Ulster County, NY
 
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted by the County Legislature of the County of Ulster as indicated in article histories. Amendments noted where applicable.]
[Adopted by L.L. No. 5-2000; amended in its entirety 7-11-2007 by L.L. No. 12-2007[1]]
[1]
Editor's Note: Subsequent amendments noted where applicable.
This article updates Local Law Number 5 of 2000. The Ulster County Legislature recognizes that clear, accurate pricing and checkout accuracy are basic consumer rights. It is the intent of this article to ensure that consumer goods offered for sale in Ulster County are clearly, accurately and adequately marked as to their selling prices.
In this article, unless the context otherwise requires:
A. 
Words in the singular number include the plural, and words in the plural include the singular.
B. 
Words of the masculine, feminine or neuter gender include the feminine, neuter and/or masculine gender.
A. 
This article applies to every person engaged in the business of the selling consumer commodities in Ulster County, as the term "consumer commodities" is defined in § 214-h of the New York State Agriculture and Markets Law.
B. 
Nothing in this article shall be construed to limit or restrict any right or remedy to which a person may be subject under common law or any other federal, state or local statute.
C. 
Pursuant to this section, and provided that the selling prices are clearly displayed in Arabic numerals on signs clearly designating the consumer goods to which they refer, this article shall not apply to any retail store which:
(1) 
Has as its only full-time employee the owner thereof, and the parent or the spouse or the child of the owner, and (in the addition thereto) not more than two other full-time employees;
(2) 
Had annual gross sales in a previous calendar year of less than $500,000, unless the retail store is part of a network of subsidiaries, affiliates or other member stores under direct or indirect common control which, as a group, had annual gross sales in a previous calendar year of $500,000 or more; or
(3) 
Engages primarily in the sale of food for consumption on the premises or in a specialty trade that the Legislature decides, by resolution, would be inappropriate for item pricing.
As used in this article, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
COMPUTER-ASSISTED CHECKOUT SYSTEM
Any electronic device, computer system or machine, including but not limited to laser scanners, which determines the selling price of consumer goods by interpreting coded information.
CONSUMER COMMODITIES
The following, however packaged or contained:
A. 
Food, including all material, solid, liquid or mixed, whether simple or compound, used or intended for consumption by human beings or domestic animals normally kept as household pets and all substances or ingredients to be added thereto for any purpose;
B. 
Napkins, facial towels, toilet tissue, foil wrapping, plastic wrapping, paper toweling, and disposable plates;
C. 
Detergents, soaps and other cleansing agents; and
D. 
Nonprescription drugs, female hygiene products and toiletries.
CONSUMER GOODS
Consumer commodities sold by any person, firm, partnership, corporation or association who or which sells, offers for sale or exposes for sale at retail in a food store or grocery department of a general merchandise store a consumer commodity as defined in § 214-h of the New York State Agriculture and Markets Law.
FOOD STORE
A store selling primarily food at retail, which store is not primarily engaged in the sale of food for consumption on the premises or which is not primarily engaged in a specialty trade which the Legislature determines, by regulation, would be inappropriate for unit pricing.
[Amended 8-17-2010 by L.L. No. 3-2010]]
LARGE FOOD STORE
A food store containing retail space of more than 15,000 square feet.
LARGE OVERCHARGE
An error of $0.25 or more on any individual item.
PERSON
Includes without limitation any individual, firm, joint venture, association, copartnership, group, corporation or any other legal entity or combination of entities whatsoever.
PRICE LOOKUP FUNCTION
The capability of any checkout system to determine the retail price for an item of consumer goods by way of either automatic or manual entry into the system of a code assigned to that particular item.
SMALL FOOD STORE
A food store containing retail space of up to 15,000 square feet.
STOCKKEEPING ITEM (SKI)
Each individual item within a stockkeeping unit.
STOCKKEEPING UNIT (SKU)
Each group of items offered for sale of the same brand name, quantity of contents, variety and retail price.
A. 
The selling price shall be clearly stamped, tagged, labeled or otherwise marked in Arabic numerals on each item of consumer goods offered for sale in Ulster County.
B. 
The provisions of this Subsection A of this section shall not apply to the following consumer goods, provided that the selling price and the unit of measure are clearly displayed in Arabic numerals on a sign, clearly designating the particular consumer goods to which it refers, located as close as practical, and closer than other signs, to the location at which the goods are displayed:
(1) 
Fresh milk.
(2) 
Fresh eggs.
(3) 
Consumer goods which are displayed loose in bulk, not packaged prior to sale, and which are packaged for or by the consumer at the time of sale, such as but not limited to fresh produce, fresh baked goods, and coffee beans.
(4) 
Frozen food.
(5) 
Foods sold for consumption on the premises as well as foods prepared for immediate consumption but sold as takeout or sold from vending machines operated by the consumer.
(6) 
Snack food, such as but not limited to gum, candy, cakes, chips and nuts, offered for sale in single packages, weighing five ounces or less and costing less than $1.
(7) 
Cigarettes and cigars sold by the pack or by the carton.
(8) 
Single containers of nonalcoholic beverages where the selling prices for different flavors packaged in identical sizes or quantities are the same.
(9) 
Nonfood stockkeeping units which are under three cubic inches in size and weigh less than three ounces and are priced under $1.
(10) 
Baby foods in containers with a net weight of six ounces or less.
(11) 
Yogurt packaged and sold in single containers.
(12) 
Packaged nonrefrigerated gelatin, pudding and gelatin or pudding products.
C. 
The provisions of Subsection B of this section may be subsequently modified either by adding or deleting consumer goods from the list of exemptions, provided that a resolution supporting such modification is passed by the Ulster County Legislature.
D. 
The County Sealer of Weights and Measures may further direct the manner in which the selling price of the exempted consumer goods shall be posted.
E. 
It shall be a violation of this article to:
(1) 
Stamp, tag, label or otherwise mark more than one selling price upon an item of consumer goods offered for sale in Ulster County unless the prior selling price is unmistakably deleted or obliterated or is otherwise marked so as to indicate clearly that the prior selling price is not the current selling price.
(2) 
Stamp, tag, label or otherwise mark any item of consumer goods at a selling price greater than the selling price advertised or displayed for that item.
(3) 
Sell or offer for sale any consumer goods or services at a greater price than the price displayed or advertised therefor.
(4) 
Sell or offer for sale any consumer goods that do not have a selling price displayed in conformity with Subsection A or B of this section.
(5) 
Use a computer-assisted checkout system or price lookup function that determines a retail selling price that exceeds the lower of any shelf, sale or advertised price for any item of consumer goods offered for sale.
A. 
Every person, store, firm, partnership, corporation, or association which uses a computer-assisted checkout system and which would otherwise be required to item price as provided in § 169-5 of this article may make application in writing to the County Sealer of Weights and Measures (County Sealer) for a waiver of said item pricing requirement. A separate application shall be required for each store. Each application shall be subject to a nonrefundable processing fee to cover the cost of conducting scanner accuracy inspections as provided in Subsection B of this section. The County Sealer shall determine the processing fee and may revise it from time to time, but in no event shall said fee exceed $1,500 per application for a large food store or $1,000 per application for a small food store.
B. 
Upon receipt of an application and fee as provided in Subsection A of this section, the County Sealer shall cause to be conducted two scanner accuracy inspections of the store for which the application has been submitted. These inspections shall be conducted on two separate days and shall consist of comparing the shelf, sale or advertised price of any stockkeeping unit (SKU) with the computer-assisted checkout system price. Such inspection shall consist of at least 100 SKUs, but no more than 500, selected at the discretion of the County Sealer. In the event that any violations are detected, penalties shall be assessed as provided in § 169-7F, G and H of this article. If, considering both inspections together, the number of SKUs found in violation does not exceed 2% of all SKUs inspected, the County Sealer shall grant to the applicant a one-year revocable waiver from the item pricing requirement. Any store with a current waiver shall be exempt from the requirements of § 169-5 of this article.
C. 
A waiver from item pricing shall be valid for a period of one year from the date of issuance. Stores may reapply annually for renewal of a waiver. A processing fee and two inspections shall be required for each annual renewal application, as required for an original waiver application.
D. 
In the event that total violations in excess of 2% are discovered in the inspections provided for in Subsection B or C of this section, the County Sealer shall deny a waiver to the applicant. If the owner of the store still wishes a waiver, such store must promptly reapply for a waiver and pay the required fee to the County Sealer within five business days after being notified of the failure. Stores that do not reapply must promptly come into compliance with all requirements of § 169-5 and may not again reapply for a waiver until at least one year after denial by the County Sealer.
E. 
In the event that the County Sealer is unable to conduct inspection pursuant to Subsection B of this section within 90 days of receipt of a complete waiver application and proper processing fee, the County Sealer may grant a temporary waiver pending completion of inspections. The County Sealer shall cause said inspections to be completed as soon as practicable. If, upon completion, the inspections detect a violation rate of 2% or less, the County Sealer shall issue a regular waiver with an expiration date one year from the commencement date of the temporary waiver. If the inspections detect a violation rate in excess of 2%, the temporary waiver shall be immediately revoked and compliance with § 169-5 shall be required and the provisions of Subsection D of this section shall apply.
[Amended 8-17-2010 by L.L. No. 3-2010]]
F. 
As a condition of the waiver from item pricing pursuant to this section, each store that accepts a waiver must agree to meet the following requirements, and no regular or temporary waiver shall be granted to a store that has not agreed to these requirements in writing:
(1) 
The store shall designate and make available price check scanners to enable consumers to confirm the prices of stockkeeping items (SKIs). These price check scanners shall be in locations convenient to consumers with signs of sufficient sized lettering identifying these units to consumers. Stores will submit their proposals for signs, numbers of devices and device locations to the County Sealer for approval.
(2) 
The store shall not charge any customer a price for any SKI that exceeds the item, shelf, sale or advertising price of the SKI, whichever is least.
(3) 
The store shall cause to be posted in a conspicuous location, accessible by all consumers and approved by the County Sealer, a sign explaining the rights of consumers consistent with § 169-7 of this article. The County Sealer will specify the content and size of the sign by regulation. The store is also required to post the temporary or annual waiver in the area designated for handling price discrepancies.
(4) 
The store shall make payment to consumers who have been overcharged as provided in § 169-7 of this article. Each store is required to designate at least one individual who is authorized to issue these payments during all of the store's operating hours.
(5) 
The store shall correct all pricing errors identified by consumers at store level within one hour and, if applicable, at their firm, partnership, corporation, or association within 24 hours.
(6) 
The store shall clearly display the selling price at the point of SKU display by either placing signs or shelf tags as close as practical to the location at which the SKUs are displayed and/or by stamping, tagging, labeling or otherwise marking each stockkeeping item. Failure to display the selling price for a SKU, consistent with this subsection, constitutes a scanner error.
(7) 
At any time, the Sealer of Weights and Measures may direct compliance inspections of any store accepting a waiver. These inspections shall consist of comparing the item, shelf, sale or advertised price of any stockkeeping unit (SKU) with the computer-assisted checkout system price. Such inspection shall consist of not fewer than 100 nor more than 500 SKUs selected at the discretion of the County Sealer. In the event that any violations are detected, penalties shall be assessed as provided in § 169-7F, G and H of this article. In the event that the number of SKUs found in violation equals or exceeds 2% of all SKUs inspected, the County Sealer may revoke the store's waiver from the item pricing requirement. A store may promptly reapply for a waiver and pay the required fee to the County Sealer within five business days after being notified of the failure. Stores that do not reapply must promptly come into compliance with all the requirements of § 169-5 and may not again reapply for a waiver until at least one year after revocation.
A. 
Any person who violates any provision of this article, or who fails to comply with any order made by an enforcement officer pursuant to this article, shall be guilty of a violation and subject to a civil penalty. Noncompliance within a stockkeeping unit shall constitute a single violation, unless otherwise indicated by this article.
B. 
For failure to clearly, accurately or adequately mark consumer goods as to their selling prices as required by this article, civil penalties shall be imposed and fixed by the County Sealer of Weights and Measures.
C. 
For failure to clearly, accurately or adequately mark consumer goods as to their selling prices as required by this article, penalties shall not exceed $500 for each violation nor exceed a total penalty of $15,000 per day.
D. 
The primary responsibility for administration and enforcement of this article shall be with the County Sealer of Weights and Measures, except where otherwise noted herein. The County Sealer of Weights and Measures and his designees shall act as enforcement officers for this article, and the County Sealer may bring an action in any court of competent jurisdiction to recover any penalties and shall also recover in such action as an additional penalty reasonable attorney fees to be fixed and assessed by the court, irrespective of whether or not the County Sealer is represented by the County Attorney in such action.
E. 
In stores with computer-assisted checkouts, enforcement officers shall be permitted to compare the item, shelf, sale or advertised price of any consumer goods with the programmed computer price. A store representative shall afford the enforcement officer access to the test mode of the checkout system in use or to a comparable function of the checkout system and to the retail price information contained in the price lookup function.
F. 
For violations resulting from a computer-assisted checkout system or price lookup function that determines a retail selling price exceeding the lower of any item, shelf, sale or advertised price for any item of consumer goods offered for sale, penalties shall not exceed $500 for each violation nor exceed a total penalty of $15,000 per day.
G. 
An enforcement officer shall have the authority to issue a stop-removal order with respect to any device, system or consumer goods being used, handled, offered for sale or exposed for sale in violation of § 169-5 of this article.
(1) 
Any stop-removal order issued with respect to any stockkeeping item shall be in writing, shall list the violations and shall direct that any stockkeeping unit in violation shall not be sold, offered for sale or exposed for sale until the violations are corrected.
(2) 
Any stop-removal order issued with respect to any device or system shall be in writing and shall list the violations. Such stop-removal order shall be stayed for up to two hours after the inspector provides the written stop-removal order to the retail store, provided that, until the violations are corrected, either the stockkeeping units which are affected by the violations are not sold, offered for sale or exposed for sale or signs are posted conspicuously at or near each checkout which clearly disclose to store employees and consumers which stockkeeping units are affected by the violations and their correct price, and the retail store ensures that consumers are charged the correct prices.
H. 
The County Attorney, in the name of the County, may, upon request of the County Sealer of Weights and Measures, in addition to any other action authorized hereunder, maintain an action or proceeding in court of competent jurisdiction on behalf of the County Sealer of Weights and Measures to compel compliance with or restrain by injunction any violation of this article, notwithstanding any other provision hereof providing for a penalty or other punishment.
A. 
Any consumer who suffers a loss because the price charged for a SKI is greater than the item, shelf, sale, or advertised price may seek a super-refund. A super-refund entitles the consumer to receive the overcharged SKI free, the difference between the price charged and the lower of the item, sale, shelf or advertised price, plus an amount equal to 10 times that difference but not less than $1 nor more than $10. Within the same transaction, each subsequent overcharge for the same SKU entitles a consumer to an additional refund equal to the difference between the price charged and the lower of the item, sale, shelf or advertised price, plus $1.
B. 
To collect a super-refund, a consumer must notify the store in person or in writing that the price charged is more than the item, sale, shelf, or advertised price. The consumer shall provide evidence of the overcharge. As soon as practical, and in any case within one hour after receipt of such notification and verification of the overcharge, the store shall compensate the consumer as specified in Subsection A of this section.
C. 
If the store fails to tender a super-refund within the time set forth in this article, the consumer may request a review by the County Sealer. Within 10 working days of the receipt of such a request, the County Sealer shall determine what payment, if any, is due under this section. A store that fails to comply with the County Sealer's determination or any other provision of this section is considered in violation and subject to penalties under § 169-7 of this article.
D. 
A store may set an overcharge refund policy more generous than required by this article, provided that policy is approved by the Sealer of Weights and Measures and a copy of the Sealer's approval is kept on file in the store.
All fines and penalties imposed and collected by reason of civil enforcement of this article shall be paid to the County of Ulster and credited to the general fund.
On consent of the County Sealer of Weights and Measures and a person accused of violating this article, a consent decree or agreement may be entered into. No such consent decree or agreement shall restrict any legal right or remedy to which any consumer complaining of the matter which is the subject of such consent decree or agreement might otherwise be entitled, unless such consumer is a party thereto.
[Adopted 8-18-2020 by L.L. No. 7-2020]
No person shall engage in any deceptive or unconscionable trade practices in the sale, lease, rental or loan, or in the offering for sale, lease, rental or loan, of any consumer goods or services within the County of Ulster.
As used in this article, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
CONSUMER
An individual who buys or leases or agrees to buy or lease consumer goods or services or procures credit, including as a co-guarantor or surety.
CONSUMER GOODS AND SERVICES
Any goods or services, including contracts, projects, credit or debt, primarily used or applied for personal or residential household or property improvements or personal or family purposes.
DECEPTIVE TRADE PRACTICES
Any false, falsely disparaging, or misleading oral or written statement, visual description or other representation of any kind, which has the capacity, tendency or effect of deceiving or misleading consumers and is made in connection with the sale, lease, rental or loan of consumer goods or services; the offering for sale, lease, rental or loan of consumer goods or services; or the extension of consumer credit. Deceptive trade practices include but are not limited to:
A. 
Representations that:
(1) 
Goods or services have sponsorship, approval, accessories, characteristics, ingredients, uses, benefits, or quantities that they do not actually have;
(2) 
The seller has a sponsorship, approval, status, affiliation, or connection that the seller does not actually have;
(3) 
Goods are original or new if they are deteriorated, altered, reconditioned, reclaimed, or secondhand;
(4) 
Goods or services are of a particular standard, design, quality, grade, style, value, or model, if they are of another.
B. 
A false representation as to a material fact;
C. 
Failure to state a material fact if such use or failure deceives or tends to deceive;
D. 
Offering goods or services without intent to sell them;
E. 
Advertising goods or services without the intent to supply the reasonably expectable public demand, unless the offer disclosed the limitation; a seller must show dated proof the seller has ordered, in time to arrive by the beginning of sale, more than normal everyday supply;
F. 
Making false or misleading representations of fact concerning the reason for, existence of, or amounts of, price reductions; or the price in comparison to prices of competitors or one's own price at a past or future time;
G. 
Falsely stating that a consumer transaction involves consumer rights, remedies or obligations that it does not actually involve;
H. 
Falsely stating that services, replacements or repairs are needed if they are not;
I. 
Falsely stating the reasons for offering or supplying goods or services at sale or discount prices;
J. 
Abandonment or willful failure to perform any home improvement contract or project engaged in or willful deviation from or disregard of plans or specifications in any material respect without the consent of the homeowner; and
K. 
Failure to complete a consumer contract, service, or project in a workmanlike manner or failure to return and perform repairs under warranty.
DIRECTOR
Director of the Ulster County Bureau of Weights and Measures.
ESSENTIAL GOODS AND SERVICES
Goods, services or products used, bought or rendered primarily for personal, family, or household purposes immediately after or during the pendency of any declared state of emergency, and such term shall include, but not be limited to, bandages, gauze, or dressings; hand sanitizer and wipes, antibiotic ointment, rubbing alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, saline solution; medical or surgical masks; medical or surgical gloves; tissues, paper towels and toilet paper; bottled water; foodstuffs, fuel, batteries; over-the-counter medications; household cleaning supplies and wipes, and any other goods, services or products that may be identified as "essential" by the Director, in consultation with the Ulster County Commissioner of Health, during the pendency of a declared state of emergency.
PERSON
Any individual, corporation, unincorporated association, firm, partnership, limited liability company, organization or other entity.
SELLER
A manufacturer, supplier, merchant, contractor, lessor, creditor or person making consumer goods or services available to consumers, either directly or indirectly.
UNCONSCIONABLE TRADE PRACTICE
Any act or practice which unfairly takes advantage of the lack of knowledge, ability, experience or capacity of the consumer or which results in a gross disparity between the value received by a consumer and the price paid by the consumer, for any consumer goods and services, and shall also mean any instance in which a seller sets a price for essential goods and services immediately after, or during the pendency of, any declared state of emergency impacting Ulster County by any federal, state or County authority that is higher than the price set immediately prior to the declaration of the state of emergency in accord with the following sliding scale:
Essential Goods and Services Price Set Immediately Prior to Declaration of State of Emergency:
Any Price Increase Immediately After or During a Declared State of Emergency in Excess of the Percentage Specified Herein Will Create a Rebuttable Presumption of an Unconscionable Trade Practice
Less than $499.99
25%
$500.00 - $2,499.99
15%
$2,500.00 - $9,999.99
10%
$10,000.00 - $99,999.99
5%
$100,000 or more
2%
provided that it shall not be an unconscionable trade practice to set prices in excess of those specified in the sliding scale specified herein where the seller can show evidence satisfactory to the Director that any such price increase was solely due to additional costs not within the control of the seller that were imposed on the seller.
The Director may, after a public hearing, adopt such rules and regulations as may be necessary to effectuate the purposes of this article, including regulations defining specific deceptive or unconscionable trade practices. Prior notice of such a public hearing shall be published according to law in the official newspapers of the County. A copy of all rules and regulations promulgated hereunder and any amendments thereto shall be filed in the office of the Clerk of the Ulster County Legislature. No such regulation or rule shall become effective unless first approved by resolution of the Ulster County Legislature.
The Director of the Ulster County Bureau of Weights and Measures shall have the responsibility of enforcing this article.
A. 
A violation of any provision of this article or any rule or regulation promulgated hereunder shall be punishable upon proof thereof, by the payment of a civil penalty in the sum of not less than $250 nor more than $5,000 per day for each such violation, to be recovered in a civil action as provided for herein.
B. 
Upon finding a violation of this article or any rules and regulations promulgated pursuant thereto, the Director shall expeditiously cause the same to be corrected, or where there is evidence of intent to defraud, refer evidence of any such violation to the District Attorney of Ulster County for prosecution, or in the absence of intent to defraud, refer to the Ulster County Attorney for commencement of a civil action in the name of the County to recover a civil penalty in the amounts prescribed. A cause of action for recovery of such penalty may be released, settled or compromised by the Director before the matter is referred to the County Attorney or thereafter by the County Attorney.
C. 
Whenever any person has engaged in any acts or practices which constitute repeated or persistent violations of any provision of this article or any rule or regulation promulgated hereunder, the County Attorney, upon the request of the Director, may commence an action in the name of the County for a restraining order, temporary or permanent injunction or other equitable relief.
D. 
In lieu of instituting or continuing an action pursuant to this article, the Director may accept written assurance of the actual discontinuance of any act or practice that is in violation of this act. Such assurance may include a stipulation for the voluntary payment by the alleged violator for the costs of investigation and the restitution, by the alleged violator, to consumers of money, property, or other things received from such consumers in connection with a violation of this article.
E. 
An assurance entered into pursuant to this section shall not be deemed to admit the violation unless it does so by its terms.
F. 
A violation of an assurance entered into pursuant to this section shall be treated as a violation of this article and shall be subject to all the penalties provided for therein.
Nothing in this article shall apply to any internet platform, television, or radio broadcasting station or to any publisher or printer of a newspaper, magazine or other form of printed advertising who merely hosts, broadcasts, publishes or prints the advertisement.
If any provision of this article or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held unconstitutional or otherwise unlawful, the remainder of this article and the application of such remaining provision(s) to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.
The Director shall render to the Ulster County Legislature and the County Executive an annual report of all activities under this article no later than June 1 of each year.