Township of East Whiteland, PA
Chester County
By using eCode360 you agree to be legally bound by the Terms of Use. If you do not agree to the Terms of Use, please do not use eCode360.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
The following land subdivision and development principles, standards and requirements shall be applied by the Township Engineer, Planning Commission and Board in evaluating plans for proposed subdivisions and land developments. These principles, standards and requirements are the minimum provisions required by the Township for the promotion of public health, safety, and general welfare.
A. 
Land utilization and zoning. All proposed subdivisions and land developments shall comply fully with the applicable provisions of Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland. The lands proposed for subdivision and/or land development shall be suited for the purposes for which they are to be subdivided or developed by adherence to the specific standards and criteria set forth in this Article VI, and no parcel of land shall be created, either by inclusion or exclusion from a proposed subdivision or land development, which cannot be properly utilized consistently with the requirements of this chapter and the regulations of other governmental agencies having jurisdiction over any aspect of the proposed development for a permitted use under the existing zoning regulations.
B. 
Restricted land. Land subject to hazards to life, health or property, such as may arise from fire, floods, wetlands conditions, disease, exposure to toxic or noxious fumes, wastes or substances or other cause shall not be subdivided for building purposes or developed unless the hazards have been eliminated or unless the plans show adequate safeguard against them consistently with the requirements of Township, state and federal ordinances, statutes, laws and regulations.
C. 
Coordinated development. Proposed subdivisions and land developments shall be coordinated with existing nearby neighborhoods and communities, with particular reference to street layout and interconnection, except where precluded by other governmental regulation or direction of the Board, and the provisions of sanitary sewage and water facilities and the adequacy and availability of those services and facilities so that the community and region as a whole may develop harmoniously.
D. 
Design specifications and standards. The design of all improvements in a subdivision or land development shall be in accordance with the design specifications, standards and requirements as set forth in this Article VI and other provisions of this chapter and/or other applicable ordinances, or, in the absence of the foregoing, in accordance with applicable provisions of the latest design specifications, standards, and requirements of the PADOT, PADEP and/or such other governmental agency or body which promulgates or otherwise issues design standards, specifications, and requirements relevant to the work. In the event that this chapter does not provide for a specific design specification, standard or requirement relevant to any design or improvement aspect of a proposed subdivision or land development, accepted engineer design specifications or standards in Chester County shall govern such improvement and such design specification or standard shall be subject to the reasonable approval of the Township Engineer.
E. 
Preclusion of remnants and landlocked areas. All portions of a tract being subdivided shall be utilized in lots, streets, public lands or other proposed uses so that remnants and landlocked areas shall not be created.
F. 
Plan requirement for partial subdivision. When only a portion of a tract or single holding is the subject of a subdivision or land development application, a sketch layout shall be included for the balance of the tract.
G. 
Community asset preservation. Developer shall preserve trees, groves, waterways, scenic points, historic spots and other community assets and landmarks consistently with the requirements of this Article VI.
H. 
Cuts and fills. Subdivisions and land developments shall be laid out so as to avoid the necessity for excessive cut or fill unless specifically warranted by terrain or location. No cut or fill, with the exception of the area of a basement or a cut and fill on an individual lot necessary to allow the construction of a house thereon shall exceed five feet unless a waiver is granted by the Board upon due cause shown.
I. 
Floodplain regulation. Floodplain and flood hazard areas shall not be developed except in strict compliance with the Flood Hazard District regulations of Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland.
J. 
Water and sewer facilities.
(1) 
Where either water supply or sanitary sewage disposal is proposed to be provided by on-lot facilities, all applicable Township, Chester County and PADEP standards and those of other agencies having jurisdiction must be fully satisfied and either the Chester County Department of Health or PADEP, whichever has jurisdiction, must issue a permit authorizing and approving the design and installation of these facilities. All sewage facilities shall be in compliance with the Township's Act 537 plan, including approved revisions thereto.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: "Act 537" refers to the Pennsylvania Sewage Facilities Act; see 35 P.S. § 750.1 et seq.
(2) 
Where no public water system is available to serve the proposed subdivision or land development prior to final plan approval, the Board shall require the developer to obtain from the governmental authority have jurisdiction (either PADEP or Chester County Department of Health) certifications of approval as to the quantity and adequacy of the water supply proposed to be utilized by the developer and approval of the type and construction methods and materials to be employed by the developer in the installation of the community on-lot disposal system. If a Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission franchise approval is required, evidence of such approval shall be required prior to final plan approval or, in the alternative, if the developer demonstrates such approval cannot be secured by that time, then such approval shall be a condition of final plan approval and no building permits shall be issued until proof of the approval is filed with the Township.
K. 
Improvement specifications. Where not otherwise provided for or specified in this chapter, construction requirements for any improvements other than buildings shall be as specified under PADOT's Publication 408, the rules and regulations of PADEP, the Chester County Conservation District, or other governmental agencies, as applicable. Where the specifications included in this chapter differ from the foregoing, the more stringent specification shall apply unless waived by the Board upon recommendation of the Township Engineer.
L. 
Installation and inspection of improvements. The developer shall construct and install at his expense all streets, curbs, sidewalks, water mains, sanitary and storm sewers, streetlights, fire hydrants, street signs, shade trees, monuments and other required improvements, facilities and utilities specified in or required by this chapter. Construction and installation of all such improvements shall be subject to inspection by and approval of the Township Engineer and/or Codes Enforcement Officials periodically during the progress of the work.
M. 
Lots. In all proposed subdivisions or land developments each lot shall have the specified lot width at the street line and otherwise comply with all applicable requirements of Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland and shall abut a street, either existing or proposed as a part of the subdivision or land development which meets Township street specifications contained in this chapter.
N. 
Stormwater retention. In order to minimize the flood-enhancing potential resulting from land disturbance and impervious cover associated with the subdivision or development of land and to maximize the recharge of groundwater, wherever reasonably required by the Board based upon objective criteria incident to the condition of the land proposed for development, stormwater shall be retained on site and ultimately percolated into the ground rather than permitted to drain off.
O. 
Municipal exemption. To the extent feasible, the Township shall adhere to the requirements of this chapter; provided, however, that the Supervisors shall have the discretion at a public meeting of the Supervisors to waive any one or more of the provisions of this chapter as they apply to any building or lands owned by the Township or extension thereof, or to the use of any premises owned or operated by the Township that they deem appropriate in the public interest without the necessity of complying with or requiring adherence to the standards required by PAMPC Section 512.1.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: See 53 P.S. § 10512.1.
A. 
Location, A proposed street shall not be centered upon a boundary line of a tract to be subdivided or developed unless the owner of the adjoining property shall enter into joint or simultaneous application for the subdivision or land development of his land. Location of a proposed street abutting and parallel to a boundary line of a development tract is prohibited.
B. 
Interconnection of streets. Residential or local streets shall be laid out so as to discourage through traffic, but provisions for street connections into and from adjacent areas may be required by the Board where circulation patterns warrant such connection. No connection shall be permitted which does not comply with any of the objective standards and criteria relating to streets in this Article VI or when a traffic study demonstrates that such interconnection will create a hazardous condition.
C. 
Alignment relative to surrounding residential streets. Where a proposed subdivision or land development abuts an existing subdivision having a dedicated residential street dead-ending or terminated by a cul-de-sac at or near a common property line, the proposed subdivision or land development shall make provision for extension of such dedicated residential street within the proposed subdivision or land development.
D. 
Alignment relative to surrounding collector streets. A proposed subdivision or land development shall make provision by means of a collector street for continuation of the width, gradient, general alignment and direction of traffic flow of an existing collector street which dead-ends or terminates in a cul-de-sac at a common property line.
E. 
Relationship to the development site. Streets shall be designed and laid out in relation to the undisturbed topography of the development tract so as to reduce land disturbance, optimize safe and adequate access to each lot, avoid disturbance of slopes exceeding 15%, and to provide adequate sight distance at all points of intersecting streets as required by §§ 175-32 and 175-33 of this Article VI.
F. 
Future streets. If lots resulting from original subdivision or land development are of sufficient size to permit resubdivision or further development, or when a portion of the development tract is not currently proposed for subdivision or land development, adequate street rights-of-way allowing for future subdivision or land development shall be incorporated as part of the plan design and shall satisfy the minimum rights-of-way required for major, collector, minor, or single access streets, as applicable.
G. 
Traffic control and street signs. The developer shall provide standard PADOT approved traffic control signs for all streets within a subdivision or land development. The proposed street signs shall be provided in accordance with § 175-33 and the locations of such signs shall be shown on the final plan.
H. 
Relationship to existing or proposed collector streets. Where a subdivision or land development abuts or contains an existing or proposed collector or arterial street, the Board, to the extent permitted by law, may require dedication of additional right-of-way to meet the minimum right-of-way specified hereinafter. Additional right-of-way shall be required whenever the developer is required to install acceleration or deceleration lanes or similar improvements required to serve the development.
I. 
Grid-iron street pattern. A rigid "grid-iron" pattern of straight, parallel streets which disregards topography is prohibited in those instances where variation in alignment or sweeping curves with tangents is more compatible with topography. Tangents which are up to three times the length of connecting curves shall be required unless determined inappropriate by the Township Engineer based on the undisturbed condition of the development tract.
J. 
Relationship to Township street plan. Proposed streets shall be properly related to such street plans or,parts thereof as have been officially prepared and adopted by the Township and to such county and state road and highway plans as have been prepared, adopted and/or filed as prescribed by law.
K. 
Reverse frontage. Wherever a development abuts or contains an existing or proposed public street with a right-of-way of 33 feet or more, restrictions of access to the street by the provision for reverse-frontage lots shall be required.
L. 
Half or partial streets. New half or partial streets shall not be permitted, except where essential to facilitate the reasonable subdivision of a tract in conformance with the other requirements and standards of this chapter and where, in addition, satisfactory assurance for dedication of the remaining part of the street can be secured.
M. 
Incorporation of adjacent partial streets. Wherever a tract to be subdivided or developed borders on an existing half or partial street, the other part of the street shall be shown on the plan of development as being located within the development tract.
N. 
Dead-end streets. Dead-end streets shall be prohibited, except as stubs to permit future street extension into adjoining tracts or when such streets are designed as cul-de-sac streets.
O. 
Street access to state and Township streets and highways. Where a subdivision or land development abuts a state or Township street or highway to which the subdivision or land development is proposed to be connected by means of a street, the applicant shall be required to apply for a highway occupancy permit and to comply with the applicable provisions of §§ 175-31 through 175-34 of this chapter, and, in addition, shall secure from the Township Engineer a written recommendation of the suitability of such connection in terms of adequacy of access. The applicant shall demonstrate the suitability and adequacy of such access in terms of safety, clear sight distance, traffic volumes on the abutting street or highway, anticipated traffic volumes from the development, direction of turning movements to and from the development site, adequacy of traffic signalization, street alignment, and the need for acceleration and/or deceleration lanes or turning lanes on the existing street or highway. Where such access is proposed to a state street or highway, in addition to the issuance of a highway occupancy permit by PADOT, the applicant shall secure a highway occupancy permit from the Township at the time of final plan approval, the feasibility of which shall be demonstrated upon submission for review of the preliminary plan. Highway occupancy permits authorizing connection to state streets or highways shall be approved subject to the condition that if PADOT denies a highway occupancy permit for the proposed access, the conditional approval of such permit by the Township shall be deemed to have been denied and no such municipal permit shall be issued. If the Township denies a Township highway occupancy permit for the said access, the approval of PADOT highway occupancy permit shall be deemed to have been denied.
A. 
Cul-de-sac lengths. A cul-de-sac, permanently designed as such, shall not exceed 1,000 feet in length. No cul-de-sac, permanently designed as such, shall be less than 500 feet in length. This length shall be measured along the center line of the street beginning at the center line of the radius of the cul-de-sac and ending at the center line intersection of the next intersecting street. (See Figure 1.[1])
[1]
Editor's Note: Figure 1 is included at the end of this chapter.
B. 
Radius. The cul-de-sac shall be provided at the closed end with a paved turnaround having a minimum radius to the outer pavement edge or curbline of 50 feet with a minimum right-of-way radius of 60 feet.
C. 
Design and connection. The Board shall consider the existing or proposed uses of adjoining lands, topography, drainage and other relevant site characteristics affecting cul-de-sac design. Unless future extension is clearly impractical or undesirable based on the foregoing considerations, or is precluded by the Board, which they shall have the discretion to do, the turnaround right-of-way of the cul-de-sac shall extend to the property line of the development tract and a right-of-way for the same width as the street shall be carried to the property line in such a way as to permit future extension of the street into the adjoining tract.
D. 
Single access streets. All standards for single access streets shall apply to cul-de-sacs.
E. 
Drainage. Drainage of cul-de-sac streets shall be directed towards the open end of the cul-de-sac, subject to the other design criteria specified in this chapter and the reasonable direction of the Township Engineer.
F. 
Center-line grade. The center-line grade on a cul-de-sac street shall not exceed 8% and the grade of the diameter of the turnaround shall not exceed 4%.
G. 
Temporary cul-de-sac. Where streets are temporarily terminated at a property line or phase line with a temporary vehicular turnaround, thus forming a cul-de-sac until such time as such street is extended, all regulations pertaining to cul-de-sac streets shall apply, except that the temporary cartway turnaround need not be curbed.
A. 
Streets in floodplains. Streets within a subdivision or land development located entirely or partially within a designated Flood Hazard District shall be prohibited.
B. 
Obstructions. No fences, hedges, freestanding walls, or planting (except approved street trees) shall be located or remain within the right-of-way of a street.
C. 
Streetlights. Poles and standards for streetlights with appropriate shielding and underground "parkway" cable service lines shall be furnished and installed by the developer when and wherever required by the Board, and shall be approved by the Board as to type and location along each right-of-way, spaced not more than 500 feet apart and each providing with 0.2 footcandles of illumination.
D. 
Street trees. Deciduous street trees shall be planted by the developer not more than five feet behind the right-of-way line, if any, staggered along both sides, and spaced on forty-foot centers. Street tree planting shall be required along all new or existing streets. Such trees must be properly balled and burlapped in accordance with accepted horticultural practice. This requirement is in addition to the landscaping requirements specified in Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland for the zoning district in which the property is located.
(1) 
Size. Tree caliper at time of planting shall be no less than 2 1/2 inches (one foot above ground level) in both residential and nonresidential developments.
(2) 
Approved street trees. The following tree varieties are approved for use within street rights-of-way:
(a) 
Catalpa speciosa (Northern Catalpa).
(b) 
Celtis occidentalis (Hackberry).
(c) 
Diospyros virginiana (Common Persimmon).
(d) 
Fraxinus amedcana (White Ash).
(e) 
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green Ash).
(f) 
Quercus imbricaria (Laurel or Shingle Oak).
(g) 
Quercus phellos (Willow Oak).
(h) 
Quercus rubra (Red Oak).
(i) 
Tilia cordata (Liftieleaf Linden).
(j) 
Ulmus parviflora (Chinese Elm).
(k) 
Zelkova serrata (Japanese Zelkova).
(l) 
Acer Rubrum (Red Maple).
(m) 
Gleditsia Tricanthos Inermis Shademaster (Shademaster Locust).
(n) 
Prunus Yedoenis (Yoshino Cherry).
E. 
Screening. An effective buffer screen in compliance with § 175-41 shall be required whenever a development abuts a different zoning use or zoning district. For example, where a residential development abuts a commercial or industrial use or district, or where a commercial or industrial development abuts a residential use or district.
F. 
Fire hydrants. Where a public water system is reasonably accessible or will serve a proposed development, the developer shall install fire hydrants so that their location will be within a six-hundred-foot radius of any house or building within the subdivision or land development. Fire hydrants shall each provide the number of gallons of water per minute at the number of pounds per square inch pressure sufficient, in both cases, to meet the minimum fire flow requirements or standards of the Insurance Service Organization Agency (ISO Agency).
G. 
Street names and signs. Street name signs shall be installed at the intersection of each street with another street, whether public or private, and shall at a minimum comply with the following specifications:
(1) 
The sign shall be made of extruded aluminum, white in color, with four-inch reflectorized black letters, shall measure a minimum of 24 inches in length, and shall be equipped with vandal-proof mounting hardware.
(2) 
The post on which the sign shall be mounted shall be galvanized steel, measuring 2 1/2 inches in outside diameter, and shall be a minimum of 10 feet in length.
(3) 
The sign shall be installed at least six feet from the edge of the cartway surface of the street where no curb exists, and on streets provided with curbing, at least two feet back from the rear edge of the curb.
(4) 
The sign shall be connected to the top of the post, and shall have an installed minimum height of seven feet measured from ground level.
(5) 
Street names shall be approved by the Board and duplication shall be avoided unless as a continuation of an existing street or projection of same. With respect to culs-de-sac, the developer shall install at each street intersection nearest the bulb of the cul-de-sac a "dead end" or "no outlet" sign.
H. 
Street dedication. The Board may require the dedication of new streets within any subdivision or land development as a condition to the approval of a subdivision or land development plan.
A. 
Minimum width. The minimum widths of street rights-of-way, cartway (roadway), and shoulders shall not be less than those widths of an existing street of which a new street is to be a continuation or the following designated minimum widths, whichever is greater. In no case shall the width of any new street be less than as follows:
Street Type
(each)
Minimum
Right-of-Way
Paved Cartway
Shoulders
Minor
50 feet
32 feet
8 feet
Collector
60 feet
36 feet
12 feet
Major/arterial
PADOT Standard
PADOT Standard
PADOT Standard
Single access (cul-de-sac/loop)
60 feet
36 feet
12 feet
Private driveway (single-family residential)
30 feet
10 feet
4 feet
Private driveway (nonresidential and multifamily, where permitted)
36 feet
20 feet
6 feet
NOTES:
Where driveway exceeds 75 feet, pullover areas shall be required each 50 feet.
B. 
Additional rights-of-way. Additional right-of-way, shoulder, and cartway widths shall be required of the width recommended by the Township Engineer and approved by the Board when determined necessary based upon any of the following factors:
(1) 
To promote public safety and convenience or avoid an otherwise hazardous condition.
(2) 
To provide parking space in commercial and industrial districts and in areas of high-density residential development.
(3) 
To provide for turning movements and/or adequate stormwater drainage facilities, as needed.
(4) 
To accommodate special topographic conditions or circumstances which may result in cut and fill slopes extending beyond the standard right-of-way so as to assure safety and accessibility for maintenance, snow removal and similar needs.
C. 
Street construction. Construction of all streets and accessory installations thereto, including but not limited to curbs, shoulders, sidewalks and storm drainage structures, shall conform to the minimum specifications of § 175-34 of this chapter.
D. 
Exception to minimum rights-of-way/shoulders. Short extensions (not exceeding 100 feet) of existing streets with lesser rights-of-way, cartway, and/or shoulder widths than prescribed by Subsection A may be permitted in the sole discretion of the Board; provided, however, that no section of the new right-of-way shall be less than 50 feet in width.
E. 
Expansion of existing streets. Where a subdivision or land development abuts or contains an existing street with a cartway or right-of-way width or alignment which is insufficient relative to the anticipated traffic demands of the development and/or does not otherwise comply with the provisions of this chapter, the Board shall require that the right-of-way, cartway and shoulders of such street be brought into compliance with Subsection A.
A. 
Safe sight distance. A minimum sight distance, measured along an unobstructed line of sight within the paved area of the street surface, with the height of driver and the height of object being viewed each being measured 3 1/2 feet above the pavement surface, shall be provided in accordance with PADOT standards but in no case less than as follows:
(1) 
Major/arterial street shall be in accordance with minimum standards of PADOT, but in no case less than 845 feet.
(2) 
Collector street shall not be less than 635 feet.
(3) 
Minor street shall not be less than 440 feet.
(4) 
Single access street shall not be less than 250 feet.
B. 
Horizontal curves. Horizontal curves shall have a minimum radius on the center line, as follows:
(1) 
Major/arterial street. In accordance with minimum standards of PADOT, but in no case less than 500 feet.
(2) 
Collector street: 300 feet.
(3) 
Minor street: 150 feet.
(4) 
Single access street: 100 feet.
C. 
Tangents. Tangents with a maximum difference in bearing of 5º may intersect at the center line of intersections with cross streets; otherwise such intersections shall not be permitted. Reverse curves shall be separated by tangents of not less than 100 feet. Superelevation shall be provided on collector streets and on residential streets as required by PADOT design criteria. Sweeping curves of comparatively long radius shall be required rather than tangents connecting curves leading in the same direction.
D. 
Preclusion. A combination of minimum radius horizontal curve and maximum grade is not permitted.
E. 
Vertical curves. Vertical curves shall be used in all changes in gradient of more than 1%, and the length at such changes shall be 25 feet for each 1% change in grade or not less than that required for a 35 mile per hour design speed for all residential streets. All other streets shall be in accordance with PADOT requirements for the respective functional class of the street.
F. 
Street grades.
(1) 
Center-line grades shall not be not less than 1%, and shall not exceed the following unless approved otherwise in the discretion of the Township Engineer upon demonstration of justifiable grounds for deviation from this requirement:
Type of Street
Grade of Center Line
Major/arterial
6%
Collector
6%
Minor
7%
Cul-de-sac, diameter of turnaround
4%
(2) 
Where the grade of any street at the approach to an intersection exceeds 6%, a leveling area shall be provided having a grade not greater than 2% for a distance of 50 feet measured from the nearest right-of-way line of the intersecting street.
(3) 
The grades between the curbline and the street right-of-way line shall not exceed 2%.
(4) 
Grades beyond the right-of-way line where cut or fill is necessary shall be at a maximum of three to one.
(5) 
All streets shall be graded to the reasonable satisfaction of the Township Engineer, subject to the criteria of this § 175-32. All grades shall be shown on the profile and cross-section plan submitted and approved with the final plan.
A. 
Right angles. Streets shall be laid out to intersect as nearly as possible at right angles (90º). No street intersection shall be created with an angle of less than 75º or more than 105º. Right-of-way lines shall intersect at 90º, but in no case less than 75º, and shall be rounded by a tangential arc having a minimum radius of 30 feet.
B. 
Multiple intersections prohibited. Multiple intersections involving the junction of more than two streets shall be prohibited. No waiver shall be granted unless approved by the Township Engineer upon acceptable proof by the developer that natural land features, such as steep slopes, mature healthy trees, wetlands and similar features will be preserved by allowance of the waiver; provided that no waiver shall be granted which adversely affects public safety.
C. 
Clear-sight triangles. Clear-sight triangles shall be provided at all street intersections, whether public or private. Within such triangles, no vision-obstructing object shall be permitted. Such triangles shall be established from a distance of 100 feet from the point of intersection of the center lines. Clear-sight distances for streets intersecting with collector and/or major streets shall be determined in accordance with PADOT's Publication No. 201 (current issue), entitled "Engineering and Traffic Studies." Wherever a portion of the line of such triangles occurs behind the normal building setback line viewed from the street, such portion shall be shown on the final plan of the development and shall be considered a building setback line, as defined in Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland.
D. 
Intersectors. Intersections of streets, whether public or private, with major/arterial traffic streets shall be located not less than 1,000 feet apart, measured from center line to center line.
E. 
Opposing streets. Streets entering from the opposite sides of another street shall either be directly across from each other or offset by at least 150 feet for minor and collector streets and 300 feet on major/arterial streets, measured from center line to center line.
F. 
Curbs. Minimum curb radii at street intersections shall be 20 feet for intersections involving only minor streets, 30 feet for all other intersections, or such greater radius as is suitable to the specific intersection as determined by the Township Engineer. The grid lines of all curbs shall meet at a common point of elevation if projected. Public street right-of-way lines shall be parallel to (concentric with) curb arcs at intersections. All curbs shall comply with minimum ADA requirements.
G. 
Grade. The intersection area and approach areas, within 100 feet of the center of the intersection, shall be designed with a relatively flat grade; the maximum grade on the approach leg shall not exceed 2% where practical but may average 4% in difficult terrain if recommended by the Township Engineer. Where the potential for hazardous conditions caused by ice and snow exist due to shaded conditions or northern exposures, the desirable grade on the approach leg should be 1%, but in no case shall exceed 2% where practical.
H. 
Street name signs. Street name signs shall be installed at all street intersections prior to the issuance of the first use and occupancy permit by the Township Building Official. The design and placement of such signs and the names of the streets shall be subject to the provisions of § 175-30G.
I. 
Safe sight distance at intersections. A safe sight distance shall be provided at all new street and driveway intersections. No wall, fence, tree, building, other structure or vegetation, or any other obstruction, whatsoever, shall be erected, planted, altered and/or maintained, in this area which obstructs, or may ultimately obstruct, sight in accordance with the following standards.
(1) 
Safe sight distance shall be measured from a point in the minor road or driveway at least 10 feet from the edge of the major road pavement and measured from a height of eye at 3 1/2 feet on the minor road to a height of object 3 1/2 feet on the major road. Sight distance at intersections shall be provided in accordance with the following standards:
Existing Road Design Speed
(mph)
Safe Intersection Sight Distance
(feet)
55
845
45
635
35
440
25
250
(2) 
Wherever it appears to the Board that the connection of a proposed street to an existing street may present a safety hazard as a result of the speed limit on the existing street and the proposed street, the grade of either such street at or near the point of connection, the minimum required safe stopping distance, available sight distances or any combination thereof, the Board may require the developer to conduct at his expense a traffic study to address these specific issues, and the Board may refuse to approve a subdivision or land development plan which the traffic study demonstrates presents a safety hazard to either pedestrians or motor vehicles traveling or proposing to travel on such streets. The Township may also require that the Township Police Department's Traffic Safety Unit also prepare such a study and submit it to the Board for review in connection with a proposed subdivision or land development. In addition to the criteria of this § 175-33, denial of a subdivision or land development plan or its approval subject to specified conditions may be based on the results of the traffic study or studies.
All materials entering into the construction of streets and/or roads as hereinbefore defined and the method of construction and installation shall be in strict accordance with the requirements of PADOT Publication 408, as amended, and/or PADOT Seldom Used Specifications 1983, or the latest revision thereof.
A. 
Drainage. All drainage and utility structures, including, but not limited to, manholes, inlets, pipes, water and electric lines, shall be installed prior to the final grading of the cartway.
B. 
Grading. Grading shall be completed to the full width of the right-of-way. The grading of all banks beyond the road right-of-way shall be sloped not less than 1 1/2 horizontal to one vertical with top of slopes rounded.
C. 
Subgrade. The subgrade within the limits of the proposed cartway shall be shaped to conform to the line, grade and cross-section of the proposed cartway and shall be thoroughly compacted as per PADOT Publication 408, as amended. Before placing the base course, the subgrade shall be dressed with one inch of fine aggregate.
D. 
Paving.
(1) 
The Board, upon the recommendation of the Township Engineer, shall determine the type of paving and base course which shall be utilized.
(a) 
Type I - Base Course. Base course shall be constructed of AASHTO No. 1 stone chocked with screening (AASHTO No. 57), rolled with vibratory roller, and thoroughly compacted to a depth of not less than eight inches for residential and 10 inches for industrial. The materials and construction methods shall be in strict accordance with the requirements of PADOT Publication 408, as amended. (See Appendix III.[1])
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix III is included at the end of this chapter.
(b) 
Type II - Base Course. Base Course shall consist of four inches for residential and six inches for industrial after compaction, of hot mixed, hot laid bituminous concrete base course over four inches of 2A modified subbase. The materials and construction methods shall be in strict accordance with the requirements of Section 305, "Bituminous Concrete Base Course," PADOT Publication 408, as amended. The base course shall be rolled with vibratory roller. (See Appendix IV.[2])
[2]
Editor's Note: Appendix IV is included at the end of this chapter.
(2) 
Bituminous Surface Course ID-2A: Bituminous surface course ID-2A shall consist of constructing a binder course and wearing course of hot mixed, hot laid asphalt concrete or the above prepared base course. The binder course shall be rolled with vibratory roller and compacted to a depth of not less than two inches and the wearing course not less than 1 1/2 inch. The materials and construction methods shall be in strict accordance with the requirements of Section 620, Bituminous Wearing Course ID-2, and Section 421, Bituminous Binder Course ID-2 of PADOT Publication 408. The Township may require that the final application of Bituminous concrete be withheld until the streets are offered for dedication to the Township if the wearing course is not applied immediately after. NOTE: The binder course shall be thoroughly cleaned and tack coated in accordance with PADOT Publication 408, as amended.
All materials entering into the construction of curbs and/or gutters and the method of construction and installation shall be in accordance with PADOT Publication 408, as amended. Cement concrete shall comply with PADOT Class AA cement concrete specifications and is the minimum required in the construction of both curbs and sidewalks in the Township.
A. 
Curb types. Vertical curbs shall be required on all streets. (See Appendix V.[1])
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix V is included at the end of this chapter.
A. 
General. The length, width and shape of blocks shall be determined consistently with the requirements of this § 175-36, with due regard to provision of adequate sites for buildings of the type proposed, minimum requirements established in Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland, undisturbed topography and sensitive land features of the development tract, and the requirements for safe and convenient vehicular and pedestrian circulation, including the reduction of intersections with major/arterial streets and the provision for adequate access for ingress, egress and regress of emergency vehicles.
B. 
Length. Blocks shall have a maximum length of 1,200 feet and a minimum length of 600 feet. Wherever a block exceeds 800 feet, the plan shall incorporate design factors addressing fire protection and pedestrian access.
C. 
Blocks.
(1) 
Blocks shall have a depth of two lots in width and, except for lots located at street intersections, no single lot shall have two street frontages with the exception of corner lots and reverse-frontage lots designed in compliance with this chapter and subject to the applicable requirements of Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland.
(2) 
Blocks in commercial and industrial areas may vary from the elements of design detailed in Subsection C(1) above if required by the nature of the use. In all cases, however, adequate provision shall be made for off-street parking and loading areas as well as for traffic circulation and parking for employees and customers.
D. 
Crosswalks. In blocks over 1,000 feet in length, and when required for access to open space, a dedicated right-of-way with a minimum width of 15 feet and a paved width (if paved or required to be paved by the Board) of not less than six feet shall be provided for a crosswalk at or near the middle of such blocks.
A. 
Storm drainage required. A stormwater management system and all facilities and appurtenances thereto, in compliance with this chapter shall be designed, installed and constructed by the developer on the development tract when land disturbance of any kind, whether surface or subsurface, creates stormwater runoff other than as naturally exists on the undisturbed land. The facilities shall consist of a stormwater collection system, swales, basins and other appurtenant facilities.
B. 
General requirements for stormwater management plan. For all subdivisions and land development applications, a stormwater management plan and report shall be submitted for review and approval and shall consist of written material, calculations and a topographical plan drawn to the same scale as the preliminary and final plan. The requirements for inclusion of additional information shall be subject to the reasonable discretion of the Township Engineer based upon the discrete circumstances of each proposed development and development tract. The stormwater management plan shall include, but not necessarily be limited to the following:
(1) 
A suitable map of the total watershed [a United States Geological Survey (USGS) quadrangle map is sufficient].
(2) 
Suitable maps and drawings showing all existing and proposed drainage facilities attributable to the proposed subdivision or land development.
(3) 
A plan of the proposed stormwater drainage system attributable to the subdivision or land development.
(4) 
The design computations for the stormwater drainage system, including storm drain pipes and inlets, runoff control measures and culverts and drainage channels. Calculations shall be provided to show the flow in the system, pipe size, allowable flow, actual flow and velocity.
(5) 
A plan of the grading of the subject subdivision or land development.
(6) 
A plan of the erosion and sedimentation procedures to be utilized.
(7) 
Notation of ownership and responsibility for maintenance of stormwater management structures.
C. 
Design criteria. The criteria behind the design of stormwater management facilities shall meet the postconstruction stormwater management criteria as outlined in Chapter 170.
[Amended 6-14-2006 by Ord. No. 182-2006]
D. 
Design flow rate for storm drain pipes and inlets. The stormwater drainage system shall be designed to carry a twenty-five-year peak flow rate and a fifty-year peak flow rate at the sump area. The design twenty-five-year peak flow rate into each inlet shall be indicated on the stormwater drainage plan. The twenty-five-year flow rate with five minute time of concentration shall be determined by the Rational Formula: "Q" (quantity) = "C" (coefficient) x "I" (intensity of rain fall) x "A" (area of drainage).
E. 
Overflow system. An overflow system shall meet the postconstruction stormwater management criteria as outlined in Chapter 170.
[Amended 6-14-2006 by Ord. No. 182-2006]
F. 
Minimum grade, size and cover. All storm drain pipes shall be designated to maintain a minimum grade of 1/2%. All storm pipes shall have a minimum inside diameter of 18 inches. Storm sewers shall have a minimum cover of 18 inches.
G. 
Inlets. All inlets shall be precast concrete, PADOT type, and the grate sumped one inch. Inlets shall have a two-inch drop from inlet to outlet.
H. 
Runoff control. The rate and quantity of stormwater runoff from any proposed subdivision or land development shall meet the postconstruction stormwater management criteria as outlined in Chapter 170.
[Amended 6-14-2006 by Ord. No. 182-2006]
I. 
Runoff control devices. The increased stormwater runoff which may result from subdivision and land development shall meet the postconstruction stormwater management criteria as outlined in Chapter 170.
[Amended 6-14-2006 by Ord. No. 182-2006]
J. 
Detention basin vs. other available methods. Detention basin vs. other available methods shall meet the postconstruction stormwater management criteria as outlined in Chapter 170.
[Amended 6-14-2006 by Ord. No. 182-2006]
K. 
Groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge shall meet the postconstruction stormwater management criteria as outlined in Chapter 170.
[Amended 6-14-2006 by Ord. No. 182-2006]
L. 
Infiltration design criteria. Infiltration design criteria shall meet the postconstruction stormwater management criteria as outlined in Chapter 170.
[Amended 6-14-2006 by Ord. No. 182-2006]
M. 
Basin design criteria. Basin design criteria shall meet the postconstruction stormwater management criteria as outlined in Chapter 170.
[Amended 6-14-2006 by Ord. No. 182-2006]
N. 
Basin construction criteria. Basin construction criteria shall meet the postconstruction stormwater management criteria as outlined in Chapter 170.
[Amended 6-14-2006 by Ord. No. 182-2006]
O. 
Underground detention beds. Underground detention beds shall meet the postconstruction stormwater management criteria as outlined in Chapter 170.
[Amended 6-14-2006 by Ord. No. 182-2006]
P. 
Erosion and sedimentation control.
(1) 
The developer shall employ all necessary measures for control of erosion and sedimentation and shall meet as a minimum the Erosion and Sedimentation Control Regulations of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania codified in Chapter 102 of the Pennsylvania Code.
(2) 
Standard 5. Significant loadings of nonpoint source pollutants shall not be discharged into either surface or groundwater. Significant is defined as resulting in an increase greater than 10% of existing background concentrations of all water quality parameters of consequence identified in federal and state criteria for this watershed. The developer shall comply in all respects with the requirements mandated by state and federal regulatory authorities such as to qualify the developer for the issuance of a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the proposed subdivision or land development. In the implementation of this subsection, both structural and nonstructural (preventive) measures shall be implemented where necessary to reduce and prevent nonpoint source pollution.
Q. 
Separate plans and permits. Separate plans and permits shall meet the postconstruction stormwater management criteria as outlined in Chapter 170.
[Amended 6-14-2006 by Ord. No. 182-2006]
R. 
Drainage easements. Where stormwater or surface water will be gathered within a subdivision or land development and discharged or drained in volume over lands within the boundaries of the subdivision or land development, the developer shall reserve easements over the lands affected. The easements shall be adequate for such discharge of drainage and for carrying off of such water and for the maintenance, repair, and reconstruction of same, including the rights of passage over it by vehicle, machinery, and other equipment for such purposes. The developer shall convey, at no cost, the easements to the Township upon demand.
S. 
Inspection. All stormwater drainage facilities shall be inspected and checked for adequacy of materials and installation by the Township Engineer or his designee.
T. 
Stop-work order. The Board shall have the right to order the cessation of all construction activities related to any approved subdivision or land development where stormwater runoff problems adversely affecting adjacent properties, streets, streams, ponds and similar amenities arise during the course of construction, even though an approved erosion and sedimentation control plan is being followed. This order shall be effective immediately upon its issuance and service upon the contractor performing the work or the developer and shall remain in effect until such time as the problem has been corrected or otherwise resolved to the reasonable satisfaction of the Board.
A. 
Zoning compliance. Lot dimensions, area and bulk regulations and design standards shall meet the requirements of Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland.
B. 
Property lines. Property lines in all new subdivisions and land developments shall be substantially at right angles or radial to street lines. In no event shall existing lots be subdivided or portions of existing lots be subdivided and then combined to form new building lots where the resulting property lines of both the new lot so formed and the remaining lots from which they are formed do not strictly comply with this regulation.
C. 
Lot frontage. All lots shall front on a public street, designed, installed and constructed to Township specifications; provided that not more than two residential lots may have access to a public street by means of a private driveway when approved by the Board; provided, further, the Board may waive the requirement that all lots front on a public street where the applicant proposes a development plan containing not more than five contiguous nonresidential lots.
D. 
Minimum access for residential subdivisions. A residential subdivision or land development of more than 25 single-family dwellings, whether attached or detached, shall be accessed and served by two or more public or private streets constructed within and as a part of the development, both of which shall be connected to and provide vehicular access to and from an existing public street. Where the development abuts more than one existing public street, the Board shall require access to each such existing public street.
E. 
Double frontage lots. Double frontage lots shall be prohibited except where reasonably necessary in the discretion of the Township Engineer to prevent vehicular access to major traffic streets.
F. 
Township boundaries. Wherever feasible, lot lines shall follow Township boundaries rather than cross them in order to avoid jurisdictional problems.
G. 
Access and frontage. All lots shall have direct access to a public street and shall have at least 50 feet of frontage on such streets unless otherwise specified in Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland.
H. 
Abutting rail lines. On any lot abutting a railroad right-of-way, no residential dwelling shall be placed within 75 feet of the nearest rail of the track or, if there is no existing rail, within 50 feet of the center line of the right-of-way; nor shall such residential dwelling be placed within 50 feet of any portion of the railroad right-of-way line.
I. 
Minimum lot area. Every building lot shall have a minimum contiguous area as required in Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland for the zoning district in which the lot is located. Said minimum lot area shall not include environmentally sensitive land defined as any sedimentation control structure or water retention or detention basin which require an easement, floodplains or wetlands. Additional ground within the lot lines shall be provided to offset the environmentally sensitive land so that the entire minimum lot area, as specified, is usable by the property owner. For purposes of this subsection, ground slopes shall not be considered environmentally sensitive land.
J. 
Interior lots. Interior lots shall be permitted subject to the following minimum regulations:
(1) 
No more than two contiguous interior lots shall be formed. Subject to the provisions of this Subsection J, the creation of such lots shall be minimized and limited to those circumstances dictated by the configuration of the development tract. The developer shall not be permitted to use interior lot design to avoid constructing an interior residential street.
(2) 
Contiguous interior lots shall be separated along any street frontage by at least five noninterior lots.
(3) 
No more than two lots in depth, i.e., one tier of interior lots, shall be created along a new or existing street.
(4) 
A maximum total of one interior lot may be created from each parent lot that existed as a single and separate lot of record at the time of the adoption of this chapter.
(5) 
The access strip to any such lot shall comply with the minimum lot width at the street right-of-way line for the entire depth of the access strip, as established for the use by the applicable zoning district regulations, and the access strip shall be entirely included within the title lines of the lot. The minimum lot area and other dimensional requirements for the lot shall be those of the applicable zoning district in which it is located and shall be met without consideration or inclusion of that portion of the lot located within the access strip.
(6) 
The lot shall have a front lot line which shall be most nearly parallel to the street right-of-way line and shall extend along the full length of the rear lot line or lines of those contiguous lots abutting the street right-of-way line and shall extend across the access strip.
(7) 
The building setback line mandated by the zoning district regulations shall be measured from the contiguous (street fronting) lot's rear property line rather than the adjacent right-of-way or street line. (See Figure 2.[1])
[1]
Editor's Note: Figure 2 is included at the end of this chapter.
A. 
Alleys prohibited. Alleys are prohibited in developments of single-family detached residences.
B. 
Driveways. Driveways intersecting with street rights-of-way shall be subject to the following requirements:
(1) 
Private driveways in residential developments shall be located at least 60 feet from the point of intersection of the nearest street right-of-way lines and at least 10 feet from every property line.
(2) 
Private driveways in all other developments shall be located at least 100 feet from the point of intersection of the nearest street right-of-way lines and at least 20 feet from every property line.
(3) 
Where driveways are used jointly by more than one property owner, they may straddle the property line. The appropriate easement restrictions shall be noted on the final plan, and cross easements for each lot shall be recorded.
(4) 
Construction.
(a) 
Grades and paving. In order to provide a safe and convenient means of access, grades on private driveways shall not exceed 4% for the first 20 feet from the curbline and for the balance shall not exceed 10%. Driveways shall be paved for their entire length unless a waiver is granted by the Board upon cause shown; provided that if such waiver is granted, the first 20 feet of the driveway measured from the adjacent street right-of-way shall be totally paved. In no event shall a waiver be granted if the balance of the driveway exceeds a grade of 7%.
(b) 
Material. The driveway within the legal right-of-way of the public street shall be constructed with a base of Pennsylvania 3A stone compacted to six inches and a surface of a minimum of 1 1/2 inches I D-2A bituminous concrete.
(c) 
Width. The paved cartway of a driveway, either residential or nonresidential shall not be less than the minimum width required by § 175-31.
(d) 
Sight distance. Sight distance, in accordance with PADOT standards, shall be provided.
(5) 
Minimum radius. In order to provide safe and convenient ingress and egress, private driveway entrances shall be rounded at a minimum radius of five feet or shall have a flare constructed at the point of intersection with the cartway edge (curbline) that is equivalent to this radius.
C. 
Easements. Easements, wherever located, for utilities and for access to any facility installed and/or constructed as a part of a subdivision or land development shall have a minimum width of 20 feet. All such easements shall be shown on the final plan, and a metes and bounds description thereof shall be submitted to the Township with the final plan for all easements required or proposed to be conveyed to a utility, authority, homeowners association or other entity for whose use or benefit the easement is created. Where any such easement is proposed for dedication to the Township, the deed of dedication shall be submitted prior to the Board's approval of the final plan in form and content acceptable to the Township Solicitor. Acceptance of any such proposed dedication shall be discretionary with the Board and shall not be effective until a resolution of acceptance thereof is formally adopted by the Board.
(1) 
Location. Easements shall be centered on or adjacent to the rear or the side lot lines.
(2) 
Watercourse easements. Where a subdivision is traversed by a watercourse, whether intermittent or perennial, a drainage easement for the watercourse shall be shown on the final plan and shall be filed with the final plan application. The easement shall substantially follow the line of such watercourse and shall be of sufficient width as, in the opinion of the Township Engineer, based upon the area of the watershed served by the watercourse and maximum development permitted by Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland within the watershed, will be adequate to preserve natural drainage and provide sufficient width for maintenance. The easement shall be in form and content acceptable to the Township Solicitor for dedication to either the Township or to a conservancy organization acceptable to the Township or for retention by the owner through whose lot the watercourse extends. If the latter, the easement shall be created as a restriction in the deed of conveyance of the lot and shall preclude use of the area within the easement for any purpose inconsistent therewith. Acceptance of any such proposed dedication to the Township shall be discretionary with the Board and shall not be effective until a resolution of acceptance thereof is formally adopted by the Board.
D. 
Transmission lines. There shall be a minimum horizontal distance of 50 feet between any building and any petroleum products, natural gas, or electric transmission line which traverses a lot located in any subdivision or land development. The measurement shall be taken at that portion of the building which is closest to the said line.
A. 
Review procedures; reservation of land required.
(1) 
Upon its review of a plan for subdivision or land development, the Board shall consider the open space and recreational needs of the additional residents or users that will result upon implementation of the subdivision or land development, discuss its findings and the further requirements of this section with the subdivider or land developer as it deems necessary in the furtherance of the public interest and the provisions of this section, and make such report thereon as it deems necessary for consideration by the Board in its review and processing of the development application.
(2) 
Developers shall be required to provide or reserve areas for facilities normally required in residential neighborhoods, including open space, parks, playgrounds and play fields. Areas provided or reserved for such community facilities shall be adequate to provide for building sites, landscaping and off-street parking as appropriate to the types of facilities required or likely to develop in the future. Prior to the preparation of plans, developers shall review with the Planning Commission and the Park and Recreation Board the minimum standards for various community facilities applicable to the tract being subdivided.
B. 
Amount of land required to be set aside; fee in lieu of acreage.
(1) 
In residential subdivisions or land developments which are proposed to contain, or by resubdivision could contain, 10 or more residential units, the developer shall be required to set aside, design and develop for park, open space and recreation use (hereinafter called "POR") of the residents within the development the amount of land determined by application of the following formula:
Approved Dwelling Units Units Per Acre
POR Area For Each 10 Dwelling Units
Less than 2
10,000 square feet
Less than 5
12,000 square feet
5 or more
16,000 square feet
(2) 
In residential subdivisions proposed to contain less than 10 dwelling units or in those residential subdivisions where application of the requirements of Subsection A of this § 175-40 are impracticable in terms of the criteria and standards established in Subsection C of this section, the Board's general policy, upon concurrence of the developer, is to require a fee in lieu of the minimum acreage otherwise required by application of Subsection A of this section.
(3) 
The Board may require the public dedication of land by the developer for POR, the payment of fees in lieu thereof or the private reservation of land for such purpose, or combination thereof, in accordance with the formally adopted East Whiteland Township Recreation Plan. In such instances, the required recreation areas and facilities shall be in accordance with the principles and standards otherwise provided for in this chapter or in Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland.
(4) 
The amount of any fee in lieu of the dedication or reservation of land and provision of recreational facilities shall be fixed from time to time by the Board in a resolution designated for that purpose. All fees so collected shall, upon their receipt by the Township, be deposited in the Township's Park, Open Space and Recreation Reserve Fund, which shall be an interest-bearing account. Such fees shall be expended only for the acquisition of land or recreation facilities within the Township at such locations as shall be selected by the Board for the establishment, enlargement or improvement of community or neighborhood parks and recreational facilities accessible to the subdivision or land development for which such fees have been paid.
(5) 
Funds from such accounts shall be expended for only and properly allocable portions of the costs incurred to acquire or construct the recreational land and facilities for which the fees were collected. Upon request of the developer who has paid such fees, the Township shall refund such fees, plus interest accumulated thereon from the date of payment, if the Township fails to utilize the fees so paid for such purposes within three years from the date on which such fees were paid, unless the developer specifically waives, in writing, the requirement that such fees be expended within such time or waives, in writing, that such fees be repaid.
C. 
Criteria. In designating areas for recreation within a subdivision or land development, the following criteria and standards shall be followed by the developer. All land designated for the foregoing purposes shall be:
(1) 
Suitable and usable for both active and passive recreational uses to the extent deemed necessary by the Planning Commission and Board, without interfering with adjacent dwelling units, parking, driveways and roads. Active recreational uses include but are not necessarily limited to play fields, ball fields, tennis and racquetball courts, basketball courts, fitness trails, picnic areas, recreational buildings and similar facilities. The minimum area required for active recreational open space use, which shall be comprised of ground suitable for development and construction of such uses thereon, shall not be less than 50% of the total required recreation located as determined reasonably necessary by the Planning Commission and Board.
(2) 
Comprised of no more than 30% environmentally sensitive lands, including floodplains, woodlands and surface waters restricted to passive use.
(3) 
Comprised of areas not less than 100 feet in width, except when part of a trail system or pathway network.
(4) 
Interconnected with common recreation areas on abutting parcels wherever possible, including provisions for pedestrian pathways for general public use to create a linked pathway system within the Township. The recreation shall be accessible to all dwelling units within the development, either by abutting the recreation or over easements expressly dedicated for that purpose, but must, nevertheless, be accessible by one or more public streets.
(5) 
Provided with sufficient parking when determined reasonably necessary by the Planning Commission and Board for the residents' safe and convenient access to and utilization of the recreation, and with safe and convenient access by adjoining street frontage or other rights-of-way or easements capable of accommodating pedestrian, bicycle, maintenance and vehicle traffic, and containing customary and appropriate access improvements.
(6) 
Free of all buildings and structures, except those related to recreation use.
(7) 
Suitably landscaped, either by retaining existing natural cover and wooded areas and/or by a landscaping plan designed to enhance recreation areas by utilization of plantings which are consistent with the purposes of this section, which minimize maintenance costs and which comply with minimum applicable landscaping requirements of Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland.
(8) 
Made subject to such declarations, restrictions, covenants, easements and requirements as specified in § 175-45 of this chapter.
D. 
Preservation of natural features. It shall be incumbent upon the developer to preserve and protect all natural features within open space and recreational areas, such as trees, watercourses, natural drainage areas, historic features and structures and similar community assets. The provisions of § 175-41C shall be observed. All other natural vegetation shall be retained and protected to the greatest extent possible and natural grade alterations shall be kept to a minimum.
A. 
Buffers. Where required by Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland to be provided, the buffer yard shall be a landscaped area free of structures, materials and vehicular parking. No driveways or streets shall be permitted in the buffer yard except at points of ingress or egress.
(1) 
All buffer yards shall include a completely planted visual barrier or landscape screen. Such visual barrier shall be fully attainable within 18 months after planting.
(a) 
Existing tree masses shall be retained unless removal of any trees therefrom is approved by the Board. A tree mass is a grouping of six or more trees growing in relatively close proximity to each other, two or more of which have a DBH of 12 inches or greater. When required by the Board, such trees shall be cleared of any undesirable flora (vines, etc.) under tree and shrub growth.
(b) 
Where the existing tree masses do not fully screen the buffer area or where there are no existing tree masses, trees, both deciduous and coniferous shall be added to complete the visual barrier. If the visual barrier is not created within the required eighteen-month period following planting, additional trees shall be added by the developer within the eighteen-month period so as to complete the visual barrier.
(c) 
The landscape screen shall be composed of both high level and low level plantings.
[1] 
The high level screen shall consist of a combination of evergreen (coniferous) trees (initially not less than eight feet in height) and deciduous trees [initially with caliper of not less than 2 1/2 inches (measured one foot from ground level)]. Trees shall be planted in staggered rows. Coniferous trees shall be planted on ten-foot centers and deciduous trees shall be planted on eighteen-foot centers.
[2] 
The low level screen shall consist of evergreen shrubs (initially not less than three feet in height). Shrubs shall be spaced in staggered rows and centered no more than five feet apart.
(2) 
Plantings shall not be:
(a) 
Disease prone: e.g., diplopia, anthracnose.
(b) 
Insect prone: e.g., mountain ash, linden.
(c) 
Short-lived: e.g., willow, silver maple, lombardi poplar.
(3) 
In all buffer yards, the exterior width beyond the planting screen shall be planted with grass seed, sod or ground cover and shall be maintained and kept clean of all debris, rubbish, weeds and tall (no more than 12 inches) grass.
(4) 
Planted areas shall be irrigated either by a permanent water system or by hose. Irrigation plans, including pipe size and length, layout and type of head, shall be approved by the Township.
(5) 
The developer shall guarantee required plantings in the buffer yard for 18 months from the date of dedication or close out of the construction escrow account by posting financial security for 18 months in the amount of 15% of the actual cost of the installed plantings. In the event additional plantings are required to complete the buffer screening and the developer fails to plant the additional trees or other plantings within the required period provided for in Subsection A(1)(b) of this section, the Township shall have the right to expend such portion of the required maintenance security to complete the necessary plantings.
(6) 
Care and maintenance of buffer yard, including plantings, shall be the sole responsibility of the property owner.
B. 
Community assets. The development plan shall incorporate design features which preserve and protect natural features, such as large trees, as controlled by Subsection C of this section, watercourses, historic features and structures, and similar community assets, even if the retention of such features results in a reduction of the number of lots or buildings otherwise permitted by the applicable zoning district regulations of Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland.
C. 
Existing trees. Developments shall be designed to preserve the maximum number of existing trees consistent with the reasonable development of the tract and in strict compliance with this section.
(1) 
Neither portions of tree masses nor specimen trees shall be cleared unless absolutely necessary, and then only with the Board's approval. In no event shall any trees be cleared from any flood hazard area. Developer shall make all reasonable efforts to harmonize their plans in order to preserve these existing trees.
(2) 
When effectuation of a proposed subdivision and/or land development necessitates the clearing of trees or portions of tree masses, developer shall be guided by the following criteria in selecting trees and ornamentals for retention or clearing:
(a) 
Aesthetic values (autumn coloration, type of flowers and fruit, bark and crown characteristics, amount of die back present).
(b) 
Susceptibility of tree to insect and disease attack and to air pollution.
(c) 
Species longevity.
(d) 
Wind firmness and characteristic of soil to hold trees.
(e) 
Wildlife values (e.g., oak, hickory, pine, walnut, and dogwood have high food value).
(f) 
Comfort to surroundings (e.g., hardwoods reduce summer temperatures to surrounding area more effectively than pines or cedars).
(g) 
Existence of disease, rot, or other damage to the tree.
(h) 
Protection of buildings (e.g., dead and large limbs hanging over buildings shall be removed).
(i) 
The size of the tree at maturity.
(3) 
Developer shall exercise care to protect trees which remain from damage during construction. The following procedures shall be adhered to in order to preserve the remaining trees and shall be noted on the plan. All remedial work shall be performed by qualified personnel.
(a) 
Where existing ground levels are raised, drainage tile will be placed at the old soil level and open into a well built around the base of the tree. Such wells may be left open or can be filled with coarse stones or gravel. Tiles may be installed in a radiating pattern or laid in parallel lines. Where existing ground levels are to be lowered, a retaining wall must built around the tree.
(b) 
Those trees which have been delineated on the plan and are within 25 feet of a proposed building excavation or other locations deemed appropriate by the Township Engineer shall be protected by installing and maintaining a fence to the drip line.
(c) 
No boards or other material shall be nailed to trees during construction.
(d) 
Heavy equipment operators shall avoid damaging existing tree trunks and roots. Feeder roots shall not be cut closer than 25 feet from tree trunks.
(e) 
Tree trunks and exposed roots damaged during construction shall be protected from further damage by being treated immediately.
(f) 
Tree limbs damaged during construction shall be properly pruned and treated immediately.
(g) 
The operation of heavy equipment over root systems of such trees shall be minimized in order to prevent soil compaction. The use of geotextiles, mulch or straw is required to protect roots from compaction when machinery cannot avoid passing under trees, subject to the Conservancy Board's review and approval.
(h) 
Damaged trees shall be fertilized to aid in their recovery.
(i) 
Construction debris shall not be disposed of near or around the bases of such trees.
(j) 
Trenching and root pruning shall not take place within the fenced area at the tree drip line.
(k) 
Root pruning should not be done on more than one "side" of the root system in a given year. Delay additional pruning for at least two years following initial pruning. Optimum timing is autumn.
(4) 
Unless otherwise provided in this chapter, no more than 20% of the trees on any wooded lot may be cut or removed. The remaining 80% shall be retained, unless a waiver is granted by the Board, subject to the following criteria:
(a) 
The trees removed from a wooded lot cleared or developed shall be replaced on a tree-for-tree basis. Replanting shall be done in accordance with a plan prepared by a licensed landscape architect and approved by the Township.
(b) 
All replacement trees shall be three-inch caliper minimum and the Township will select the type of tree to be used for replacement.
(c) 
Plantings required pursuant to the buffer yard and landscaping requirements of this chapter may not be considered in calculating the replanting requirements of this section.
D. 
New trees.
(1) 
All lots within a development that are vacant of trees shall have a minimum of one deciduous tree and one coniferous tree planted for each 5,000 square feet of lot area or part thereof. This requirement shall be in addition to any minimum tree planting requirement imposed by any provision of this chapter or Chapter 200, Zoning, of the Code of the Township of East Whiteland related to required street trees, screening and/or parking lot areas.
(2) 
Trees required by this subsection shall have a minimum caliper of 1 1/2 inches measured one foot above ground level after planting and such trees shall be listed by type and species and shall be shown on the Conservation Plan.
(3) 
Following is a list of species that are recommended for planting:
(a) 
Deciduous canopy trees:
Acer rubrum, saccaharum (Maple: Red, Sugar)
Catalpa speciosa (Catalpa)
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green Ash)
Lax laricina (Tamarack)
Liquidambar styracifera (Sweet-gum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (Tulip tree)
Magnolia acuminata (Cucumber tree)
Nyssa sylvatica (Sourgum or Tupelo)
Populus deltoides (Poplar)
Quercus coccinea, imbricaria, phellos, rubra (Oak: Scarlet, Laurel, Willow, Red)
(b) 
Understory trees:
Amelanchier species (Serviceberry or Shadbush)
Asimina triloba (PawPaw)
Betula lenta (Cherry or Sweet Birch)
Betula nigra (River Birch)
Betula papyrifera (Paper Birch)
Ceitis occidentalis (Hackberry)
Cercis canadensis (Redbud)
Chionanthus virginicus (Fringe tree)
Comus florida, altemifolis (Dogwood: Flowering, Pagoda)
Crategus species (Hawthorns)
Diospyros virginiana (Common Persimmon)
Halesia carolina (Carolina Silverbell)
Magnolia virginiana (Sweetbay and other Magnolias)
Malus species (Crabapple)
Oxydendron arboreum (Sourwood)
Sassafras albidum (Sassafras)
Stewartia ovata f. grandiflora (Mountain Stewartia)
Styrax obassia (Fragrant Snowbell)
Viburnum prunifolium (Black Haw)
Abies concolor (White or Concolor Fir)
Tsunga canadensis (Canadian Hemlock)
[Added 11-9-2015 by Ord. No. 273-2015]
The design guidelines for the GVR Great Valley Revitalization Overlay District shall be in accordance with the GVR Great Valley Revitalization Overlay District Design Guidelines dated October 28, 2015, set forth in Appendix VI.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix VI is included as an attachment to this chapter.