City of Kalamazoo, MI
Kalamazoo County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
A. 
Applicability. Unless otherwise stated, parking and loading shall be provided as is outlined in this chapter.
B. 
General provisions.
(1) 
Accessible parking. Parking facilities accessible for persons with disabilities shall be in compliance with or better than the standards detailed in the state and federal building or accessibility requirements, including quantity, size, location, and accessibility.
(2) 
Requirements for unlisted uses. Parking spaces will be provided as detailed in Table 7.2-1. If a use is not listed, the City Planner is authorized to apply standards for a use deemed as similar. In the instance where an equivalent may not be clearly determined, the City Planner may require a parking study, transportation management plan, or other evidence that will help determine the appropriate requirements.
C. 
Exempt areas.
(1) 
Downtown. Lots located in the Downtown Exempt Parking Area (refer to Figure 7.1-1) are exempt from the requirement to provide off-street parking spaces. Spaces that are provided must adhere to all applicable requirements including design, layout, and landscaping.
A Figure 6-1 Parking Exempt District.tif
Figure 7.1-1 Downtown Exempt Parking Map
(2) 
Small commercial establishments. A commercial establishment, including the nonmanufacturing element of craftsman industrial, containing up to 2,000 square feet of floor area, located in a building constructed on or before October 18, 2005, and not be located in the Community Commercial Zoning District, shall be exempt from all requirements to provide off-street parking spaces.
A. 
Required Parking Table.
(1) 
Table 7.2-1 outlines the required off-street parking spaces.
Table 7.2-1
Required Parking Table
Use
Required Spaces
Residential/Lodging
Hotel/motel
1 per 2 guest rooms
Bed-and-breakfast
1 per guest room; 1 for innkeeper/home occupant
Dormitory
1 per 3 beds or per City-approved campus master plan
Nursing home/assisted living/rehabilitation center/adult foster care
1 per employee on largest shift; 1 per facility vehicle; 1 per 5 beds
Residential
1 per dwelling unit
Residential: senior housing
0.5 per dwelling unit
Residential: off-campus student housing/RM-15C
2 per dwelling unit
Rooming house
1 per unit or bedroom
Transitional residence
1 per 2 employees on largest shift
Civic/Institutional Uses
Assembly/theater
1 per 3 persons permitted at maximum occupancy
Assembly, religious
1 per 6 seats in worship area or 1 per 40 square feet without seats
College and university
Based on similar use or per City-approved campus master plan
Hospital
1 per 3 beds or per City-approved campus master plan
Library and museum
1 per 3 persons permitted at maximum occupancy
Police and fire station/utilities and public services
1 per employee on largest shift
School
2 per 3 employees as largest shift; in addition for high schools: 1 per 10 students enrolled in Grades 10 through 12
Commercial
Agriculture
1 per employee on largest shift
Day care
1 per employee on largest shift, in addition commercial facilities: 1 per 5 children permitted at maximum occupancy
Eating and drinking establishments
1 per 5 persons at maximum occupancy; 1 per 2 employees at largest shift
Entertainment sports
Participant
1 per 5 persons at maximum occupancy; 1 per 2 employees at largest shift
Spectator
1 per 6 fixed seats or 1 per 40 square feet without seats
Retail/services
1 per 330 square feet
Kennels
1 per employee on largest shift; 1 per 3 animals permitted at maximum occupancy
Office
1 per 300 square feet
Outdoor sales and storage
1 per employee at largest shift; 1 per 2,500 square feet outdoor sales area
Vehicle service
1 per 200 square feet floor area; in addition, vehicle repair: 2 per repair bay or area
Vehicle service: car wash
1 per employee on largest shift
Industrial
Craftsman industrial
1 per employees on largest production shift; 1 per 500 square feet retail
Industrial
1 per 2 employees on largest shift
(2) 
Total required vehicular parking spaces should be determined using the following parameters in addition to Table 7.2-1.
(a) 
Fractions. In determining the number of spaces required, any fraction of spaces required under 1/2 shall be disregarded; a fraction greater than 1/2 shall be rounded up to count as one space.
(b) 
Maximum parking spaces provided. Off-street parking may not be provided in an amount greater than 110% of the minimum parking requirement.
(c) 
On-street parking credit. Up to 15% of the parking requirement for commercial and industrial-craftsman industrial uses can be met with on-street parking located within 660 feet of the site.
(d) 
Shared parking. Credit for shared off-street parking is calculated as follows:
[1] 
Off-site location. Spaces in parking facilities within 660 feet can be applied to the parking requirements for a lot.
[2] 
Multiple uses credit. When multiple uses share parking facilities, the quantity of spaces provided should be calculated as follows.
[a] 
Shared peak demand times. Businesses with the same peak parking demand times that share parking facilities can reduce the quantity provided by 5%.
[b] 
Different peak demand times. Business with different peak parking demand times can reduce their required parking spaces using Table 7.2-2, Parking Times Per Use Category.
Table 7.2-2
Parking Times Per Use Category
Uses Category
Weekdays
Weekends
Midnight 7:00 a.m.
7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.
6:00 p.m. to Midnight
Midnight to 7:00 a.m.
7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.
6:00 p.m. to Midnight
Residential
100%
50%
80%
100%
80%
80%
Hotel/motel/bed-and-breakfast
100%
65%
100%
100%
65%
100%
Assembly, religious
0%
30%
50%
0%
100%
75%
Retail and services
5%
100%
80%
5%
100%
60%
Eating and driving establishments
50%
70%
100%
70%
60%
100%
Entertainment (spectator, participant) and assembly
5%
30%
100%
5%
80%
100%
Office
5%
100%
5%
5%
5%
5%
[i] 
Determine the required number of spaces per use, following Table 7.2-1 Required Parking Table.
[ii] 
Applying the percentages in Table 7.2-2 determine the number of spaces needed per use in each of the six time periods.
[iii] 
For each time period, add the number of spaces needed for all applicable use categories to obtain a total for each of the six time periods.
[iv] 
The time period with the highest total of parking spaces is the number of spaces required for the site.
(e) 
Bicycle facilities. For every 10 required bicycle parking spaces, the required number of vehicular spaces may be reduced by one.
(f) 
Ten-percent reduction. The City Planner may reduce the number of required parking spaces by up to 10% if the applicant can document that the required number of parking spaces will not be fully utilized.
B. 
Vehicular parking design and location. Vehicular parking facilities shall be provided using the following standards.
(1) 
Design. Vehicular parking shall be designed as follows:
(a) 
Space dimension. Parking space design shall follow the dimensions in Table 7.2-3, Minimum Parking Space and Aisle Dimensions, and Figure 7.2-1, Parking Space and Drive Aisle Dimensions.
Table 7.2-3
Minimum Parking Space and Aisle Dimensions
Angle of Parking
(degrees)
Stall Dimensions
Drive Aisle Width
Curb Length
(feet)
Stall Width
(feet)
Stall Depth
(feet)
One Way
(feet)
Two-Way
(feet)
0° (Parallel)
18
8
18
12
20
45°
12
8.5
18
12
20
60°
10
8.5
18
18
20
90°
8.5
8.5
18
20
20
050 Fig 7.2-1 Parking Space Dimens.tif
Figure 7.2-1 Parking Space and Drive Aisle Dimensions
(b) 
Wheel stops. Wheel stops or bumper guards are required for spaces adjacent to property lines, landscape buffers, and pedestrian pathways, internal to site or in public right-of-way.
(c) 
Tandem spaces. Tandem spaces are permitted as follows:
[1] 
Two spaces may be placed in tandem, provided that one space is accessible by an aisle, driveway, or alley.
[2] 
Tandem spaces are permitted for use by residential units only and must be utilized by the occupants of the same dwelling unit.
(d) 
Slope. All parking areas, driveways, and sidewalk access to parking areas shall meet the requirements of the American Disabilities Act.
(e) 
Materials. Parking areas may be designed with impervious or semipervious materials, such as concrete, asphalt, macadam, brick, and stone.
[1] 
Gravel and crushed stone are permitted for parking lots for residential parking areas up to 10 spaces and for parks and open space uses. Additional application of these types of material may be permitted with approval of the City Planner.
(f) 
Landscape areas.
[1] 
Areas not used for sidewalks, parking spaces, drive aisles, loading, or refuse shall be constructed and maintained as landscaped areas.
[2] 
The perimeter of a parking lot shall be treated with fencing and/or landscaping along all property lines following Appendix A, § 6.2, Landscaping and Open Spaces.
(g) 
Lighting. Parking areas with 50 or more spaces must be lit per Appendix A, § 6.4, Lighting.
(h) 
Pedestrian access. Parking lots with more than two double-loaded aisles will provide internal pedestrian access both through the lot and, if directly adjacent to right-of-way, from the adjacent right-of-way to the structure(s).
[1] 
Dimension. The pedestrian access pathway shall be at least six feet in width.
[2] 
Location. The pathway(s) shall be centrally located.
[3] 
Buffer. The pathway shall be buffered from drive aisles with landscaping or designated parking stalls and delineated with paint where it crosses drive aisles.
(2) 
Vehicular parking location. Refer to § 50-5.6, Lot type standards, for information on the permitted location for Node, Live-Work 1, and Live-Work 2 Districts. In addition the following apply:
(a) 
Access. All spaces, unless otherwise noted, shall front an drive aisle, driveway, or right-of-way providing direct access the parking space.
(b) 
Parking in yards. Parking of motorcycles and personal vehicles is not allowed in front yards except on driveways, permitted parking areas, or within structures.
(c) 
Recreational vehicles. Trailers, motor homes, recreational vehicles, boats, or other similar vehicles may be parked as follows:
[1] 
Recreational vehicles shall not be stored in a front yard or front or corner build-to zone unless in a garage or carport; except vehicles may be parked for up to 72 hours for loading and unloading purposes.
[2] 
Recreational vehicles can be stored in the side or rear yards.
[3] 
Recreational vehicles must be kept in good repair and carry a current license and registration.
[4] 
A maximum of two recreational vehicles can be stored out of doors on a lot at a time; there is no limit as it relates to vehicles within fully enclosed structures.
A. 
Required Bicycle Parking Table.
(1) 
Table 7.3-1 outlines the required spaces for bicycle parking.
Table 7.3-1
Required Bicycle Parking Table
Use
Required Spaces
Residential/Lodging
Bed-and-breakfast/hotel/motel
1 per 7 employees
Dormitory
1 per 5 beds or per City-approved campus master plan
Nursing home/assisted living/rehabilitation center/adult foster care
1 per 7 employees
Residential
1 per 5 dwelling units
Civic/Institutional Uses
Assembly/theater
1 per 50 persons permitted at maximum occupancy
Assembly, religious
1 per 50 seats in worship area or 100 square feet without seats
College and university
Based on similar use or per City-approved campus master plan
Hospital
1 per 15 employees or per City-approved campus master plan
Library and museum
1 per 7 employees
Parks and open space
1 per 5,000 square feet of land area or per City parks and recreation plan
School
2 per classroom
Commercial and Industrial
Agriculture
1 per 5 employees or gardeners
Eating and drinking establishments and entertainment sports (participant)
1 per 15 persons permitted at maximum occupancy
Office/employment uses/other
1 per 7 employees
Parking, stand-alone surface lot or garage/ramp
1 per 15 parking spaces
Retail/services
1 per 7 employees
(2) 
Total required bicycle parking spaces should be determined using the following parameters in addition to Table 7.3-1.
(a) 
Calculation. At least one space is required. Beyond the first space, in determining the number of spaces required, any fraction of spaces required under 1/2 shall be disregarded; a fraction greater than 1/2 shall be rounded up to count as one space.
(b) 
Public bicycle parking spaces. Parking facilities within public spaces, such as street rights-of-way, can count toward the requirement for nonresidential uses. All facilities located within a public right-of-way require review and approval of an encroachment agreement with the City.
B. 
Bicycle parking design and location. Bicycle parking facilities shall be provided using the following standards:
(1) 
Design. Bicycle parking shall be designed as follows:
(a) 
Space size. Each bicycle parking space must be at least six feet long and two feet wide with a five-foot access aisle.
(b) 
Bicycle racks. Bicycle racks must be designed as follows:
[1] 
Be a fixed-in-place stand that is securely anchored to the ground and/or wall.
[2] 
Provide at least two points of contact to allow locking of frame and at least one wheel.
[3] 
Be constructed of materials that resist cutting, rusting, bending, or deformation.
(c) 
Lockers. Lockers must be designed as follows.
[1] 
Be a fixed-in-place stand that is securely anchored to the ground and/or wall.
[2] 
Be secured by means of a lockable door or configured internally to allow locking of the frame and at least one wheel.
(2) 
Location. Bicycle parking shall be located as follows.
(a) 
Visible location. If not visible from the street or public entrance, a directional sign must be posted indicating location. Adherence to the Manual On Uniform Traffic Control Devices for signage is recommended.
(b) 
Structured parking. If more than 50% of a site's vehicular parking is in a covered area or structure, the required spaces shall also be located in the covered area or structure or otherwise protected from the weather.
A. 
Off-street loading. Construction of new buildings that are expected to have deliveries by vehicles rated as heavy-duty must provide off-street loading facilities as follows.
(1) 
Design. Each loading space shall be a minimum of 10 feet in width, 25 feet in length, and 14 feet in height.
(2) 
Location. Loading areas shall be located as follows.
(a) 
Loading areas shall not be located on a building's front facade and may not occupy any part of a required front or side yard.
(b) 
Loading areas shall not be located closer than 50 feet from a residentially zoned lot unless it is wholly enclosed within the building or by walls.
(c) 
Loading areas must be separate from pedestrian facilities and pathways.
A. 
Driveways. Driveways will be designed as follows:
(1) 
Driveway width. Driveway width is measured at the front property line and shall adhere to the following:
(a) 
Single-lane driveways. Single-lane driveways shall be between eight feet and 12 feet.
(b) 
Double-lane driveway. Double-lane driveways shall be between 20 feet and 24 feet, unless the driveway serves the off-street loading area where a larger driveway may be required based on site plan review.
(2) 
Double-track driveways. Double-track, wheel strip, or ribbon driveways are permitted as follows:
(a) 
The first two feet of the entire driveway width, measured from the property line, must paved or covered with a permitted material.
(b) 
The wheel strip shall be at least 18 inches in width.
(c) 
The area between the wheel strips must be landscaped with living ground cover.
(3) 
Materials. Driveways may be designed with impervious or semipervious materials, such as concrete, asphalt, macadam, brick, and stone.
(a) 
Gravel and crushed stone are permitted for residential driveways accessing parking areas up to 10 spaces. Additional application of these types of material may be permitted with approval of the City Planner.
(4) 
Maximum coverage of front yard. Driveways cannot account for more than 30% of the front yard of a lot.