[HISTORY: Adopted by the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Orange as indicated in article histories. Amendments noted where applicable.]
The purpose of this chapter is to provide for the health, safety, and general welfare of the citizens of the Town of Orange (the "Town") through the regulation of non-stormwater discharges to the storm drainage system to the maximum extent practicable as required by federal and state law. This chapter establishes methods for controlling the introduction of pollutants into the municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) in order to comply with requirements of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit process.
The objectives of this chapter are:
To regulate the contribution of pollutants to the municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) by stormwater discharges by any user.
To prohibit and eliminate illicit connections and discharges to the municipal separate storm sewer system.
To establish legal authority to carry out all inspection, surveillance and monitoring procedures necessary to ensure compliance with this chapter.
This chapter shall apply to all water entering the storm drainage system generated on any developed and undeveloped lands unless explicitly exempted by an authorized enforcement agency.
For the purposes of this chapter, the following shall mean:
- AUTHORIZED ENFORCEMENT AGENCY
- Employees or designees of the director of the municipal agency designated to enforce this chapter.
- BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPs)
- Schedules of activities, practices (and prohibitions of practices), structures, vegetation, maintenance procedures, and other management practices to prevent or reduce the discharge of pollutants to waters of the state consistent with state, federal or other equivalent and technically supported guidance. BMPs also include treatment requirements, operating procedures, and practices to control site runoff, spillage or leaks, sludge or waste disposal, or drainage from material storage.
- CLEAN WATER ACT
- The federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. § 1251 et seq.), and any subsequent amendments thereto.
- CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY
- Any activity associated with construction at a site, including, but not limited to, clearing and grubbing, grading, excavation, and dewatering.
- HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
- Any material, including any substance, waste, or combination thereof, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics may cause, or significantly contribute to, a substantial present or potential hazard to human health, safety, property, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
- ILLEGAL DISCHARGE
- Any direct or indirect non-stormwater discharge to the storm drain system, except as exempted in § 384-7 of this chapter.
- ILLICIT CONNECTION
- An illicit connection is defined as either of the following: any drain or conveyance, whether on the surface or subsurface, which allows an illegal discharge to enter the storm drain system, including but not limited to any conveyances which allow any non-stormwater discharge including sewage, process wastewater, and wash water to enter the storm drain system and any connections to the storm drain system from indoor drains and sinks, regardless of whether said drain or connection had been previously allowed, permitted, or approved by an authorized enforcement agency, or any drain or conveyance connected from a commercial or industrial land use to the storm drain system which has not been documented in plans, maps, or equivalent records and approved by an authorized enforcement agency.
- INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY
- Activities subject to NPDES industrial permits as defined in 40 CFR, Section 122.26 (b)(14).
- NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM (NPDES) STORMWATER DISCHARGE PERMIT
- A permit issued by EPA [or by a state under authority delegated pursuant to 3 3 U.S.C. § 1342(b)] that authorizes the discharge of pollutants to waters of the United States, whether the permit is applicable on an individual, group, or general area-wide basis.
- NON-STORMWATER DISCHARGE
- Any discharge to the storm drain system that is not composed entirely of stormwater.
- Any individual, association, organization, partnership, firm, corporation or other entity recognized by law and acting as either the owner or as the owner's agent.
- Anything which causes or contributes to pollution. Pollutants may include, but are not limited to; paints, varnishes, and solvents; oil and other automotive fluids; non-hazardous liquid and solid wastes and yard wastes; refuse, rubbish, garbage, litter, or other discarded or abandoned objects, ordinances, and accumulations, so that same may cause or contribute to pollution; floatables; pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers; hazardous substances and wastes; sewage, fecal coliform and pathogens; dissolved and particulate metals; animal wastes; wastes and residues that result from constructing a building or structure; and noxious or offensive matter of any kind.
- Any building, lot, parcel of land, or portion of land whether improved or unimproved including adjacent sidewalks and parking strips.
- STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEM
- Publicly owned facilities by which stormwater is collected and/or conveyed, including but not limited to any roads with drainage systems, municipal streets, gutters, curbs, inlets, piped storm drains, pumping facilities, retention and detention basins, natural and human-made or altered drainage channels, reservoirs, and other drainage structures.
- Waters consisting of rainfall runoff, including snow or ice melt, during a rain event.
- STORMWATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN
- A document which describes the best management practices and activities to be implemented by a person or business to identify sources of pollution or contamination at a site and the actions to eliminate or reduce pollutant discharges to stormwater, stormwater conveyance systems, and/or receiving waters to the maximum extent practicable.
- Any water or other liquid, other than uncontaminated stormwater, discharged from a facility.
- A permanent or intermittent stream or other body of water, either natural or man-made, which gathers or carries surface water. This includes, but is not limited to, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams.
The Town Engineer shall administer, implement, and enforce the provisions of this chapter. Any powers granted or duties imposed upon the authorized enforcement agency may be delegated in writing by the Town Engineer to persons or entities acting in the beneficial interest of or in the employ of the agency.
The provisions of this chapter are hereby declared to be severable. If any provision, clause, sentence, or paragraph of this chapter or the application thereof to any person, establishment, or circumstances shall be held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect the other provisions or application of this chapter.
The standards set forth herein and promulgated pursuant to this chapter are minimum standards; therefore this chapter does not intend nor imply that compliance by any person will ensure that there will be no contamination, pollution, nor unauthorized discharge of pollutants.
Prohibition of illegal discharges. No person shall discharge or cause to be discharged into the municipal storm drain system or watercourses any materials, including but not limited to pollutants or waters containing any pollutants that cause or contribute to a violation of applicable water quality standards, other than stormwater. The commencement, conduct or continuance of any illegal discharge to the storm drain system is prohibited except as described as follows:
The following discharges are exempt from discharge prohibitions established by this chapter:
Uncontaminated ground water discharges, including, but not limited to, pumped ground water, foundation drains, water from crawl space pumps and footing drains;
Irrigation water, including, but not limited to, landscape irrigation and lawn watering runoff;
Residual street wash water associated with sweeping;
Discharges or flows from firefighting activities (except training); and
Naturally occurring discharges such as rising ground waters, uncontaminated ground water infiltration [as defined at 40 CFR 35.2005(20)], springs, diverted stream flows and flows from riparian habitats and wetlands.
Any non-stormwater discharge to the MS4 authorized by a permit issued pursuant to Section 22a-430 or 22a-430b of the Connecticut General Statutes is also authorized under this chapter.
Prohibition of illicit connections.
The construction, use, maintenance or continued existence of illicit connections to the storm drain system is prohibited.
This prohibition expressly includes, without limitation, illicit connections made in the past, regardless of whether the connection was permissible under law or practices applicable or prevailing at the time of connection.
A person is considered to be in violation of this chapter if the person connects a line conveying sewage to the MS4, or allows such a connection to continue.
Suspension due to illicit discharges in emergency situations. The Town Engineer may, without prior notice, suspend MS4 discharge access to a person when such suspension is necessary to stop an actual or threatened discharge which presents or may present imminent and substantial danger to the environment, or to the health or welfare of persons, or to the MS4 or waters of the United States. If the violator fails to comply with a suspension order issued in an emergency, the authorized enforcement agency may take such steps as deemed necessary to prevent or minimize damage to the MS4 or waters of the United States, or to minimize danger to persons.
Suspension due to the detection of illicit discharge.
Any person discharging to the MS4 in violation of this chapter may have their MS4 access terminated if such termination would abate or reduce an illicit discharge. The authorized enforcement agency will notify a violator of the proposed termination of its MS4 access. The violator may petition the authorized enforcement agency for a reconsideration and hearing.
A person commits an offense if the person reinstates MS4 access to premises terminated pursuant to this section, without the prior approval of the authorized enforcement agency.
Any person subject to an industrial or construction activity NPDES stormwater discharge permit shall comply with all provisions of such permit. Proof of compliance with said permit may be required in a form acceptable to the Zoning Enforcement Officer prior to the allowing of discharges to the MS4.
Applicability. This section applies to all facilities that have stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity.
Access to facilities.
The Town Engineer shall be permitted to enter and inspect facilities subject to regulation under this chapter as often as may be necessary to determine compliance with this chapter. If a discharger has security measures in force which require proper identification and clearance before entry into its premises, the discharger shall make the necessary arrangements to allow access to representatives of the authorized enforcement agency.
Facility operators shall allow the Town Engineer ready access to all parts of the premises for the purposes of inspection, sampling, examination and copying of records that must be kept under the conditions of an NPDES permit to discharge stormwater, and the performance of any additional duties as defined by state and federal law.
The Town Engineer shall have the right to set up on any permitted facility such devices as are necessary in the opinion of the authorized enforcement agency to conduct monitoring and/or sampling of the facility's stormwater discharge.
The Town Engineer has the right to require the discharger to install monitoring equipment as necessary. The facility's sampling and monitoring equipment shall be maintained at all times in a safe and proper operating condition by the discharger at its own expense. All devices used to measure stormwater flow and quality shall be calibrated to ensure their accuracy.
Any temporary or permanent obstruction to safe and easy access to the facility to be inspected and/or sampled shall be promptly removed by the operator at the written or oral request of the Zoning Enforcement Officer and shall not be replaced. The costs of clearing such access shall be borne by the operator.
Unreasonable delays in allowing the Town Engineer access to a permitted facility is a violation of a stormwater discharge permit and of this chapter. A person who is the operator of a facility with a NPDES permit to discharge stormwater associated with industrial activity commits an offense if the person denies the authorized enforcement agency reasonable access to the permitted facility for the purpose of conducting any activity authorized or required by this chapter.
If the Town Engineer has been refused access to any part of the premises from which stormwater is discharged, and he/she is able to demonstrate probable cause to believe that there may be a violation of this chapter, or that there is a need to inspect and/or sample as part of a routine inspection and sampling program designed to verify compliance with this chapter or any order issued hereunder, or to protect the overall public health, safety, and welfare of the community, then the authorized enforcement agency may seek issuance of a search warrant from any court of competent jurisdiction.
The Town Engineer will adopt requirements identifying best management practices for any activity, operation, or facility which may cause or contribute to pollution or contamination of stormwater, the storm drain system, or waters of the United States. The owner or operator of a commercial or industrial establishment shall provide, at their own expense, reasonable protection from accidental discharge of prohibited materials or other wastes into the municipal storm drain system or watercourses through the use of these structural and nonstructural BMPs. Further, any person responsible for a property or premises which is, or may be, the source of an illicit discharge, may be required to implement, at said person's expense, additional structural and nonstructural BMPs to prevent the further discharge of pollutants to the municipal separate storm sewer system. Compliance with all terms and conditions of a valid NPDES permit authorizing the discharge of stormwater associated with industrial activity, to the extent practicable, shall be deemed compliance with the provisions of this section. These BMPs shall be part of a stormwater pollution prevention plan (SWPP) as necessary for compliance with requirements of the NPDES permit.
Every person owning property through which a watercourse passes, or such person's lessee, shall keep and maintain that part of the watercourse within the property free of trash, debris, excessive vegetation, and other obstacles that would pollute, contaminate, or significantly retard the flow of water through the watercourse. In addition, the owner or lessee shall maintain existing privately owned structures within or adjacent to a watercourse, so that such structures will not become a hazard to the use, function, or physical integrity of the watercourse.
Notwithstanding other requirements of law, as soon as any person responsible for a facility or operation, or responsible for emergency response for a facility or operation, has information of any known or suspected release of materials which are resulting or may result in illegal discharges or pollutants discharging into stormwater, the storm drain system, or water of the United States, said person shall take all necessary steps to ensure the discovery, containment, and cleanup of such release. In the event of such a release of hazardous materials said person shall immediately notify emergency response agencies of the occurrence via emergency dispatch services. In the event of a release of nonhazardous materials, said person shall notify the authorized enforcement agency in person or by phone or facsimile no later than the next business day. Notifications in person or by phone shall be confirmed by written notice addressed and mailed to the Town Engineer within three business days of the phone notice. If the discharge of prohibited materials emanates from a commercial or industrial establishment, the owner or operator of such establishment shall also retain an on-site written record of the discharge and the actions taken to prevent its recurrence. Such records shall be retained for at least three years.
Notice of violation.
Whenever the Town Engineer finds that a person has violated a prohibition or failed to meet a requirement of this chapter, the authorized enforcement agency may order compliance by written notice of violation to the responsible person. Such notice may require, without limitation:
The performance of monitoring, analyses, and reporting;
The elimination of illicit connections or discharges;
That violating discharges, practices, or operations shall cease and desist;
The abatement or remediation of stormwater pollution or contamination hazards and the restoration of any affected property; and
The implementation of source control or treatment BMPs.
If abatement of a violation and/or restoration of affected property is required, the notice shall set forth a deadline within which such remediation or restoration must be completed. Where elimination is not possible within 60 days of source confirmation, a schedule for its elimination will be set for no more than 180 days.
Said notice shall further advise that, should the violator fail to remediate or restore within the established deadline, the work will be done by a designated governmental agency or a contractor and the expense thereof shall be charged to the violator, in addition to any fines imposed in Subsections B or C of this section.
Procedure for issuance of citations.
The Town Engineer shall issue a written notice to any person who violates any provision of this chapter. No written notice may be issued against the state or any state official or state employee acting within the scope of his employment. Such written notice shall explain the nature of the violation and the steps required for compliance, and shall allow a seventy-two-hour period within which to correct the violation or within which a written plan for correction shall be submitted to the Town Engineer, setting forth a reasonable time period for correction of the violation as agreed upon by the Town Engineer. A written notice issued pursuant to this subsection shall be served:
Three business days shall be allowed for mail delivery of the notice prior to the commencement of the seventy-two-hour period.
Within two business days after the period for correction established in Subsection B(1) expires, the Town Engineer shall reinspect the subject property to determine compliance.
If the violations set forth in the written notice have not been corrected at the time of reinspection, the Town Engineer may issue a citation and fine of up to $100 for each violation, by leaving a true and attested copy of the citation at the usual place of abode or residence of the person in violation, or in the case of a corporate or business entity, delivery to the business address or the address of the statutory agent of said entity. No such fine shall be levied against the state or any state official or state employee acting within the scope of his employment. All citations issued pursuant to this section shall state:
Compliance periods after citation.
Any violation for which a citation is issued and which is not corrected within the time period specified in Subsection B of this section shall be a new violation of this chapter, and every twenty-four-hour period thereafter in which the violation is not corrected shall constitute a new violation. The citation shall include a notice to the alleged violator that each twenty-four-hour period of noncompliance after the time period specified in § 384-14B shall constitute a new violation and a new fine of up to $100.
The Town Engineer shall not be responsible for a daily reinspection. Rather, the person to whom the citation has been issued shall be responsible for reporting subsequent compliance by way of written report to the Town Engineer. The Town Engineer shall reinspect to confirm compliance with one business day of receipt of such report.
Payment of fines.
All fines imposed under this chapter which are uncontested shall be made payable to the Town of Orange and shall be received by the Town Engineer within 10 calendar days from date of notice of the citation. All fines collected by the Town Engineer shall be deposited into the Town of Orange General Fund.
If the Town Engineer issues a notice of violation, the Town Engineer shall send written notice of action and a statement of the right to an appeal to the facility operator or facility owner.
The facility operator or facility owner may appeal a notice of violation to the Town Engineer by setting forth in writing the reasons for the appeal within 15 calendar days after date of the notice of violation.
The facility operator or facility owner may appeal the decision of the Town Engineer to the hearing officer as follows:
The facility operator or facility owner may file a written request for a review by paying an appeal fee of $25 and setting forth the reasons for the appeal within 20 calendar days after the date of notification of the decision from the Town Engineer.
The hearing officer shall conduct a hearing within 30 calendar days of the receipt of the request. The hearing shall be informal in nature. The person requesting the hearing may testify concerning the facts, circumstances and nature of his/her appeal and may present supporting documentation.
The hearing officer shall render a written decision within 15 calendar days of the hearing. The decision will affirm or reverse the decision of the Town Engineer.
Filing of a request for appeal shall stay the action by the Town Engineer. If a request for appeal is not made within the twenty-calendar-day period, the action of the Town Engineer is final.
It shall be unlawful for any person to violate any provision or fail to comply with any of the requirements of this chapter. If a person has violated or continues to violate the provisions of this chapter, the authorized enforcement agency may petition for preliminary or permanent injunction restraining the person from activities which would create further violations or compelling the person to perform abatement or remediation of the violation.
In lieu of enforcement proceedings, penalties, and remedies authorized by this chapter, the authorized enforcement agency may impose upon a violator alternative compensatory actions, such as storm drain stenciling, attendance at compliance workshops, creek cleanup, etc.
In addition to the enforcement processes and penalties provided, any condition caused or permitted to exist in violation of any of the provisions of this chapter is a threat to public health, safety, and welfare, and is declared and deemed a nuisance, and may be summarily abated or restored at the violator's expense, and/or a civil action to abate, enjoin, or otherwise compel the cessation of such nuisance may be taken.
Any person that has violated or continues to violate this chapter shall be liable to criminal prosecution to the fullest extent of the law. The Town Engineer may recover all attorneys' fees, court costs, and other expenses associated with enforcement of this chapter, including sampling and monitoring expenses.
The remedies listed in this chapter are not exclusive of any other remedies available under any applicable federal, state or local law, and it is within the discretion of the authorized enforcement agency to seek cumulative remedies.
The enactment of this chapter shall not operate as an abatement of any action or proceeding previously taken, now pending, or taken prior to the effective date of this chapter. All said actions and proceedings are hereby ratified to be continued.
The Legislature of the State of Connecticut has in Title 7, Chapter 98, Section 7-148(c)(7) of the General Statutes delegated the responsibility to local governmental units to adopt regulations designed to promote the public health, safety, and general welfare of its citizenry.