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City of Norwalk, CT
Fairfield County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted City of Norwalk Common Council 5-14-1957; effective 5-25-1957.]
The following words or terms, as used in this chapter; shall for the purpose of this chapter have the meanings respectively ascribed to them in this section:
Any liquid used as fuel and having a flash point not less than 110° F. The Pensky-Martens closed-cup tester shall be authoritative. The test shall be made in accordance with the methods of test adopted by the American Society of Testing Materials.
Any device for burning fuel oils, as defined in this chapter, as a substitute for other fuels, in stream, hot water, hot air or other beaters heated in the cellar, basement or elsewhere in any building, for the sole purpose of furnishing warmth within such building.
No person shall install, or cause to be installed, any fuel-oil heating system or apparatus until application has been made in, and a written permit authorizing such installation secured from, the Building Inspector.[1]
Editor's Note: See also, Ch. 26, Building Code, § 26-23C.
Application forms for the permit required by the preceding section may be secured at the office of the Building Inspector.
Permits under this chapter shall be issued for only such systems as have been found by examination and test to be reasonably safeguarded from damage in life or property by fire or explosion. The Building Inspector shall accept as prima facie evidence of such compliance the use of oil-burning equipments tested and listed by Underwriter's Laboratories or other competent laboratory.
Fuel oil heating systems shall be installed under the regulations and recommendations of the National Board of Fire Underwriters on oil-burning equipment, and the National Electrical Code, this chapter and any other ordinances or rule or regulations of the city relating to the same.
No person shall keep, store or use oil in any building in connection with fuel-oil heating apparatus in an amount in excess of 10 gallons thereof, except in accordance with the following sections of this chapter, nor unless a permit has been obtained from the Building Inspector.
Oil for use in connection with fuel-oil heating apparatus shall be kept or stored in tight tanks, constructed of galvanized steel, basic open-hearth steel or wrought iron of a minimum gauge United States standard, as follows:
Capacity in gallons
1 to 285
286 to 560
561 to 1,100
1,101 to 4,000
4,000 to 12,000
12,001 to 20,000
20,001 to 30,000
Tanks containing fuel oil for heating systems shall be located as provided in the following sections.
Underground tanks shall be buried with their tops not less than two feet below the surface of the ground and below the level of any piping to which the tanks may be connected, except that, in lieu of the two-foot cover, such tank may be buried under 12 inches of earth and a cover of reinforced concrete at least one foot beyond the outline of the tank in all directions. Such concrete slab shall be set on a firm, well tamped, earth foundation. Underground tanks shall be securely anchored or weighted in place to prevent floating, where condition, warrant.
If such tanks cannot be set below the level of all piping to which it is connected, satisfactory arrangements shall be provided to prevent siphoning or gravity flow in case of accident to piping.
When buried underneath a building, the tank shall be buried with top of tank not less than two feet below the level of the floor. The floor immediately above such tank shall be of reinforced concrete of at least six inches in thickness (for tanks of 1,500 gallons or less, four inches in thickness), or some other type of construction of equivalent strength and fire resistance, extending at least one foot beyond the outline of the tank in all directions and provided with ample means of support, independent of the tank.
Where tanks are located inside of buildings, no tank shall be located above the lowest storage cellar or basement of the building. Each tank shall be located below the level of any piping to which it may be connected or, if this is impracticable, satisfactory arrangements shall be made to prevent siphoning of the gravity flow in case of accident to the equipment or piping.
Tanks located inside of buildings shall be set on a firm foundation, designed to carry the load.
Steel tanks in units of not over 275 gallons' capacity each, having an aggregate capacity not in excess of 550 gallons, may be installed without enclosures. Except as permitted above, tanks shall be completely enclosed with eight inches of reinforced concrete on 12 inches of other masonry, with at least a six-inch space on the sides between the tank and the concrete filled with sand or well-tampered earth, and with 12 inches of said on top of the tank, either between the tank and the concrete slab or above the concrete slab. When more than one storage tank is installed, such tanks shall be connected with the main feed pipe line leading to the burner through a manually-operated three-way valve so that not more than one tank can in any way discharge its contents at one time.
Storage inside buildings shall in no case exceed a total of 5,000 gallons.
All fuel-oil tanks shall have a filler pipe which extends from the tank to a point outside the building near the grade of the surrounding land. Such pipe shall be convenient for filling the tank and shall be kept properly capped when not in use. Such tanks shall also have a vent pipe of not less than 1 1/4 inches in diameter extending from the tank to the outside, air and terminating in a goose-neck, pointed downward, six feet or more from the surface of the ground.
All fuel-oil tanks located in the cellar or basement of any building above the level of the cellar floor shall be placed not less than seven feet from any open fire or flame.
Auxiliary supply tanks may be of the gravity or pressure type if suitable automatic safeguards to prevent abnormal discharge of oil at the burner are provided. No such gravity tank shall have a capacity of more than 275 gallons. The capacity of pressure tanks shall be restricted to 60 gallons.
Auxiliary tanks shall be filled by pumping from storage tanks.
Tanks shall be provided with an overflow connection draining to the storage tank. Such overflow pipe shall be not less than one size larger than the supply pipe from the pump.
The overflow pipe of an auxiliary, gravity tank shall not be provided with valves or obstructions; but the overflow pipe of an auxiliary pressure tank shall be provided with interconnected valves or other means for automatically venting the tank when filling.
Oil pumps used in filling auxiliary tank from the main storage tank shall be of an approved type, secure against leaks, and with check valves located as close to the pump as convenient. Such pumps shall be rigidly fastened in place.
Automatic pumps which are not as integral part of the oil burner shall be of an approved type, preferably provided with automatic means for preventing continuous discharge of oil in case of pipe breakage.
Standard, full-weight, wrought-iron, steel, brass or copper pipe or tubing, with substantial fittings, shall be used and shall be carefully protected against mechanical injury in a manner satisfactory to the inspection department having jurisdiction. In all piping systems proper allowance shall be made for expansion and contraction and for jarring and vibration.
All piping shall be separated from electric wires which are not enclosed in approved conduits, raceways or armored cable, by some continuous and firmly fixed nonconductor, creating a permanent separation, as provided in the National Electrical Code.
Supply pipe shall be not less than 1/4 inch in diameter, iron-pipe size, and when oil is pumped to the burner, return pipes shall be at least the same size.
Pipe connections to tanks shall be suitably reinforced, and proper allowance shall be made for expansion and contraction and for jarring and vibration.
Openings for pipes through masonry walls below the ground level shall be made oiltight and shall be securely packed with flexible material.
All connections shall be made perfectly tight with well-fitted joints. Unions shall be used as burners to facilitate removal. All unions, shall be of an approved type, having conically faced joint, and obviating the use of packing and gaskets.
Piping shall be run as directly as possible. In case of pumping systems it shall be laid so that, if practicable, the pipes are pitched back toward the storage tank without traps.
Systems under pressure shall be designed for six times the working pressure. Installations, when complete, shall be tested and proven tight at twice the maximum working pressure.
Readily accessible valves shall be provided near each burner and also close to the auxiliary tank in the pipe line to such burners.
Control valves shall be of an approved type and shall be provided with a stuffing box of liberal size containing a removable capped gland designed to compress the packing against the valve stem and arranged so as to facilitate removal. Such valves shall be designed to close against the supply and to prevent withdrawl by stem by continued operation of the hand wheel. The use of parking affected by the oil heat is prohibited.
Means for remote control of the flow of oil to the burner should be provided for use in emergency, and a sign indicating its purpose shall be located at the control device.
A switch in the motor circuit may serve this purpose for an electrically driven equipment, or a quick-closing value in the oil supply, arranged to be operated from a safe location, preferably outside the building, may be used.
If from any cause whatsoever, the gas pilot light or the oil flame of a fuel-oil burner should become extinguished, no attempt should be made to relight the pilot light for at least 15 minutes or while any white vapor or smoke is visible in the fire box.
The use of acetylene, or any other gas possessing a wider range of explosibility in mixture with air than coal gas, water gas, or oil gas, is prohibited for use in the gas pilot of a fuel-oil heating system.
All pipes used in fuel-oil heating installations shall be of standard, full-weight brass, copper, galvanized iron or steel, with suitable brass or galvanized malleable iron or steel fittings. No rubber or other packages shall be used. If unions are used, at least one face must be of brass with close-fitting conical joints. Litharge and glycerin, shellac or other suitable material shall be used on pipe joints. Such piping shall run under the cellar wherever possible and shall be protected from injury.
In all steam installations Tan approved low-water cutoff shall be installed to prevent the continued operation of oil-burning equipment with the water below the danger line.
All fuel-oil heating apparatus shall be installed and operated in accordance with the foregoing regulations of this chapter and with the rules and directions of the manufacturers thereof, which rules shall be consistent with this chapter and approved by the Building Inspector.
A printed copy of the rules and regulations of the manufactures shall be furnished with each installation of fuel-oil heating apparatus.
A printed copy of the rules and regulations of the manufacturers shall be conspicuously posted under glass and frame near the apparatus, and the permit authorizing such installation and maintenance shall likewise be displayed.