-28; as amended by Ord. 2004-07, 12/7/2004, § 1; and by Ord. 2008-13, 10/7/2008]
1. 
If public sewer facilities are not available, the owner shall provide for sewage disposal on an individual lot basis according to the rules, regulations, terms, definitions and conditions of the individual sewage disposal system application and certification procedure for Bucks County, Pennsylvania, adopted by the Bucks County Board of Commissioners on March 24, 1971, and any amendments made thereto.
2. 
On-lot sewage disposal facilities must comply with the provisions of Chapters 71 and 73, Administration of Sewage Facilities Program, Pennsylvania Sewage Facilities Act (Act of January 24, 1966), P.L. 1535, No. 537, as amended (35 P.S. § 750). The proposed facilities must be deemed satisfactory by the Bucks County Department of Health and a permit for on-lot disposal be issued. A Bucks County Department of Health letter of suitability for on-site disposal must be received by the Planning Commission with the preliminary plan for each and every lot or prior to approval of final plans by the Township.
3. 
The applicant shall provide the type of sanitary sewage disposal facility consistent with the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27] and Sewage Facilities Plan. All lots shall be provided with an on-site sanitary sewage disposal system of the type and design which shall, as a minimum requirement, meet the design standards of the Plumstead Township Sewage Facilities Plan, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and/or the Bucks County Department of Health, which systems shall be approved by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and/or Bucks County Department of Health.
4. 
If the subdivision or land development contains an existing on-site sewage disposal system, the developer shall submit acknowledgement from the Bucks County Department of Health indicating that the system appears to be functioning properly and is not malfunctioning.
5. 
Each owner or occupant of a dwelling unit with on-lot facilities shall be provided by the developer with a plan of the system and an instruction manual for the use and proper maintenance of the system.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-29; as amended by Ord. 2004-07, 12/7/2004, § 1]
The dimensioned location of the on-lot sewage system and the well must be shown on the plan, as well as any required isolation distances required by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, prior to the issuance of a building permit. The on-lot sewage system and the well must be installed where shown on the plan.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-30]
1. 
All electric, telephone, cable television and communication facilities, both main and service lines, shall be provided by underground cables, installed in accordance with the prevailing standards and practices of the utility and other companies providing such services.
2. 
Where practical, all utilities shall be located within the street right-of-way; otherwise, easements or rights-of-way of sufficient width for installation and maintenance shall be provided.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-31; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XXXIX]
1. 
All subdivisions and land developments shall meet the open space requirements of the Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27]. The plan shall contain or be supplemented by such material as required to establish the method by which open space shall be perpetuated, maintained and administered. The plan and other materials shall be construed as a contract between the landowners and the Township and shall be noted on all deeds.
2. 
Layout of Open Space.
A. 
Common open space shall be clearly delineated from private open space and from yards of private lots by a fence or landscaping or a combination thereof along its entire length.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
B. 
Access to common open space or to open space to be dedicated to the Township shall be provided so that residents of the proposed development can reach the open space. Where pathways are provided between lots, the accessway shall have a minimum width of 25 feet and shall be delineated with a fence.
3. 
Open Space Designation.
A. 
All land held for open space shall be so designated on the plans. All subdivision and land development plans shall designate the use of open space, the type of maintenance to be provided, and a planting plan and schedule in designating use and maintenance. The plans shall contain the following statement "OPEN SPACE LAND MAY NOT BE SEPARATELY SOLD NOR SHALL SUCH LAND BE FURTHER SUBDIVIDED."
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
B. 
Open space which is required to be set aside as part of a cluster development or other use which requires open space shall be provided in addition to the recreation land required by Part 11 of this Chapter. Where both open space and recreational land are required, the requirements for mandatory dedication of recreation land shall be met in addition to the requirements for open space.
C. 
Open space means land that will be used for one of the following purposes. Only land areas which comply with one of these classifications may be counted as open space.
(1) 
To conserve natural or scenic resources, including, but not limited to, streams, wetlands, floodplains, forest, and riparian buffers. Areas designated as open space to preserve natural resources shall remain undisturbed and in a natural state.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
(2) 
To preserve agricultural land. Where lands are being farmed, the plan for open space areas shall clearly demonstrate that every effort has been made to provide a maximum amount of farmland in usable farm fields. The best soils (Class I, Class II and Class III) shall be preserved for agriculture. The purpose of open space within agricultural areas is to preserve agriculture lands for agricultural use.
(3) 
To provide recreation opportunities for the residents of the Township. An area designated for active recreation may be designated only where the land does not contain natural resource restrictions and is not designated as farmland and where such use is recommended by the Township's park, recreation, and open space plan and approved by the Board of Supervisors and where the size, shape, topography and soils make it suitable and usable for recreational use.
(4) 
To preserve sites of historic, geologic, or botanic interest.
(5) 
To enhance the value to the residents of the Township of parks, forests, wildlife preserves, nature preserves, or other public open spaces by preserving land abutting existing lands serving these purposes listed in this subsection.
Proposed open space which is designed to enhance to private yards of dwelling units within the development shall not be deemed to meet the open space objectives of this use.
4. 
Open space designated for agricultural use shall include implementation of an erosion and sedimentation control plan approved by the Bucks County Conservation District.
5. 
Areas designated as open space shall not be used for storage of construction materials, construction trailers, sales trailers, or parking, or to stockpile fill or topsoil material except as necessary to construct grading or other improvements on the open space area as required by the approved plan.
6. 
No outdoor active recreation area (e.g., playfields, tot lots, basketball/tennis courts) shall be located nearer to any lot line or street line than 100 feet, except for bike paths and walking, jogging, or fitness trails, which shall be located not closer than 25 feet from the lot line or street line unless otherwise approved by the Township.
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-32]
All subdivision and land development plans shall include a schedule listing the sequence of construction. The schedule shall include construction tasks, sequence of completion, approximate starting date, and length of time for completion. All erosion and sediment controls shall be in place prior to any earthmoving activity. All required stormwater detention/retention facilities must be in place and functioning prior to the creation of an impervious surface.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-33]
The developer and all site contractors shall be responsible to attend a preconstruction conference prior to the start of any work. The date and time of the preconstruction conference shall be established by the Township or the Township Engineer upon written request of the developer. The preconstruction conference to be attended with Township personnel and other agencies having jurisdiction shall be held a minimum of 48 hours in advance of commencement of work. A schedule of work is to be provided to the Township when construction plans are submitted.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-4]
The construction of all improvements (streets, curbs, storm drainage facilities, public sewer and water services, grading detention/retention basins, etc.) shall be inspected by the Township Engineer. It is the responsibility of the developer to notify the Township Engineer a minimum of 48 hours in advance of any such construction. Any construction not inspected while in progress, may not be approved by the Township Engineer. If said construction is not approved, it shall be the responsibility of the developer to remove said item (at developer's cost) and replace to acceptable standards. The costs for all inspections by the Township Engineer shall be borne by the developer.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-35; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XL; and by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
As-built drawings for all stormwater management facilities must be prepared and submitted to the Township Engineer for review immediately upon completion of rough grading and construction of the stormwater management facility, to verify stage/storage capacity and compliance with other design details associated with the approved plan. As-built plans for these facilities must be reviewed for compliance with stormwater management design plan requirements prior to any additional site work or installation of impervious surfaces. As-built drawings for all stormwater collection/conveyance systems, public utilities, roadways, and any other improvement required by the approved plan must be prepared and submitted to the Township for review and verification of compliance with requirements of the approved plan, prior to the Township accepting completion of improvements and/or dedication of roadways, utilities, and/or open space areas. All as-built drawings shall be prepared by a professional land surveyor or engineer licensed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-36; as amended by Ord. 2005-02, 4/28/2005]
1. 
Purpose and Applicability.
A. 
A transportation impact study shall be submitted as part of all requests for change of zoning and under any other conditions where specified by the Township Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27] or this Chapter. This study will enable the Township to assess the impact of a proposed change of zoning or conditional use approval on the transportation system, both highways and public transportation, in the Township. The purpose of the impact study is to insure that proposed developments do not adversely affect the transportation network and to identify any traffic problems associated with access from the site to the existing transportation network. The study's purpose is also to delineate solutions to potential problems and to present improvements to be incorporated into the proposed development. The study shall assist in the protection of air quality, the conservation of energy and the encouragement of public transportation use.
B. 
A Traffic Impact Study shall be submitted for all subdivisions and land developments that meet one or more of the following criteria:
[Amended by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
(1) 
Residential: 25 or more dwelling units or lots.
(2) 
Commercial: A commercial building or buildings consisting of 10,000 square feet or more of gross floor space (total floor area on all floors within the exterior walls of the building).
(3) 
Office: A development consisting of 10,000 square feet or more gross floor space.
(4) 
Industrial: Any industrial development consisting of 25,000 square feet or more of gross floor area, or having more than 50 employees (immediately or future).
(5) 
Institutional: Any medical, educational, or institutional development consisting of 10,000 square feet or more of gross floor area.
C. 
The Board of Supervisors, at its discretion, may require any other subdivision or land development application to be accompanied by a Traffic Impact Study; provided, however, that the Supervisors notify the applicant within 60 days following the Planning Commission's first meeting to consider the proposal. Such a notification shall specify the reason for the requirement, citing the proposal's particular location or existing problems or type of use (i.e., generation of heavy truck traffic).
[Added by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
2. 
Definitions.
LEVEL OF SERVICE
Level of Service, as described in the 1985 Highway Capacity Manual, Special Report 209, indicates how well traffic moves on a particular highway facility or through a specific intersection. There are six levels of servicing ranging from A through F. Level of Service A indicates generally free movement. Level of Service E represents maximum capacity of the facility. Level F indicates congestion. Level of Service C is considered the design Level of Service, representing a stable traffic flow and a relatively satisfactory travel speed.
MAJOR INTERSECTION
Any intersection, either signalized or non-signalized, where traffic generated by the proposal will have a significant impact on the operation of the intersection and/or any other intersection with an arterial or collector road. Where doubt exists, the transportation engineer shall seek guidance from the Township Manager prior to the submission of the Traffic Impact Study.
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
Transportation service for the general public provided by a common carrier of passengers generally on a regular route basis, by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, or a private operator offering service to the public.
STUDY AREA
This area will extend along all Township and State roads serving the development to the nearest intersection with a major arterial road, and shall, in any event, extend to all intersections along all roads within a one-half-airline-mile area. Where doubt exists, the transportation engineer shall seek guidance from the Township Manager prior to the submission of the Traffic Impact Study.
TRIP GENERATION RATES
The total count of trips to and from a Study Site per unit of land use, as measured by parameters such as dwelling units, acres, etc., which said trip generation rates are established by the Institute of Transportation Engineers, Trip Generation Report, 4th Edition or other later edition.
VOLUME/CAPACITY ANALYSIS
Procedures used to determine Level of Services and to evaluate the operational characteristics of a roadway or intersection. The procedures are described in the 1985 Highway Capacity Manual, Highway Research Board, and the results are expressed in Level of Service for roadways, signalized and non-signalized intersections.
WARRANTS FOR TRAFFIC SIGNAL INSTALLATION
This is a series of warrants which detail the minimum traffic or pedestrian volumes or other criteria necessary for the installation of a traffic signal. These warrants are contained in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1988, as amended.
3. 
General Requirements and Standards. A transportation impact study shall be performed by a qualified traffic engineer with previous traffic study experience and shall contain the following information:
A. 
General Site Description. The site description shall include the size, location, proposed land uses, construction staging and completion date of the proposed subdivision or land development. If the development is residential, types of dwelling units shall also be included. A brief description of other major existing and proposed subdivisions and land developments within the Study Area shall be provided. The general site description shall also include probable socioeconomic characteristics of potential site users to the extent that they may affect the transportation needs of the site (i.e., number of senior citizens). The general site description shall also contain a demographic study which includes projections as to where new residents to be served by the development would work or shop, and where employees of new commercial developments would live, and the traffic generation effects of such a study. The general site description shall also include analysis of both vehicular and pedestrian traffic projected to be generated by children in any new residential development going to and from school.
B. 
Transportation Facilities Description. The description shall contain a full documentation of the proposed internal and existing external transportation system. This description shall include proposed internal vehicular, bicycle and pedestrian circulation, all proposed ingress and egress locations, all internal roadway widths and rights-of-way, parking conditions, traffic channelizations and any traffic signals or other intersection control devices at all intersections within the site. The site design shall be shown to maximize potential public transportation usage to and from the development, such as providing adequate turning radius at zero-access points to allow a bus to enter the development. Bus shelter and sign locations shall be designated where appropriate.
C. 
The report shall describe the entire external roadway system within the Study Area. Major intersections in the Study Area shall be identified and illustrated. All existing and proposed public transportation services and facilities within a one-mile radius of the site shall also be documented. All future highway improvements, including proposed construction and traffic signalization, shall be noted. This information shall be obtained from the Twelve-Year Highway Capital Program for the Delaware Valley Region and from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Any proposed roadway improvements due to proposed surrounding developments shall be recorded.
D. 
Existing Traffic Conditions. Existing traffic conditions shall be measured and documented for all roadways and intersections in the Study Area. Existing traffic volumes for average daily traffic, peak highway hour(s) traffic, and peak development-generated hour(s), and documentation shall be included in the report. Manual traffic counts at major intersections in the Study Area shall be conducted, encompassing the peak highway and development-generated hour(s), and documentation shall be included in the report. All documentation shall be included in a technical appendix and consist of highway peak hour turning movement counts expressed in fifteen-minute increments, development-generated peak hour turning movement counts expressed in fifteen-minute increments, capacity analysis worksheets and all quantitative information used in the traffic analysis. A Level of Service analysis based upon existing volumes shall be performed during the peak highway hour(s) and the peak development-generated hour(s) for all roadways and major intersections in the Study Area. Levels of service shall be determined for each location. This analysis will determine the adequacy of the existing roadway system to serve the current traffic demand. Roadways and/or intersections experiencing levels of service D, E, or F shall be noted as congested locations. The analysis shall make use of or reference the Township-wide traffic study where this study includes any analysis of roadways or intersections within the proposed Study Area.
E. 
Transportation Impact of the Development. Estimation of vehicular trips to result from the proposal shall be completed for the average daily peak highway hour(s) and peak development-generated hour(s). Vehicular trip generation rates to be used for this calculation shall be obtained from the Trip Generation, An Informational Report, Fourth Edition, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1987. For all land uses proposed but not listed in the Institute Report, the traffic engineer shall seek guidance from the Township Manager or his designee. All turning movements shall be calculated. These development-generated traffic volumes shall be distributed to the Study Area and assigned to the existing roadways and intersections throughout the Study Area. Documentation of all assumptions used in the distribution and assignment phase shall be provided in the technical appendix. Traffic volume shall be assigned to individual access points. Pedestrian volumes shall be calculated, if applicable. If school crossings are to be used, pedestrian volumes shall be assigned to each crossing. Any characteristics of the site that will cause particular trip generation problems shall be noted.
F. 
Analysis of Transportation Impact. The total future traffic demand shall be calculated. This demand shall consist of the combination of the existing traffic expanded to the completion year (using an annual background traffic growth rate which best reflects the intensity of growth projected in the Township) plus development traffic plus background growth traffic. The background growth rate shall reflect the consideration of other proposed developments within the Study Area. A list of the proposed developments may be obtained from the Township Manager or Township Engineer. The rates shall be based on acceptable parameters such as population and employment and be monitored to insure that the rate accurately reflects local conditions, the development generated traffic, and the traffic generated by any other proposed developments in the Study Area. A second Level of Service analysis shall be conducted using the total future demand and the future roadway capacity. If staging of the proposed development is anticipated, calculations for each stage of completion shall be made. This analysis shall be performed during the peak highway hour(s) and peak development-generated hour(s) for all roadways and major intersections in the Study Area. Level of Service calculations shall be completed for all major intersections. It is usually at these locations that capacity is most restricted.
G. 
All access points and pedestrian crossings shall be examined as to the feasibility of installing traffic signals. This evaluation shall compare the projected traffic and pedestrian volumes to the warrants for traffic signal installation.
H. 
Analysis of Existing Roadway Pavement Conditions. Where this Chapter requires the widening of existing pavement, the applicant shall:
(1) 
Take pavement cores and CBR values of the existing pavement at four-hundred-foot intervals staggered left to right in the path of the outside wheels of vehicles traveling the existing roadway.
(2) 
Submit an analysis of the existing pavement based on the foregoing core sample and analysis and the traffic volume, to determine the extent of roadway reconstruction needed.
(3) 
Submit a plan, profile and detailed road cross-sections at fifty-foot intervals with existing and proposed elevations.
I. 
Conclusions and Recommended Improvements.
(1) 
Levels of Service for all roadways and intersections shall be listed. All roadways and intersections showing a Level of Service below C shall be considered deficient, and specific recommendations for the elimination of these problems shall be listed, unless design limitations preclude Level of Service C. Any intersection with any single approach of below Level of Service C shall be considered deficient. This listing of recommended improvements shall include, but not be limited to, the following elements: internal circulation design, site access location and design, external roadway and intersection design and improvements, traffic signal installation and operation including signal timing, and transit design improvements. All physical roadway improvements shall be shown in sketches.
(2) 
Other circulation conditions shall be described and analyzed, including sight distance at all proposed access points to the site; circulation of commercial vehicles (trucks, etc.) in nonresidential developments and in multifamily developments.
J. 
Existing and/or future public transportation service shall also be addressed. A listing of all actions to be undertaken to increase present public transportation usage and improve service, if applicable, shall be included.
K. 
The listing of recommended improvements for both roadways and transit shall include, for each improvement, the party responsible for the improvement, the cost and funding of the improvement, and the completion date for the improvement.
4. 
Time of Submission.
A. 
The Traffic Impact Study shall be submitted to the Township as part of the Preliminary Plan application. The submission of the Preliminary Plan application shall be deemed incomplete if the required Traffic Impact Study is not included in the submission.
B. 
The improvement plans shall not be submitted to Pennsylvania Department of Transportation until after review by the Township Planning Commission, the Township Engineer, and approved by the Township Board of Supervisors. The submittal to PennDOT shall be accompanied by comments of the Township.
5. 
Implementation. The Township Planning Commission, Engineer, and Board of Supervisors shall review the Traffic Impact Study to analyze its adequacy in solving any traffic problems that will occur due to the subdivision or land development. The Board of Supervisors may decide that certain improvements on or off-site are mandatory for plan approval and may attach these conditions to the approval.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-37; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XLI]
1. 
General Requirements.
A. 
Tree protection zones (TPZ) shall be delineated to implement the standards contained in this Chapter regarding preservation of trees, woodlands and forests during the development and construction process.
B. 
Tree Protection Zone. An area that is radial to the trunk of a tree in which no construction activity shall occur. The tree protection zone shall be 15 feet from the trunk of the tree to be retained, or the distance from the trunk to the dripline (the line marking the outer edge of the branches of the tree), whichever is greater. Where there is a group of trees or woodlands, the tree protection zone shall be the aggregate of the protection areas for the individual trees.
C. 
Tree protection zones shall be shown on the landscape plan submitted by the applicant.
D. 
The TPZ that is delineated on the site prior to construction shall conform to the approved development plans.
E. 
In addition to the TPZ, trees may be left standing as protection between the trunks of the trees to be retained and the limits of grading. When additional trees are used as protection, the TPZ on the approved plan shall be marked in the field so that the additional buffer area is delineated. When this method of protection is used, these additional trees shall be removed at the time of completion of the project.
2. 
Prior to construction the tree protection zone shall be delineated in the following way:
A. 
All trees scheduled to remain shall be marked; where groups of trees exist, only the trees on the edge need to be marked.
B. 
A forty-eight-inch-high snow fence or other suitable fence, mounted on steel posts located eight feet on center, shall be placed along the boundary of the tree protection zone.
C. 
When the fencing has been installed, it shall be inspected and approved by the Township prior to commencing clearing and further construction. The fencing along the tree protection area shall be maintained until all work and construction has been completed. Any damages to the protective fencing shall be replaced and repaired before further construction shall begin.
3. 
Protection from Mechanical Injury.
A. 
Trees shall not be used for roping, cables, signs or fencing. Nails and spikes shall not be driven into trees.
B. 
Trees being removed shall not be felled, pushed or pulled into a TPZ or into trees that are to be retained.
C. 
Grade changes and excavations shall not encroach upon the tree protection zone (TPZ) nor cause water to be trapped in the TPZ.
D. 
No toxic materials shall be stored within 100 feet of a TPZ, including petroleum-based and/or -derived products.
E. 
The area within the TPZ shall not be built upon, nor shall any materials be stored there either temporarily or permanently. Vehicles and equipment shall not be parked in the TPZ.
F. 
When tree stumps are located within 10 feet of the TPZ, the stumps shall be removed by means of a stump grinder to minimize the effect on surrounding root systems.
G. 
Tree roots which must be severed shall be cut by a backhoe or similar equipment aligned radially to the tree.
H. 
Exposed or damaged roots shall be trimmed cleanly and covered temporarily with moist peat moss, moist burlap or other moist biodegradable material to keep them from drying out until permanent cover can be installed.
I. 
Sediment, retention and detention basins shall not be located in a TPZ.
4. 
Retaining Walls.
A. 
When the maximum slope requirements of this Chapter cannot be met at the TPZ line, as determined by the Township Engineer, a retaining wall shall be constructed outside of the TPZ.
B. 
The retaining wall shall be designed to comply with the municipal standards for retaining walls.
C. 
In addition, the following methods shall be used to ensure survival of the tree:
(1) 
The top of the wall shall be four inches above the finished grade line.
(2) 
The wall shall be constructed of large stones, brick, building tile, concrete block or treated wood beams not less than six inches by six inches; a means for drainage through the wall shall be provided so water will not accumulate on either side of the wall; weep holes shall be required with any wall.
(3) 
Any severed roots shall be trimmed so that their edges are smooth and are cut back to the lateral root if exposed.
(4) 
A layer of clean stone (sized 3/4 to one inch) shall be placed one foot out from the wall to aid in drainage.
5. 
Trenching and Tunneling.
A. 
If there is no alternative but to locate a utility line through a TPZ, tunneling shall be used instead of trenching, except where, in the opinion of the municipal arborist, survival of the tree would not be affected by either method. The municipal arborist shall determine the most desirable location for the utility line.
B. 
Trenches shall be filled as soon as possible and tamped lightly to avoid air spaces.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-38]
The Board of Supervisors may grant a modification of the requirements of one or more provisions of this Chapter if the literal enforcement will exact undue hardship because of peculiar conditions pertaining to the land in question, provided that such modification will not be contrary to the public interest and that the purpose and intent of this Chapter is observed. All requests for a modification shall be in writing and shall accompany and be a part of the application for development. The request shall state in full the grounds and facts of unreasonableness or hardship on which the request is based, the provision or provisions of this Chapter involved, and the minimum modification necessary.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-37; as amended by Ord. 00-7-18-2, 7/18/2000, § XLII]
The name of the subdivision/land development is subject to review and approval by the Township. Names which conflict with, or are similar to, existing developments shall not be approved. During construction, the development name shall be in accordance with the approved plan.
[Ord. 95-4-18-2, 4/18/1995, § 9-37; as amended by Ord. 01-09-18-2, 9/28/2001, § XIII; and by Ord. 2011-02, 5/3/2011]
1. 
Alleys are intended to provide access to the rear of residential lots for services and on-lot parking.
2. 
Frontage on an alley shall not be construed to satisfy the requirements of the Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27] for frontage on a street.
3. 
No parking shall be provided for, or permitted within, the cartway of the alley.
4. 
Street systems which contain alleys shall be designed to discourage through traffic on the alleys.
5. 
Any portion of an alley located between two points of ingress and egress shall provide a rear access to no more than 50 dwelling units.
6. 
Alleys may only intersect local streets.
7. 
Alley length shall not exceed a distance of 600 feet measured between two points of ingress and egress.
8. 
Alleys shall be centered on a rear or side lot line and shall be designed with a twenty-foot-wide easement and a paved cartway width of 12 feet. Except where specifically approved by the Board of Supervisors, all alleys shall be designed for one-way traffic. Where two-way traffic is permitted by the Board of Supervisors, a cartway width of 18 feet shall be provided.
9. 
Parking that is not within a garage structure shall be limited to a distance not to exceed 30 feet from the alley centerline.
10. 
Alley construction must be in accordance with street construction standards of § 22-912.
11. 
Alleys not acceptable for dedication to the Township shall be designed to include a permanent easement right of access to all properties served by the alley and include adequate funds of financial guarantees to insure snow plowing, maintenance and repair by property owners served by the alley.
12. 
No portion of the alley easement may be included to meet the minimum lot area requirements of the Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27].
[Ord. 2017-01, 5/9/2017]
CBU's shall be designed such that same are centrally located to serve the residents of the development, while providing safe and efficient access for pedestrians and motor vehicles in the vicinity of the CBU. Provisions for off-street and/or on-street parking, and ADA compliant accessibility, shall be considered when locating the CBU's. Where possible, CBU's shall be located within publically or privately owned open space, or on private property within an access easement in favor of a community Homeowner's Association. CBU's shall be in the style, color and location approved by the Board of Supervisors subject to the United States Postal Service approved specifications which are incorporated herein by reference.