Town of Bethany, CT
New Haven County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted by the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Bethany 10-11-1988. Amendments noted where applicable.]
GENERAL REFERENCES
Authority to adopt road specifications — See Ch. 80, Art. II.
Subdivision regulations — See Ch. 180.

§ 166-1 Adherence to specifications; minimum standards; policy.

A. 
The following specifications shall be adhered to in designing and constructing all new roads which are to be accepted and maintained by the Town of Bethany. Variations due to hardship or special circumstances may be permitted only after approval by both the Board of Selectmen and the Bethany Planning and Zoning Commission.
B. 
These specifications are intended to establish minimum standards for new road construction and design. The Selectmen are aware of the State of Connecticut Department of Transportation's Guidelines for Subdivision Streets of January 1987 and as amended, in accordance with C.G.S. § 13b-31a, and these specifications are intended to supersede these guidelines when addressing the same issue. Wherever an issue is not addressed in these specifications which is addressed in the guidelines, then reference should be made to the guidelines.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Amended during codification; see Ch. 1, General Provisions, Art. II.
C. 
It is the policy of the Town of Bethany to encourage the construction of new roads that are compatible with the rural character of the town and to retain the rural and scenic characteristics of existing roads whenever possible.

§ 166-2 Definitions.

In accordance with C.G.S. § 1-1, defined words used in these specifications shall be according to the commonly approved usage of the language; technical words and phrases and such as have acquired a peculiar and appropriate meaning in the law shall be construed and understood accordingly. Defined words shall be construed as defined.
BANK-RUN GRAVEL
Gravel which meets or exceeds the specifications set forth in Section M.02.01 or M.02.02 of Connecticut Department of Transportation Standard Specifications, Form 813, unless modified by the Selectmen.
CATCH BASIN
A structure designed to convey surface water into a culvert.
CUL-DE-SAC
A street which is closed at one end but usually has a circular area for turning at that end.
CULVERT
A pipe of either concrete or asphalt-coated corrugated metal which is designed to convey water under the ground.
ENDWALL
A concrete or masonry structure at the outlet end of a culvert.
HEADWALL
A concrete or masonry structure at the inlet end of a culvert.
INTERSECTION
As defined by C.G.S. § 14-1(35), includes any public highway which joins another at an angle, whether or not it crosses the other.[1]
MONUMENT
A four-inch square concrete post with a cross in the top, 36 inches in length, containing reinforcing bars.
OWNER
The title holder of the property in question or his designated agent.
POINT OF CURVATURE
Beginning of a curve.
POINT OF TANGENCY
End of a curve.
POINT OF VERTICAL CURVE
Beginning at a vertical curve.
PROCESSED STONE
See Connecticut Department of Transportation Standard Specifications, Form 813, Section M.05.01.
RIP-RAP
See Connecticut Department of Transportation Standard Specifications, Form 813, Section M.
SIGHT LINES
Lines of sight required at intersections and at changes in grade. (See Guidelines for Subdivision Streets, Sections 16-3.10 and 16-4.02.)
SUMP
The bottom section of a catch basin which is below the bottom of the pipe which catches and retains sand.
TRAVEL PORTION OF THE HIGHWAY
That portion of the highway which is designed for ordinary vehicular travel. The shoulders of a highway or road are an integral part thereof and, while not designed for ordinary vehicular travel as the travel portion is, are intended for use when the need arises.
[1]
Editor's Note: Amended during codification; see Ch. 1, General Provisions, Art. II.

§ 166-3 New roads.

A. 
All new roads which are to be built in the Town of Bethany shall be designed and inspected by a professional engineer licensed to practice in the State of Connecticut. Plans submitted to the Selectmen shall bear the engineer's seal and signature.
B. 
Plans submitted to the Selectmen for their final approval shall include the following:
(1) 
Final subdivision plan as required by the Planning and Zoning Commission (including drainage easements and sight line easements).
(2) 
Plan and profile for all roads and drainage easements.
C. 
Plans shall show:
(1) 
Existing and proposed grades within 50 feet of the proposed road.
(2) 
The proposed location of all monuments, drainage structures and drainage easements.
(3) 
A typical cross-section of the proposed roadway.
D. 
Profiles shall show:
(1) 
Existing and proposed elevations along the center lines of all roads.
(2) 
Points of curvature and tangency for all vertical curves with stations.
(3) 
Percent of grade for all roads and drainage facilities.

§ 166-4 Notice of commencement of work; inspections.

A. 
The Selectmen shall be notified, in writing, by certified mail, return receipt requested, which notification shall be received at least 48 hours before work commences on any road, that the owner intends to begin work on said road.
B. 
The owner shall also convey to the Selectmen the name of the engineer who will be responsible for inspecting the construction of said road, preparing as-built drawings and attesting to the fact that the road has been built in accordance with the road design as approved by the Board of Selectmen. The owner shall be responsible for the cost of said inspections and the preparation of said as-built drawings.
C. 
If said inspections are not performed and said as-built drawings are not prepared, the owner shall be charged for whatever tests and inspections are required to ensure that said road conforms to these specifications. If such inspections, or town inspections, and such as-built drawings disclose that the roads have not been constructed according to plan, then both the owner and engineer shall be responsible to the town for such failure and shall be liable for correction of such roads. Correction shall be performed by the owner or by the town as the Board of Selectmen shall direct.

§ 166-5 Cost estimate; bond requirements.

A. 
The Selectmen may allow construction to commence, provided that all three of the following conditions are met:
(1) 
The owner shall submit to the Selectmen a detailed estimate of the cost of completion of such street and improvements.
(2) 
The cost estimate shall be approved by the Selectmen.
(3) 
The owner shall file a bond in an amount sufficient to cover such cost, approved as to form and sureties by the Selectmen and conditioned on the completion of such streets and improvements within two years of the date of said bond. The surety on said bond shall not be approved unless it is duly licensed bonding company authorized to do business in Connecticut.
B. 
In lieu of the bond set forth in Subsection A(3), the applicant may, with the approval of the Selectmen, deposit with the Selectmen of the Town of Bethany cash or any other acceptable form of financial responsibility, in an amount equal to such detailed estimate, or offer building lots as security with a value equal to such detailed cost estimate, together with a guaranty to complete and pay for such streets and improvements within the aforesaid two-year period. Twenty percent of the security will be held for one year after acceptance of a road to guarantee performance of the road.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Amended during codification; see Ch. 1, General Provisions, Art. II.
C. 
If upon inspection it is determined that road construction costs exceed the estimate or if the posted security has experienced a reduction in value, then the Selectmen shall have the power to require additional security.
D. 
The owner shall be responsible to oversee the actual costs of road construction and shall advise the Selectmen further if the costs for such construction shall be in excess of the estimate.

§ 166-6 Right-of-way.

A. 
All rights-of-way shall be a minimum of 50 feet in width. Roads in an industrial subdivision or which may eventually become a major through street may require a greater right-of-way. This determination shall be made by the Selectmen upon application by the owner. Right-of-way lines at culs-de-sac shall have a minimum radius of 60 feet, and the pavement shall have a minimum radius of 50 feet.
B. 
All construction materials (bank-run gravel, processed stone, bituminous concrete, rip-rap, etc.) shall conform to the applicable section of Connecticut Department of Transportation Standard Specifications, Form 813 (or its successor).
C. 
Monuments or permanent reference markers shall be shown at all street corners, angles in street lines, points of curvature and points of tangency and wherever such monuments are necessary to determine the location of the road on the ground. Said monuments shall be placed and the accuracy of their location attested to by a registered land surveyor before final acceptance of said road.

§ 166-7 Construction of roadway.

A. 
All topsoil, mud, mulch and clay shall be removed from the travel portion of the roadbed. The roadway shall be constructed of 12 inches of bank-run gravel, four inches of processed stone and two one-and-one-half-inch courses of bituminous concrete. (See typical cross-section.)[1] All thicknesses shall be measured after compaction, and cross-slopes shall be strictly adhered to.
[1]
Editor's Note: The typical cross section is on file in the office of the Town Clerk.
B. 
Bituminous concrete curbs shall be required on all new roads unless exempted by the Board of Selectmen. Curbs shall be installed on the first course of bituminous concrete before the installation of the second course.
C. 
The width of the traveled portion of new residential subdivision roads shall be 22 feet, provided that if the Board of Selectmen finds that traffic projections for the proposed road or other factors affecting the safety of travel upon the proposed road require a wider width, it may require that the width of the traveled portion be wider, up to a maximum of 26 feet.
D. 
The width of the traveled portion of new business and industrial subdivision roads shall be 26 feet.
E. 
The right-of-way area within five feet of the paved portion of the new road shall be cleared of stumps, boulders, brush and other obstructions for the safety of the traveling public. The Town of Bethany encourages the retention of mature trees, bushes, stone walls, rock formations and other notable features within the remainder of the right-of-way.

§ 166-8 Road grades.

A. 
No road grade shall exceed 8%. No road with a grade of 8% shall exceed 600 feet in length. The minimum grade shall be 1%. Vertical curves shall be provided at all changes in grade. Sight lines shall be provided.
B. 
Road grades shall not exceed 3% for a minimum length of 100 feet from the center of each intersection.
C. 
The grade across a cul-de-sac shall not exceed 3% for the entire length of the cul-de-sac.

§ 166-9 Drainage.

A. 
Drainage calculations shall be submitted. Said calculations shall include a map of the total drainage area and shall show the effect the proposed construction will have on all downstream structures.
B. 
Drainage shall be designed using the Connecticut Department of Transportation's Drainage Manual as a guide, recognizing that drainage is to be designed for subdivision roads built in accordance with the specifications. Drainage calculations shall be based on the following storm frequencies:
(1) 
Local streets: ten-year storm.
(2) 
Outlet culverts: twenty-five-year storm.
(3) 
Major stream crossings: fifty-year storm.
C. 
The minimum culvert size shall be 15 inches.
D. 
Catch basins shall be installed a maximum of 250 feet apart and shall be Type C where curbs are required. Roads without curbs shall have Type CL catch basins. All catch basins shall be provided with sumps.
E. 
The minimum cover for all drainage pipe shall be two feet.
F. 
Headwalls, endwalls or flared ends shall be installed at the ends of all culverts and shall be protected with rip-rap as delineated in Connecticut Guidelines for Soil Erosion and Sediment Control.
G. 
Additional drains or underdrains may be required as field conditions warrant.
H. 
Drainage rights-of-way shall be provided for all culverts or swales crossing private land and shall be a minimum of 20 feet in width. They shall be of such form that they may be recorded in the Town Clerk's office.
I. 
Easements shall be provided for all detention and retention ponds.

§ 166-10 Side slopes.

A. 
Areas of cut or fill shall be cleared for a minimum distance of five feet outside the paved portion of the roadway or to whatever distance is required to satisfy the following specifications.
B. 
Side slopes in cut or fill areas shall be graded to a slope of three feet horizontal to one foot vertical. Rock cuts shall be graded to a slope of one foot horizontal to six feet vertical.
C. 
The Board of Selectmen may require guardrails to be installed in areas of fill greater than four feet. Determination of such need shall be made after the grading of the road is substantially complete.

§ 166-11 Intersections.

A. 
All streets shall join each other at approximate right angles for a distance of 100 feet from the junction of the curbs at the intersection. The minimum angle allowable shall be 75°.
B. 
T-type (three-way) intersections are to be utilized wherever possible within the proposed subdivision. Cross-type (four-way) intersections shall be kept to a minimum. The intersection of streets with existing roads shall be spaced at least 400 feet apart when the streets are on the same side of the road. Streets joining the road from opposite sides of the road shall be either directly opposite or a minimum of 125 feet apart.
C. 
Intersecting streets shall be rounded at the corner, with a minimum curb radius of 25 feet.
D. 
Minimum sight lines of 310 feet shall be provided at all intersections. However, the Selectmen may reduce or increase this standard as they deem necessary.

§ 166-12 Driveways.

A. 
The approximate location of all proposed driveways shall be shown on the map submitted to the Selectmen for approval. No more than three driveways shall be shown entering a cul-de-sac unless specifically approved by the Selectmen in order to facilitate snow placement and removal.
B. 
No driveway connecting with any town highway shall be constructed or established until plans have been submitted to and approved by the Board of Selectmen by the owner of the driveway area, which plans shall be so designed that such construction or establishment shall not interfere with the use and effective operation of any public drainage system existing on or in close proximity to the intersection of such driveway and such highway, and any such driveway shall be so maintained so as not to cause any such interference.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Added during codification; see Ch. 1, General Provisions, Art. II.

§ 166-13 Access to adjoining property.

The Board of Selectmen may require the inclusion of suitable access strips to adjacent properties when proposed streets do not abut or extend to the boundaries of the subject tract. Said access strips shall be 50 feet in width and suitable for the future construction of a road.

§ 166-14 Road names and signs.

Street names must be approved by the Selectmen. Proposed names shall not duplicate or closely approximate any existing street names. Until accepted, the road right-of-way must be marked at its entrance with a substantial sign stating "Not a Public Road." In the event that such a sign is not furnished, the Selectmen may install such sign and charge the cost thereof to the road contractor or the owner of the land. Final street signs shall also be provided by the road builder, said signs to be similar in quality and design as those generally determined for use by the Selectmen of the Town of Bethany.

§ 166-15 Consent of adjoining property owners.

In the event that a road is proposed as contiguous with or abutting the boundary line of an adjoining owner or owners who may have a dwelling or other structure within 50 feet of said proposed road, written consent for the construction of said proposed road shall be obtained from said adjoining owner or owners.

§ 166-16 Final acceptance.

A. 
Before the Board of Selectmen may accept any road, the following documents shall be submitted:
(1) 
Inspection report, signed and sealed by the engineer engaged by the owner, stating that the road has been built in accordance with the specifications of the Town of Bethany and according to the approved plans.
(2) 
As-built maps.
(a) 
A plan view showing:
[1] 
Storm drainage, culverts, catch basins, endwalls, width of pavements, etc.
[2] 
Easements.
[3] 
Location of all monuments or permanent reference marks. The accuracy of the location of such monuments shall be attested to by a registered land surveyor.
(b) 
A profile showing pipe sizes, pipe inverts and road profile.
B. 
Said maps shall be filed with the Town Clerk after they are received by the Board of Selectmen.
C. 
A maintenance bond of 20% of the original construction bond or in a higher amount and of the amount and type approved by the Board of Selectmen shall remain on deposit for a period of one year or longer to insure the performance of all roads affected by the acceptance.
D. 
Following the receipt of items in Subsections A, B and C above, the Selectmen shall cause an inspection to be made of the road and supporting documents and shall be satisfied that the road is in compliance with these specifications and approved plans.

§ 166-17 Existing town roads.

A. 
Nothing herein shall require the Town of Bethany to alter or improve any existing town road or to comply with these road specifications in making alterations or improvements to or otherwise maintaining existing town roads.
B. 
Where a proposed subdivision abuts, contains or obtains access from an existing town road or portion of road, alterations or improvements in the town road or portion of the town road shall not be required, except as the Board of Selectmen determine are necessary to eliminate a hazard to the safety of the traveling public; to permit the town to maintain the road in good and sufficient repair; or to accommodate projected traffic volume. Any alterations or improvements shall be planned and implemented by the Board of Selectmen so as to maintain, to the maximum extent possible, the rural and scenic characteristics of the road or portion of road, including but not limited to:
(1) 
The width of the road or portion of the road.
(2) 
Curves and grades.
(3) 
Stone walls, mature trees, bushes, rock formations and other notable natural features adjacent to the traveled portion of the road.
(4) 
The absence of paving in the case of an existing dirt road.
C. 
The Board of Selectmen may require the owner to make any alterations or improvements the Board deems necessary pursuant to Subsection B above at the owner's expense or to reimburse the town for the cost to the town of such alterations or improvements.

§ 166-18 Effective date.

These regulations shall take effect November 1, 1988.