For every building erected, altered, extended, modified or changed in use after the effective date of this chapter, there shall be provided off-street parking and loading spaces at least as set forth in this chapter. For purposes of interpretation, the determination of a change in use shall be based upon the uses enumerated in § 240-28 of this chapter. If such a change in use results in a greater required number of parking and loading spaces than is available at the existing structure, then only the net increase in parking and loading spaces shall be required. However, any off-site parking spaces associated with an existing use may not be automatically transferred to a new use, unless approved pursuant to the requirements of this article.
No use or structure in conformance with these requirements on the effective date of this chapter may reduce its existing parking or loading spaces below the minimum required by this chapter.
Existing uses or structures not conforming to the parking and loading requirements may continue; provided, however, that any modification causing an increase in the use of floor area, with or without structural modifications, shall meet the provisions of the parking and loading requirements for only the net additional floor area.
The requirements for a combination of uses on the same lot shall be determined by establishing the requirements for each component use from the parking schedule and adding them together.
Loading spaces as required by this chapter shall not be construed as supplying the required off-street parking spaces.
In calculating the required number of spaces (for uses whose parking requirements are based on square footage of the structure's floor area), all fractional results shall be rounded to the next-highest whole number. These requirements are minimum requirements and may be increased during a special permit or a site plan review.
Residential uses. Parking space requirements for residential uses shall be as follows:
One-family dwelling unit: one space.
Multiple-family dwelling unit: 1.5 spaces for each dwelling unit.
Home occupations: one off-street parking space for each resident employee of the home occupation, plus one parking space for each nonresident employee, plus one parking space for customer parking. In addition, the Board of Appeals may require up to one parking space for each 200 square feet of gross floor area used in the home occupation.
Group home: for group homes with six or fewer residents: three parking spaces; for group homes with more than six residents: one space, plus one space for each staff member at maximum shift and one space for each three residents.
Nonresidential uses. Parking space requirements shall be as follows:
Religious use: one parking space for every four seats in the main worship area or one space per four persons to be accommodated, whichever is greater.
Public or private school: five administrative parking spaces, plus, for preschool, elementary and middle/junior high schools, two spaces per classroom and, for high schools, five spaces per classroom.
Public library or museum: one parking space for each 250 square feet of gross floor area.
Community center: one parking space for each four persons using the facility at maximum design capacity.
Eleemosynary use: one parking space for each four persons using the facility at maximum design capacity.
Nursing or convalescent home: one parking space for each four inpatient beds.
Zero to 25,000 square feet of gross floor area: one parking space for every motor vehicle used directly in the business, plus one space for every 200 square feet of gross floor area.
Twenty-five thousand to 400,000 square feet of gross floor area: four parking spaces per 1,000 square feet of gross floor area.
Four hundred thousand plus square feet of gross floor area: five parking spaces per 1,000 square feet of gross floor area.
Bank, without drive-in service facility: one parking space for each 175 square feet of gross floor area.
Bank, with drive-in service facility: one parking space for each 175 square feet of gross floor area, plus five entrance stacking spaces for each drive-in window or lane and two stacking spaces exiting each drive-in window or lane.
Restaurant: one parking space for every 60 square feet of gross floor area used for the preparation and serving of food and drink in any form.
Restaurant, with drive-in facility: one parking space per employee, plus one space for every 50 square feet of floor area used primarily for the consumption of food and beverages by patrons, plus five entrance stacking spaces for each drive-in window or lane and two stacking spaces exiting each drive-in window or lane. In no case shall fewer than 15 parking spaces for customer use be provided.
Business office: one parking space for every 200 square feet of gross floor area.
Gasoline station: six parking spaces per station with service bays; three spaces per station with no service bays.
Motor vehicle service and repair: one parking space for every employee, plus one space for each 500 square feet of gross floor area.
Car or truck wash: parking spaces equal to five times the capacity of the car wash for purposes of lining up vehicles to enter the car wash bay(s), plus two spaces exiting each bay to accommodate dry-off or exiting maneuvers, plus one space per employee per maximum shift.
Skating rink: one parking space for each 100 square feet of gross floor area.
Bowling alley: four parking spaces per alley.
Pool or billiard parlor: three parking spaces for each table.
Swimming pool: one parking space for each 100 square feet of water surface, plus one space for each employee, but not fewer than 10 spaces.
Athletic club or center: one parking space for each two employees, plus one space for each four persons, based upon the maximum capacity of all facilities capable of simultaneous use as determined by the Code Enforcement Officer.
Other: one parking space for each employee, plus one space for each three persons capable of simultaneous use as determined by the Code Enforcement Officer.
Motor vehicle sales: one parking space for each 500 square feet of gross floor area, plus one space for each 1,000 square feet of outdoor sales, display or service area. In no case shall fewer than five off-street customer parking spaces be provided. The combination of motor vehicle sales with motor vehicle service and repair shall meet the requirements of motor vehicle service and repair.
Veterinary clinic or hospital: five parking spaces per veterinarian.
Mortuary or undertaking establishment: one parking space for each three fixed seats, plus one space for each vehicle owned or leased by the funeral home, plus one space for every 20 square feet of seating area where there are no fixed seats.
Commercial dry-cleaning and laundry establishment: one parking space for each 500 square feet of gross floor area.
Kennel: one parking space for each staff person at maximum shift, plus five visitor parking spaces.
Medical center: one parking space for each three inpatient beds, plus one space for each staff person and other employees on duty at the maximum shift, plus one space for each 100 square feet of gross floor area used for medical, dental or other professional office, clinic facilities or outpatient care purposes, including emergency services.
Storage yard: one parking space for each 500 square feet of gross floor area of any structures, plus one space for each 1,000 square feet of outdoor sales, display or service area, not including storage areas of materials not for immediate sale, plus one space for each two employees at maximum shift.
Hotel or motel: 1.25 parking spaces per guest bedroom, plus spaces for accessory uses per the off-street parking requirements of this chapter, with each accessory use treated as if a principal use.
Industrial use: one parking space for every motor vehicle used directly in the business, plus either one space for every 300 square feet of gross floor area or one space for every two employees on the premises at maximum shift, whichever is the greatest number.
Vehicular freight service: five parking spaces, plus one space for every two employees on the premises at maximum shift.
Warehouse business: one parking space for every two employees on the premises at maximum shift.
Wholesale business: five parking spaces, plus one space for each employee on the premises at maximum shift.
Research facility: five parking spaces, plus one space for each employee on the premises at maximum shift.
Power generating facility: one parking space for every two employees on the premises at maximum shift.
Day-care facility: one parking space for each employee, plus one space for each five children.
Private club: one parking space for each three persons allowed within the building by the maximum occupancy load as established by the New York State Uniform Fire Prevention and Building Code.
On-site parking. The total number of required parking spaces designated in the parking schedule shall be located on the same lot as the use which they are intended to serve except as provided in Subsection B of this chapter. All on-site parking spaces and areas shall be designed and maintained in accordance with § 240-30 of this chapter.
Off-site parking. The Board of Appeals may grant a special permit so that on-site parking requirements for nonresidential uses may be met by the provision of the required parking spaces on a lot off site and within the zoning district wherein the principal use is permitted, provided that:
The off-site parking is reasonably and safely accessible with all the off-site parking spaces being located within 300 feet of the principal use. For purposes of interpretation of the three-hundred-foot distance, a walking distance (likely pedestrian path) measurement should be used between the parking space and the main entrance of the principal use; direct, straight line distance should not be used unless it coincides with the preceding requirement.
The off-site parking area is not to be used for loading spaces.
In addition to the special permit criteria mentioned in Article V of this chapter, the applicant for an off-site parking area must also show that the provision of the full amount of required parking on site is not practical because of site size, configuration, topography or other physical elements, because it interferes with the optimal development of the site, such as causing elimination or reduction of buffer areas, because it results in poor internal traffic circulation or because it creates drainage problems on adjoining properties that cannot be solved through other measures.
Any transfer of off-site parking rights from one property to another shall require approval by the Board of Appeals. Likewise, any change in use for the property used for off-site parking or for the property to which the off-site area is furnishing parking shall require review by the Board of Appeals to assure that the parking arrangement is still viable. Finally, loss of off-site parking for a use which has been granted an off-site parking special permit shall require a review by the Board of Appeals in order either to create a new off-site parking arrangement or to enforce on-site compliance with the parking regulations.
Parking area design standards shall be as follows:
Single-family dwellings are exempt from all paving, screening and buffering requirements applicable to parking areas.
Within the yard area between the front lot line and the front yard setback line, all vehicles must park in the established driveway. No vehicle may be parked on the landscaped portion of the yard.
In no case may more than 25% of any front yard area be paved or used for driveways and off-street parking.
Multiple-family dwellings and nonresidential uses.
Exemption. Parking facilities existing on the effective date of this chapter shall be exempt from compliance with these design standards unless a change of use has subsequently occurred or the Code Enforcement Officer determines that an unsafe condition exists and requires modifications to the parking.
Access and layout. The curb cut, driveway and parking areas shall be designed so that all vehicular movements to and from the public right-of-way may be made in a forward direction. The layout of the parking area shall permit entering and exiting without moving other parked vehicles; also, the layout shall not require that a vehicle enter a street in order to move from one aisle to another aisle within a parking area. Finally, the layout of the parking area shall ensure that parking maneuvers can be accomplished without driving, maneuvering or encroaching upon or into any street, public right-of-way, walkway or any buffer strip or yard where parking is prohibited.
Entrances and exits. Curb cuts shall not be located within 20 feet of the nearest curb cut within a site or a curb cut on any adjoining property. For properties less than 60 feet in width, this distance requirement does not apply, and single, combined entrances and exits are to be encouraged for these properties.
Driveways. Each driveway leading from the curb cut to the parking area shall have a suitable area for stacking of vehicles waiting to enter parking spaces. The paved area of these driveways, exclusive of parking spaces, shall be a minimum of 10 feet in width for one-way traffic and 20 feet in width for two-way traffic up to a maximum of 24 feet, unless required to be larger or smaller by another, higher jurisdiction.
Location of parking. Required parking spaces may not be located in a required front yard or in a required buffer area.
Size of spaces. Parking space dimensions shall be at least nine feet in width and 18 feet in length, and aisles between rows of parked cars shall be at least 20 feet in width. The Board of Appeals during special permit reviews and the Town Board during site plan reviews may increase or decrease these requirements based on the angle at which vehicles are to be parked, the general size of vehicles to be using the parking facility and on any special characteristics of the site or the use proposed for the site, provided that the safety and general welfare of the public are not jeopardized.
Landscaping and snow storage.
Screening (fencing). On each side that a parking area abuts or faces upon a residential use or a residentially zoned property, the view of that parking area from the residential property or properties shall be effectively screened with an opaque fence or a dense planting of evergreens. Such screening shall be maintained within the property boundary at a height of six feet in the rear and side yard areas (see § 240-41).
Snow storage. Each parking lot or area shall provide sufficient space on site for snow storage. Buffer areas may be used to store snow; however, snow may not be placed in the front yard or in the public right-of-way to a height that impairs the visibility of drivers entering or leaving the site. The Board of Appeals in its special permit review and the Town Board during its site plan review may require the provision of additional snow storage areas.
Buffers. A landscaped buffer shall be installed and maintained on all sides where a parking area abuts adjoining properties or a public right-of-way except as provided in the following Subsection B(7)(d). The buffer shall have a minimum width of five feet measured inward from the property line, unless required to be larger by either transition or special permit requirements. Decorative materials, including but not limited to plants, shrubs, trees, stone, brick, etc., may be placed in the buffer to delineate the buffer from the parking pavement and to enhance the appearance of the site.
Adjacent parking areas. Upon petition of adjoining nonresidential property owners, the Town Board may reduce or eliminate a required side or rear yard to interconnect adjacent parking lots, provided that such approval would not be detrimental to the internal circulation of either parking lot, that neither lot adjoins a residential use or a residentially zoned area, that adequate provisions for snow storage are provided and that the number of separate curb cuts is no greater than three.
Front yard visibility. No front yard buffer, including associated decorative materials, may exceed 2.5 feet in height above grade. Trees are allowed, provided that they are trimmed to provide a seven-foot clearance to the lowest branches and the trees are no closer than 10 feet to the edge of a driveway and 10 feet to the front property line.
A minimum number of designated handicapped parking spaces shall be included in the required parking in the amounts indicated below:
Each handicapped space shall be 13 feet wide by 18 feet long and be suitably marked by the international handicap designation. Handicapped spaces shall be placed as close to the principal entrance to the building as reasonable.
In accordance with § 240-27, all commercial buildings shall provide at the minimum on-site space for loading and unloading trucks and other delivery vehicles as set forth below. In calculating the required number of spaces, all fractional results shall be rounded to the nearest whole number.
Loading schedule. Loading space requirements shall be as follows:
Retail business or medical center:
Restaurant, business office, bank, indoor recreation, mortuary or undertaking establishment or research facility, if over 5,000 square feet of gross floor area: one loading space.
Wholesale business, hotel, motel, industrial use, vehicular freight service, warehouse business, commercial dry-cleaning and/or laundry establishment:
Loading space dimensions. Each loading space shall be 12 feet in width by 50 feet in length with a clear height of 14 feet, unless otherwise specified by the appropriate Board during any site plan or special permit review procedure based on the type and size of delivery vehicles anticipated.
Location and controls.
All loading spaces shall be located in the side or rear yard portions of a site and may not encroach into any buffer area or require the use of adjoining land for maneuvering.
Loading spaces and access thereto shall be kept clear of parked vehicles, other than those used specifically for loading and delivery purposes, trash enclosures, mechanical equipment and any other obstructions.
Loading spaces shall have adequate vehicular access in a manner which does not interfere with required or provided parking spaces or integral maneuvering or turnaround areas, access driveways or areas leading to access driveways. Vehicular maneuvering areas integral to a loading space shall not be within a street or a public right-of-way.
Loading spaces shall be located in the same lot as the principal use.
Loading spaces shall be arranged so that:
Any vehicle entering a street or public right-of-way can do so traveling in forward motion.
A vehicle entering the area containing loading spaces shall not be required to enter a street or public right-of-way to move from one location to any other location within the area containing loading space.
Modification of loading requirements. The Board of Appeals when reviewing special permit applications and the Town Board when reviewing site plan applications may require additional or fewer loading spaces for any use if they find that, for that particular use, the required minimum number of spaces is not sufficient or is excessive, provided that the safety and general welfare of the public is not jeopardized, and further provided that such modification shall not exceed 50% of the spaces required in the loading schedule of this chapter. In addition, the size of the loading space may be varied by the appropriate Board during the same review process, as noted above, although the size of the space may not be decreased to less than 10 feet in width by 30 feet in length.