Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi, MI
Calhoun County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents

§ 4.2-1 Short title.

This chapter shall be known as the "Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi Limited Liability Company Code."

§ 4.2-2 Authority; purposes; sovereign immunity.

[Amended 6-15-2017 by Res. No. 06-15-17-18]
A. 
This chapter is enacted pursuant to the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi's inherent sovereign powers and as specifically authorized by the Constitution of the Band.
B. 
The purpose of this chapter is to provide for economic development of the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi and its members by:
(1) 
Providing the legal framework for organizing individually owned business entities in order to expand the private business sector either on or off the Reservation; and
(2) 
Authorizing the formation of wholly owned tribal business entities for managing the Band's nongaming economic activities separate from the general affairs of its Tribal Council, with the ability to enter into legally binding contracts and commercial relationships, including the ownership or formation of subsidiary entities, without the need for formal Tribal Council action; and
(3) 
Authorizing the formation of limited liability companies by individuals or the Band for the purpose of organizing entities whose primary purpose is the pursuit of charitable or other nonprofit purposes.
C. 
By the adoption of this chapter, the Band does not waive its sovereign immunity or consent to suit in any court, federal, tribal or state, and neither the adoption of this chapter, nor the organization and creation of any limited liability company hereunder, shall be construed to be a waiver of the sovereign immunity of the Band or a consent to suit against the Band in any court.

§ 4.2-3 Scope.

This chapter shall apply to all limited liability companies organized under its provisions or which elect to accept the provisions of this chapter.

§ 4.2-4 Applicable law.

The companies organized and created under this chapter shall be subject to this chapter, and all other laws of the Band. By organizing and creating a company under this chapter, the company and its owners shall be considered to have entered into a consensual relationship with the Band and agree to be subject to the full extent of the Band's legislative, regulatory and adjudicatory jurisdiction. Unless displaced by particular provisions of this chapter or other tribal law, the principles of law and equity supplement this chapter.

§ 4.2-5 Definitions.

Terms used in this chapter have the following meanings:
ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION
The articles filed under § 4.2-15 and those articles as amended or restated.
BAND
The Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi.
CORPORATION
A domestic corporation for profit organized under the law of the Band or a foreign corporation formed under the laws of any other jurisdiction.
DISTRIBUTION
A direct or indirect transfer by a limited liability company of money or other property to or for the benefit of its owners in respect of their interests.
ENTITY
Includes an individual, a general partnership, limited partnership, a limited liability company, a trust, an estate, an association, a corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity, whether formed under the law of the Band or formed under the laws of any other jurisdiction.
[Amended 6-15-2017 by Res. No. 06-15-17-18]
FOREIGN
Refers to limited liability companies, corporations and limited partnerships organized under the laws of a jurisdiction other than the Band.
LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY or DOMESTIC LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY
An organization formed under this chapter.
[Amended 7-20-2017 by Res. No. 07-20-17-08]
LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY INTEREST or INTEREST IN THE LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY or OWNER'S INTEREST
An owner's rights in the limited liability company, including rights to distributions, profits and losses, and to participate in management, as specified in the operating agreement.
LLC
A limited liability company.
MAJORITY IN INTEREST
An owner or owners holding more than 50% of the total voting interests in the limited liability company excluding any interest which is not to be counted as voting on a matter as described elsewhere in this chapter.
MANAGER or MANAGERS
The person(s) or entity(ies) designated to manage the LLC pursuant to the articles of organization and operating agreement.
OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL COUNCIL SECRETARY
The Office of the Secretary of the Tribal Council located on the Pine Creek Indian Reservation, or that individual's designee.
OPERATING AGREEMENT
An agreement in writing among all of the owners as to the conduct of the business of a limited liability company and its relationships with its owners.
ORGANIZER(S)
The person(s) or entity(ies) which signs and delivers the articles of organization for filing to the Office of the Tribal Council Secretary.
OWNER
A person that has been admitted to membership in a limited liability company or has ownership interest in a limited liability company. The term does not include a person that has dissociated as a member under § 4.2-28.
PERSON
Includes a natural person, tribal entity and an organization such as a general partnership, limited partnership, a domestic or foreign limited liability company, a trust, an estate, an association, or a corporation.
RESERVATION
All lands under the jurisdiction of the Band, including all lands within the boundaries of the Band's Reservation and all lands held in trust by the United States of America for the benefit of the Band.
SECRETARY OF THE BAND
The individual duly elected to the position of Secretary on the Tribal Council; or that individual's designee.
STATE
Includes a state, territory, or possession of the United States and the District of Columbia.
TRIBAL CONSTITUTION
The Constitution of the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi.
TRIBAL CORPORATION
A corporation wholly owned by the Band and duly formed pursuant to a Section 17 charter, a band resolution, a Business Corporation Code adopted by the Band, or other law.
TRIBAL COUNCIL
The Tribal Council as established by Article IV of the Tribal Constitution as the governing body of the Band.
TRIBAL COURT
The Tribal Judiciary as established by Article XI of the Tribal Constitution, or any successor provisions.
TRIBAL ENTITY
Includes the Band, the Tribal Council, a general partnership, limited partnership, a domestic or foreign limited liability company, a trust, an estate, an association, a corporation, a program, a department, an administrative agency or any other legal, commercial or governmental entity of the Band.
TRIBALLY OWNED LLC
A limited liability company wholly owned by the Band with the Band as its sole owner.
TRIBALLY OWNED SECOND TIERED SUBSIDIARY LLC
A limited liability company wholly owned by a tribally owned subsidiary LLC.
TRIBALLY OWNED SUBSIDIARY LLC
A limited liability company wholly owned by a tribally owned LLC or by any other tribal entity that is wholly owned by the Band.
[Amended 6-15-2017 by Res. No. 06-15-17-18]
TRUST LAND
Land held in trust by the United States for the benefit of the Band or its members.

§ 4.2-6 Name.

A. 
The name of a limited liability company as set forth in its articles of organization must contain the words "limited liability company" or end with the abbreviation "L.L.C." or "LLC." The name may not contain language stating or implying that the limited liability company is organized for any purpose other than that permitted under § 4.2-9, below.
B. 
The name of a domestic LLC shall be distinguishable from any LLC or corporation previously organized under the laws of the Band.

§ 4.2-7 Registered office and registered agent.

A. 
A limited liability company's registered agent is the company's agent for receiving service of process, notice, or demand required or permitted by law to be served on the company under the laws of the Band.
B. 
Each LLC shall continuously maintain a registered office and a registered agent. The registered office may, but need not, be the same as any of its places of business. The agent may be the same person then serving in a designated office of the Band rather than a specified person if the Band is an owner in the LLC of which the Band's officer is the appointed agent.
C. 
An LLC may change its registered office or registered agent, or both, by filing a written notice of change containing the name of its registered agent and the street address of its registered office, as changed, with the Office of the Tribal Council Secretary and paying the filing fee.
D. 
The registered agent of an LLC may resign as a registered agent by delivering to the Office of the Tribal Council Secretary and filing a written statement of resignation and the appointment by the LLC of another registered agent.

§ 4.2-8 Band as owner.

A. 
The Band shall form or become an owner of a tribally owned LLC formed under this chapter only upon approval of such action by duly enacted resolution of the Tribal Council.
B. 
If the Band or a tribal entity is an owner of an LLC formed under this chapter, any action which the Band is required or permitted to take with respect to any vote, approval, consent, appointment, direction, or other matter shall be taken as specified in § 4.2-64 of this chapter or, as to actions related to the managers of a manager-managed LLC, as stated in the LLC's operating agreement approved by the Tribal Council or the governing body of the tribal entity, as the case may be.
[Amended 6-15-2017 by Res. No. 06-15-17-18]
C. 
If the Band is the sole owner of an LLC formed under this chapter, such tribally owned LLC shall possess all of the privileges and immunities of the Band, including the Band's sovereign immunity from suit except to the extent otherwise provided in its operating agreement.
D. 
If a tribally owned LLC, of which the Band or a tribal entity is the sole member, forms a tribally owned subsidiary LLC, of which the tribally owned LLC or other tribal entity is the sole member, such tribally owned subsidiary LLC shall possess all of the privileges and immunities of the Band, including the Band's sovereign immunity from suit except to the extent otherwise provided in its operating agreement.
[Amended 6-15-2017 by Res. No. 06-15-17-18]
E. 
If a subsidiary tribally owned LLC, of which the tribally owned LLC is the sole member, forms a tribally owned second tier subsidiary LLC, such tribally owned second tier subsidiary LLC shall possess all of the privileges and immunities of the Band, including the Band's sovereign immunity from suit except to the extent otherwise provided in its operating agreement.
[Amended 6-15-2017 by Res. No. 06-15-17-18]
F. 
If the Band or a tribal entity is an owner with a majority in interest in an LLC formed under this chapter, such LLC may possess the privileges and immunities of the Band, including sovereign immunity from suit, to the extent allowed by federal law, this chapter or its operating agreement.
G. 
In no event shall any manager who is not an owner of an LLC in which the Band is an owner, bind the Band in any manner; provided that the Band's interest as an owner may be bound by manager or owner actions as stated in this chapter and the operating agreement of the LLC.
H. 
Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed as creating any liability or waiving of sovereign immunity of the Band in any manner; provided that the assets of the LLC in which the Band holds an interest may be subject to liabilities and claims unless otherwise provided herein. In no event shall any action taken by the Band as owner concerning the exercise of any right or privilege or discharge of any duty with respect to an interest in an LLC be construed as a waiver of immunity or creation of a liability on the part of the Band separate and apart from its interests as an owner of the LLC.
I. 
For all tribally owned limited liability companies and tribally owned subsidiary limited liability companies, the additional provisions of Article IX of this chapter shall apply.

§ 4.2-9 Nature of business.

[Amended 6-15-2017 by Res. No. 06-15-17-18]
A limited liability company may be organized under this chapter for any lawful purpose. Unless otherwise provided in its articles of organization or operating agreement, an LLC organized and existing under this chapter has the same powers as an individual to do all things necessary and convenient to carry out its business, including but not limited to all of the following:
A. 
Consent to be sued, complain and defend in its name; provided, however, that if an LLC is tribally owned, or wholly owned by another entity which itself is wholly owned by the Band, it shall be entitled to and shall enjoy the Band's sovereign immunity from suit unless the operating agreement otherwise provides.
B. 
Purchase, take, receive, lease, or otherwise acquire and own, hold, improve, use, and otherwise deal in or with real, or personal property or any legal or equitable interest in real or personal property, wherever situated.
C. 
Sell, convey, mortgage, pledge, create a security interest in, lease, exchange, or otherwise dispose of all or any part of its property.
D. 
Lend money, property, and services to, and otherwise assist, its owners and managers, if any.
E. 
Purchase, take, receive, subscribe for, or otherwise acquire and own, hold, vote, use, employ, sell, mortgage, lend, pledge, or otherwise dispose of and deal in and with shares or other interests in, or obligations of, any other enterprise or entity.
F. 
Make contracts and guarantees; incur liabilities; borrow money; issue notes, bonds, and other obligations; and secure any of its obligations by mortgage or pledge of all or part of its property, franchises, and income.
G. 
Lend money, invest and reinvest its funds, and receive and hold real or personal property as security for repayment.
H. 
Conduct its business, locate offices, and exercise the powers granted by this chapter inside or outside of the Reservation.
I. 
Be a promoter, incorporator, partner, owner, associate, or manager of any enterprise or entity.
J. 
Elect or appoint managers, agents, and employees, define their duties, and fix their compensation.
K. 
Pay pensions and establish pension plans, pension trusts, profit-sharing plans, and benefit or incentive plans for any or all of its current or former owners, managers, employees, and agents.
L. 
Make donations to and otherwise devote its resources for the public welfare or for charitable, scientific, educational, humanitarian, philanthropic, or religious purposes.
M. 
Indemnify an owner, manager, employee, officer or agent, or any other person.
N. 
Provide benefits or payments to owners, managers, employees, and agents of the LLC, and to their estates, families, dependents or beneficiaries in recognition of the past services of the owners, managers, employees, and agents of the LLC.
O. 
Make payments or contributions, or do any other act not prohibited by law, that furthers the business of the LLC.
P. 
Transact any lawful business that the owners or the managers find to be appropriate to promote and further the business and affairs of the limited liability company.

§ 4.2-10 Execution of documents.

A. 
Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, any document required or permitted by this chapter to be delivered for filing in accordance with § 4.2-11 shall be executed by any of the following:
(1) 
Any manager, if management of the LLC is vested in a manager or managers, or by an owner, if management of the LLC is reserved to the owners.
(2) 
All organizers of the LLC if the LLC has not been organized. The name and address of each organizer shall be provided.
(3) 
The name of the drafter of the document.
B. 
The person executing the document shall sign it and state beneath or opposite the signature the person's name and capacity in which the person signs.
C. 
The person executing the document may do so as an attorney-in-fact. Powers of attorney relating to the executing of the document need not be shown to nor filed with the Office of the Tribal Council Secretary.

§ 4.2-11 Filing.

A. 
The Office of the Tribal Council Secretary shall receive all filings required under this chapter and maintain the records of such filings pursuant to this section, including but not limited to the articles of organization, amended or restated articles, annual reports, names and addresses of registered offices and agents, and, in the case of tribally owned LLC's, the operating agreement and amendments thereto, and other reports required by this chapter.
B. 
Upon receipt of a document for filing under this chapter, the Office of the Tribal Council Secretary shall ensure it meets the requirements herein and then shall stamp or otherwise endorse the date and time of receipt of the original, the duplicate copy, and, upon request, any additional copy received.
C. 
If the Office of the Tribal Council Secretary refuses to file a request, the Office shall return it to the person tendering the document for filing within five (5) business days after the date on which the document is received by the Office for filing, together with a brief written explanation of the reason for refusal.
D. 
Any document accepted by the Office of the Tribal Council Secretary shall be effective at the time of receipt unless a delayed effective date and/or time not more than ninety (90) days after receipt by the Office of the Tribal Council Secretary is specified in the document.
E. 
Fees. The Office of the Tribal Council Secretary shall impose a reasonable filing fee for each document filed, initially not to exceed the sum of $100, and an annual renewal fee initially not to exceed the sum of $25 during the life of the LLC. The Tribal Council Secretary is authorized to make regulations providing for reasonable fees for other services not specifically stated in this chapter or to make changes in any and all fees for services set out in this chapter. These changes shall be available through the Office of the Tribal Council Secretary.

§ 4.2-12 Certificate of status.

Any person may obtain from the Office of the Tribal Council Secretary, upon request, a certificate of status for either a domestic or a foreign LLC.

§ 4.2-13 Execution by judicial act.

Any person who is adversely affected by the failure or refusal of any person to execute and file any articles or other document to be filed under this chapter may petition the Tribal Court to direct the execution and filing of the articles or other document. Nothing in this chapter, however, serves to waive any aspect of the Band's sovereign immunity, and any waiver thereof must be provided explicitly in the LLC's articles of organization and/or operating agreement.

§ 4.2-14 Interstate application.

An LLC may conduct its business, carry on its operations and have and exercise the powers granted by this chapter, in any sovereign native band, any state, territory, district or possession of the United States, or in any foreign jurisdiction.