Questions about eCode360? Municipal users Join us daily between 12pm and 1pm EDT to get answers and other tips!
Township of Lakewood, NJ
Ocean County
By using eCode360 you agree to be legally bound by the Terms of Use. If you do not agree to the Terms of Use, please do not use eCode360.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[Editor's Note: Prior ordinance history includes portions of 1971 Code §§ 19B-1.1 — 19B-5.3 and Ordinance No. 2003-22.]
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
The Legislature of the State of New Jersey has in N.J.S.A. 40:48-1 et seq., delegated the responsibility to local governmental units to adopt regulations designed to promote public health, safety and general welfare of its citizenry. Therefore, the Township Committee of the Township of Lakewood, County of Ocean, State of New Jersey, does ordain as follows.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
a. 
The flood hazard areas of the Township of Lakewood are subject to periodic inundation which results in loss of life and property, health and safety hazards, disruption of commerce and governmental services, extraordinary public expenditures for flood protection and relief, and impairment of the tax base, all of which adversely affect the public health, safety, and general welfare.
b. 
These flood losses are caused by the cumulative effect of obstructions in areas of special flood hazard which increase flood heights and velocities, and when inadequately anchored, damage uses in other areas. Uses that are inadequately flood-proofed, elevated or otherwise protected from flood damage also contribute to the flood loss.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
It is the purpose of this chapter to promote the public health, safety, and general welfare, and to minimize public and private losses due to flood conditions in specific areas by provisions designed:
a. 
To protect human life and health;
b. 
To minimize expenditure of public money for costly flood control projects;
c. 
To minimize the need for rescue and relief efforts associated with flooding and generally undertaken at the expense of the general public;
d. 
To minimize prolonged business interruptions;
e. 
To minimize damage to public facilities and utilities such as water and gas mains, electric, telephone and sewer lines, streets, bridges located in areas of special flood hazard;
f. 
To help maintain a stable tax base by providing for the second use and development of areas of special flood hazard so as to minimize future flood blight areas;
g. 
To insure that potential buyers are notified that property is in an area of special flood hazard; and
h. 
To ensure that those who occupy the areas of special flood hazard assume responsibility for their actions.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
In order to accomplish its purposes, this chapter includes methods and provisions for:
a. 
Restricting or prohibiting, uses which are dangerous to health, safety and property due to water or erosion hazards, or which result in damaging increases in erosion or in flood heights or velocities;
b. 
Requiring that uses vulnerable to floods including facilities which serve such uses, be protected against flood damage at the time of initial construction;
c. 
Controlling the alteration of natural flood plains, stream channels, and natural protective barriers, which help accommodate or channel flood waters;
d. 
Controlling filling, grading, dredging, and other development which may increase flood damage; and
e. 
Preventing or regulating the construction of flood barriers which will unnaturally divert flood waters or which may increase flood hazards in other areas.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
Unless specifically defined below, words or phrases used in this chapter shall be interpreted so as to give them the meaning they have in common usage and to give this chapter its most reasonable application.
APPEAL
Shall mean a request for a review of the local administrator's interpretation of any provision of this chapter or a request for a variance.
AREA OF SHALLOW FLOODING
Shall mean a designated AO, AH, or VO zone on a community's Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) with a 1% annual or greater chance of flooding to an average depth of one to three feet where a clearly defined channel does not exist, where the path of flooding is unpredictable and where velocity flow may be evident. Such flooding is characterized by ponding or sheet flow.
AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD
Shall mean the land in the flood plain within a community subject to a 1% or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
AREAS OF SPECIAL FLOOD RELATED EROSION HAZARD
Shall mean the land within a community which is most likely to be subject to severe flood related erosion losses. After a detailed evaluation of the special flood related erosion hazard area will be designated a Zone E on the Flood Insurance Rate Map.
BASE FLOOD
Shall mean the flood having a 1% chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
BASEMENT
Shall mean any area of the building having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides.
BREAKAWAY WALL
Shall mean a wall that is not part of the structural support of the building and is intended through its design and construction to collapse under specific lateral loading forces without causing damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system.
COASTAL HIGH HAZARD AREA
Shall mean an area of special flood hazard extending from offshore to the inland limit of a primary frontal dune along an open coast and any other area subject to high velocity wave action from storms or seismic sources.
DEVELOPMENT
Shall mean any man-made change to improved or unimproved real estate, including but not limited to buildings or other structures, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations, or storage of equipment or materials located within the areas of special flood hazard.
ELEVATED BUILDING
Shall mean a non-basement building (i) built in the case of a building in an area of special flood hazard to have the top of the elevated floor or in the case of a building in a coastal high hazard area to have the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member of the elevated floor elevated above the ground level by means of piling, columns (posts and piers), or shear walls parallel to the flow of the water, and (ii) adequately anchored so as not to impair the structural integrity of the building during a flood up to the magnitude of the base flood. In an area of special flood hazard "elevated building" also includes a building elevated by means of fill or solid foundation perimeter walls with openings sufficient to facilitate the unimpeded movement of flood waters. In areas of coastal high hazard "elevated buildings" also includes a building otherwise meeting the definition of "elevated building" even though the lower area is enclosed by means of breakaway walls.
EROSION
Shall mean the process of the gradual wearing away of land masses.
FLOOD OR FLOODING
Shall mean a general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from:
a. 
The overflow of inland or tidal waters and/or
b. 
The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source.
DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (DFIRM)
Shall mean the official map on which the Federal Insurance Administration has delineated both the areas of special flood hazards and the risk premium zones applicable to the community.
FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY (FIS)
Shall mean the official report provided in which the Federal Insurance Administration has provided flood profiles, as well as the Flood Insurance Rate Map(s) and the water surface elevation of the base flood.
FLOOD-RELATED EROSION
Shall mean the collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or other body of water as a result of undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels or suddenly caused by unusually high water level in a natural body of water, accompanied by a severe storm, or by unanticipated force of nature, such as a flash flood or an abnormal tidal surge, or by some similarly unusual and unforeseeable event which results in flooding.
FLOOD-RELATED EROSION AREA OR FLOOD-RELATED EROSION PRONE AREA
Shall mean a land area adjoining the shore of a lake or other body of water, which due to the composition of the shore line or bank and high water levels or wind-driven currents, is likely to suffer flood-related erosion.
FLOOD-RELATED EROSION AREA MANAGEMENT
Shall mean the operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood-related erosion damage, including but not limited to emergency preparedness plans, flood-related erosion control works, and flood plain management regulations.
FLOOD PLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS
Shall mean zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations, special purpose ordinances (such as a flood plain ordinance, grading ordinance and erosion control ordinance) and other applications of police power. The term describes such State or local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction.
FLOODWAY
Shall mean the channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than 0.2 foot.
HIGHEST ADJACENT GRADE
Shall mean the highest natural elevation of the ground surface prior to construction next to the proposed walls of a structure.
HISTORIC STRUCTURE
Shall mean any structure that is:
a. 
Listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places (a listing maintained by the Department of Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;
b. 
Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary to qualify as a registered historic district;
c. 
Individually listed on a State inventory of historic places in states with historic preservation programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or
d. 
Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either:
1. 
By an approved State program as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or
2. 
Directly by the Secretary of the Interior in states without approved programs.
LOWEST FLOOR
Shall mean the lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area (including basement). An unfinished or flood resistant enclosure, usable solely for the parking of vehicles, building access or storage in an area other than a basement is not considered a building's lowest floor provided that such enclosure is not built so to render the structure in violation of other applicable nonelevation design requirements.
MANUFACTURED HOME
Shall mean a structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent foundation when attached to the required utilities. The term "manufactured home" does not include a "recreational vehicle."
MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR MANUFACTURED HOME SUBDIVISION
Shall mean a parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale.
NEW CONSTRUCTION
Shall mean structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of a flood plain regulation adopted by a community and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures.
NEW MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
Shall mean a manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed on or after the effective date of the flood plain management regulations adopted by the municipality.
PRIMARY FRONTAL DUNE
Shall mean a continuous or nearly continuous mound or ridge of sand with relatively steep seaward and landward slopes immediately landward and adjacent to the beach and subject to erosion and over-topping from high tides and waves from coastal storms. The inland limit of the primary frontal dune occurs at the point where there is a distinct change from the relatively steep slope to a relatively mild slope.
RECREATIONAL VEHICLE
Shall mean a vehicle which is (i) built on a single chassis; (ii) 400 square feet or less when measured at the longest horizontal projects; (iii) designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable by a light duty truck; and (iv) designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel, or seasonal use.
REFERENCE FEATURE
Shall mean the receding edge or bluff or eroding frontal dune, or if such a feature is not present, the normal high water line or the seaward line of permanent vegetation if a high water line cannot be identified.
SAND DUNES
Shall mean naturally occurring accumulations of sand in ridges or mounds landward of the beach.
SETBACK
60-year setback shall mean a distance equal to 60 times the average annual long term recession rate at a site, measured from the reference feature.
30-year setback shall mean a distance equal to 30 times the average annual long term recession rate at a site, measured from the reference feature.
START OF CONSTRUCTION
(For other than new construction or substantial improvements under the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (P.L. No. 97-348)) shall include substantial improvements and means the date the building permit was issued, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, placement, or other improvement was within 180 days of the permit date. The actual start means either the first placement of permanent construction of a structure on a site such as the pouring of a slab or footings, the installation of piles, the construction of columns, or any work beyond the stage of excavation, or the placement of a manufactured home on a foundation.
Permanent construction does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading and filling nor does it include the installation of streets and/or walkways, nor does it include excavation for a basement, footings or piers, or foundations or the erection of temporary forms, nor does it include the installation on the property of accessory buildings, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure. For a substantial improvement, the actual start of construction means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building.
STRUCTURE
Shall mean a walled and roofed building, a manufactured home, or a gas or liquid storage tank, that is principally above ground.
SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE
Shall mean damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its before damaged condition would equal or exceed 50% of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT
Shall mean any reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, or other improvement of a structure, the cost of which exceeds 50% of the market value of the structure before the "start of construction" of the improvement. This term includes structures which have incurred "substantial damage," regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does not, however, include either:
a. 
Any project for improvement of a structure to correct existing violations of State or local health, sanitary or safety code specifications which have been identified by the local code enforcement officer and which are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions; or
b. 
Any alteration of a "historic structure," provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as a "historic structure."
VARIANCE
Shall mean a grant of relief from the requirements of this chapter that permits construction in a manner that would otherwise be prohibited by this chapter.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
This chapter shall apply to all areas of special flood hazards within the jurisdiction of the Township of Lakewood, Ocean County, New Jersey.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
The areas of special flood hazard for the Township of Lakewood, Community No. 340378, are identified and defined on the following documents prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency:
a. 
A scientific and engineering report "Flood Insurance Study, Ocean County, New Jersey (all jurisdictions)" dated September 29, 2006.
b. 
Flood Insurance Rate Map for Ocean County, New Jersey (all jurisdictions) as shown on index and panel(s) 0160, 0167, 0176, 0177, 0178, 0179, 0181, 0182, 0183, 0184, 0186, 0187, 0191, 0193 whose effective date is September 29, 2006.
The above documents are hereby adopted and declared to be a part of this chapter. The Flood Insurance Study and maps are on file at the Lakewood Township Engineer's Office, 231 Third Street, Lakewood, New Jersey 08731.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
No structure or land shall hereafter be constructed, located, extended, converted, or altered without full compliance with the terms of this chapter and other applicable regulations. Violation of the provisions of this chapter by failure to comply with any of its requirements (including violations of conditions and safeguards established in connection with conditions) shall constitute a misdemeanor. Any person who violates this chapter or falls to comply with any of its requirements shall upon conviction thereof be fined not more than $200 per day or imprisoned for not more than 90 days, or both, for each violation, and in addition shall pay all costs and expenses involved in the case. Nothing herein contained shall prevent the Township of Lakewood from taking such other lawful action as is necessary to prevent or remedy any violation.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
This chapter is not intended to repeal, abrogate, or impair any existing easements, covenants, or deed restrictions. However, where this chapter and other ordinance, easement, covenant, or deed restriction conflict or overlap, whichever imposes the more stringent restrictions shall prevail.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
In the interpretation and application of this chapter, all provisions shall be:
a. 
Considered as minimum requirements;
b. 
Liberally construed in favor of the governing body; and
c. 
Deemed neither to limit nor repeal any other powers granted under State statutes.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
The degree of flood protection required by this chapter is considered reasonable for regulatory purposes and is based on scientific and engineering considerations. Larger floods can and will occur on rare occasions. Flood heights may be increased by man-made or natural causes. This chapter does not imply that land outside the area of special flood hazards or uses permitted within such areas will be free from flooding or flood damages.
This chapter shall not create liability on the part of the Township of Lakewood, any officer or employee thereof or the Federal Insurance Administration, for any flood damages that result from reliance on this chapter or any administrative decision lawfully made thereunder.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
A development permit shall be obtained before construction or development begins within any area of special flood hazard established in subsection 29-3.2. Application for a development permit shall be made on forms furnished by the Township of Lakewood and may include, but not be limited to; plans in duplicate drawn to scale showing the nature, location, dimensions, and elevations of the area in question; existing or proposed structures, fill, storage of materials, drainage facilities; and the location of the foregoing.
Specifically, the following information is required:
a. 
Elevation in relation to mean sea level, of the lowest floor (including basement) of all structures;
b. 
Elevation in relation to mean sea level to which any structure has been flood proofed;
c. 
Certification by a registered professional engineer or architect that the flood proofing methods for any nonresidential structure meet the flood proofing criteria in subsection 29-5.2b; and
d. 
Description of the extent to which any watercourse will be altered or relocated as a result of proposed development.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
The Township of Lakewood, Director of Code Enforcement/Zoning, is hereby appointed to administer and implement this chapter by granting or denying development permit applications in accordance with its provisions.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
Duties of the Township of Lakewood, Director of Code Enforcement/Zoning, shall include, but not be limited to:
a. 
Permit Review.
1. 
Review all development permits to determine that the permit requirements of this chapter have been satisfied.
2. 
Review all development permits to determine that all necessary permits have been obtained from those Federal, State or local governmental agencies from which prior approval is required.
3. 
Review all development permits to determine if the proposed development is located in the floodway, assure that the encroachment provisions of subsection 29-5.3a are met.
4. 
Review all development permits in the coastal high hazard area of the area of special flood hazard to determine if the proposed development alters sand dunes so as to increase potential flood damage.
b. 
Use of Other Base Flood and Floodway Data. When base flood elevation and floodway data has not been provided in accordance with subsection 29-3.2, Basis for Establishing the Areas of Special Flood Hazard, the Township of Lakewood, Director of Code Enforcement/Zoning, shall obtain, review, and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation and floodway data available from a Federal, State or other source, in order to administer subsections 29-5.2a, Specific Standards, Residential Construction, and 29-5.2b, Specific Standards, Nonresidential Construction.
c. 
Information to be Obtained and Maintained.
1. 
Obtain and record the actual elevation (in relation to mean sea level) of the lowest floor (including basement) of all new or substantially improved structures, and whether or not the structure contains a basement.
2. 
For all new or substantially improved flood proofed structures:
(a) 
Verify and record the actual elevation (in relation to mean sea level); and
(b) 
Maintain the flood proofing certifications required in subsection 29-4.1c.
3. 
Maintain for public inspection all records pertaining to the provisions of this chapter.
d. 
Alteration of Watercourses.
1. 
Notify adjacent communities and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Flood Plain Management Section and the Land Use Regulation program prior to any alteration or relocation of a watercourse, and submit evidence of such notification to the Federal Insurance Administration.
2. 
Require that maintenance is provided within the altered or relocated portion of said watercourse so the flood carrying capacity is not diminished.
e. 
Interpretation of Firm Boundaries. Make interpretations where needed, as to the exact location of the boundaries of the areas of special flood hazards (for example, where there appears to be a conflict between a mapped boundary and actual field conditions). The person contesting the location of the boundary shall be given a reasonable opportunity to appeal the interpretation as provided in subsection 29-4.4.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
a. 
Appeal Board.
1. 
The Township Committee shall hear and decide appeals and requests for variances from the requirements of this chapter.
2. 
The Township Committee shall hear and decide appeals when it is alleged there is an error in any requirement, decision, or determination made by the Township of Lakewood, Director of Code Enforcement/Zoning, in the enforcement or administration of this chapter.
3. 
Those aggrieved by the decision of the Township Committee, or any taxpayer, may appeal such decision to the Superior Court, as provided by statute.
4. 
In passing upon such applications, the Township Committee, shall consider all technical evaluations, all relevant factors, standards specified in other sections of this chapter, and:
(a) 
The danger that materials may be swept onto other lands to the injury of others;
(b) 
The danger to life and property due to flooding or erosion damage;
(c) 
The susceptibility of the proposed facility and its contents to flood damage and the effect of such damage on the individual owner;
(d) 
The importance of the services provided by the proposed facility to the community;
(e) 
The necessity to the facility of a waterfront location, where applicable;
(f) 
The availability of alternative locations for the proposed use which are not subject to flooding or erosion damage;
(g) 
The compatibility of the proposed use with existing and anticipated development;
(h) 
The relationship of the proposed use to the comprehensive plan and flood plain management program of that area;
(i) 
The safety of access to the property in times of flood for ordinary and emergency vehicles;
(j) 
The expected heights, velocity, duration, rate of rise, and sediment transport of the flood waters and the effects of wave action, if applicable, expected at the site; and
(k) 
The costs of providing governmental services during and after flood conditions, including maintenance and repair of public utilities and facilities such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems, and streets and bridges.
5. 
Upon consideration of the factors of subsection 29-4.4a4 and the purposes of this chapter, the Township Committee may attach such conditions to the granting of variances as it deems necessary to further the purposes of this chapter.
6. 
The Township of Lakewood, Director of Code Enforcement/Zoning, shall maintain the records of all appeal actions, including technical information, and report any variances to the Federal Insurance Administration upon request.
b. 
Conditions for Variances.
1. 
Generally, variances may be issued for new construction and substantial improvements to be erected on a lot of 1/2 acre or less in size contiguous to and surrounded by lots with existing structures constructed below the base flood level, providing items (a) through (k) in subsection 29-4.4a4 have been fully considered. As the lot size increases beyond the 1/2 acre, the technical justification required for issuing the variance increases.
2. 
Variances may be issued for the repair or rehabilitation of historic structures upon a determination that the proposed repair or rehabilitation will not preclude the structure's continued designation as a historic structure and the variance is the minimum necessary to preserve the historic character and design of the structure.
3. 
Variances shall not be issued within any designated floodway if any increase in flood levels during the base flood discharge would result.
4. 
Variances shall only be issued upon a determination that the variance is the minimum necessary, considering the flood hazard, to afford relief.
5. 
Variances shall only be issued upon:
(a) 
A showing of good and sufficient cause;
(b) 
A determination that failure to grant the variance would result in exceptional hardship to the applicant; and
(c) 
A determination that the granting of a variance will not result in increased flood heights, additional threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, create nuisances, cause fraud on; or
(d) 
Victimization of the public as identified in subsection 29-4.4a4, or conflict with existing local laws or ordinances.
6. 
Any applicant to whom a variance is granted shall be given written notice that the structure will be permitted to be built with a lowest floor elevation below the base flood elevation and that the cost of flood insurance will be commensurate with the increased risk resulting from the reduced lowest floor elevation.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
In all areas of special flood hazards the following standards are required:
a. 
Anchoring.
1. 
All new construction and substantial improvements shall be anchored to prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement of the structure.
2. 
All manufactured homes shall be anchored to resist flotation, collapse or lateral movement. Methods of anchoring may include, but are not to be limited to, use of over-the top or frame ties to ground anchors. This requirement is in addition to applicable State and local anchoring requirements for resisting wind forces.
b. 
Construction Materials and Methods.
1. 
All new construction and substantial improvements shall be constructed with materials and utility equipment resistant to flood damage.
2. 
All new construction and substantial improvements shall be constructed using methods and practices that minimize flood damage.
c. 
Utilities.
1. 
All new and replacement water supply systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the system;
2. 
New and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the systems and discharge from the systems into flood waters;
3. 
On-site waste disposal systems shall be located to avoid impairment to them or contamination from them during flooding; and
4. 
Electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing and air-conditioning equipment and other service facilities shall be designed and/or located so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding.
d. 
Subdivision Proposals.
1. 
All subdivision proposals shall be consistent with the need to minimize flood damage;
2. 
All subdivision proposals shall have public utilities and facilities such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems located and constructed to minimize flood damage;
3. 
All subdivision proposals shall have adequate drainage provided to reduce exposure to flood damage; and
4. 
Base flood elevation data shall be provided for subdivision proposals and other proposed development which contain at least 50 lots or five acres (whichever is less).
e. 
Enclosure Openings. All new construction and substantial improvements having fully enclosed areas below the lowest floor that are usable solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage in an area other than a basement and which are subject to flooding shall be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the entry and exit of flood waters. Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect or must meet or exceed the following minimum criteria: A minimum of two openings having a total net area of not less than one square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding shall be provided. The bottom of all openings shall be no higher than one foot above grade. Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, or other covering or devices provided that they permit the automatic entry and exit of flood waters.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
In all areas of special flood hazards where base flood elevation data have been provided as set forth in subsection 29-3.2, Basis for Establishing the Areas of Special Flood Hazard or in subsection 29-4.3b, Use of Other Base Flood and Floodway Data, the following standards are required:
a. 
Residential Construction.
1. 
In AE zones new construction and substantial improvement of any residential structure shall have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to or above base flood elevation;
2. 
Require within any AO zone on the municipality's FIRM that all new construction and substantial improvement of any residential structure shall have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated above the highest adjacent grade at least as high as the depth number specified in feet (at least two feet if no depth number is specified). And, require adequate drainage paths around structures on slopes to guide flood waters around and away from proposed structures.
New construction and substantial improvement of any residential structure shall have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to or above base flood elevation.
b. 
Nonresidential Construction.
1. 
In AE zones all new construction and substantial improvement of any commercial, industrial or other nonresidential structure shall either have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to the level of the base flood elevation; or together with the attendant utilities and sanitary facilities, shall:
2. 
Require within any AO zone on the municipality's FIRM that all new construction and substantial improvement of any commercial, industrial or other nonresidential structure shall either have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated above the highest adjacent grade at least as high as the depth number specified in feet (at least two feet if no depth number is specified). And, require adequate drainage paths around structures on slopes to guide flood waters around and away from proposed structures; or
New construction and substantial improvement of any commercial, industrial or other nonresidential structure shall either have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to the level of the base flood elevation; or
3. 
Be flood proofed so that below the base flood level the structure is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water;
4. 
Have structural components capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy; and
5. 
Be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect that the design and methods of construction are in accordance with accepted standards of practice for meeting the applicable provisions of this subsection. Such certification shall be provided to the official as set forth in subsection 29-4.3c2.
c. 
Manufactured Homes.
1. 
Manufactured homes shall be anchored in accordance with subsection 29-5.1a2.
2. 
All manufactured homes to be placed or substantially improved within an area of special flood hazard shall be elevated on a permanent foundation such that the top of the lowest floor is at or above the base flood elevation.
[Ord. No. 2006-61 § 1]
Located within areas of special flood hazard established in subsection 29-3.2 are areas designated as floodways. Since the floodway is an extremely hazardous area due to the velocity of flood waters which carry debris, potential projectiles, and erosion potential, the following provisions apply:
1. 
Prohibit encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements, and other development unless a technical evaluation demonstrates that encroachment shall not result in any increase in flood levels during the occurrence of the base flood discharge.
2. 
If subsection 29-5.3a is satisfied, all new construction and substantial improvements must comply with Section 29-5, Provisions for Flood Hazard Reduction.
3. 
In all areas of special flood hazard in which base flood elevation data has been provided and no floodway has been designated, the cumulative effect of any proposed development, when combined with all other existing and anticipated development, shall not increase the water surface elevation of the base flood more than 0.2 of a foot at any point.